- What is budesonide inhaler, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for budesonide inhaler?
- Is budesonide inhaler available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for budesonide inhaler?
- What are the side effects of budesonide inhaler?
- What is the dosage for budesonide inhaler?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with budesonide inhaler?
- Is budesonide inhaler safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about budesonide inhaler?
What is budesonide inhaler, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Budesonide is a man-made glucocorticoid steroid related to the naturally-occurring hormone, cortisol or hydrocortisone which is produced in the adrenal glands. It is used for treating asthma by inhalation. Glucocorticoid steroids such as cortisol or budesonide have potent anti-inflammatory actions that reduces inflammation and hyper-reactivity (spasm) of the airways caused by asthma. When used as an inhaler, the budesonide goes directly to the inner lining of the inflamed airways to exert its effects. Only 39% of an inhaled dose of budesonide is absorbed into the body, and the absorbed budesonide contributes little to the effects on the airways. While some improvement in the symptoms of asthma may occur within 24 hours, it may take a few weeks to obtain the maximum therapeutic benefits of budesonide when used to treat asthma.
What are the side effects of budesonide inhaler?
- The most commonly noted side effects associated with inhaled budesonide are mild cough or wheezing; these effects may be minimized by using a bronchodilator inhaler, for example, albuterol (Ventolin HFA), prior to the budesonide.
- Oral candidiasis or thrush (a fungal infection of the throat) may occur in 1 in 25 persons who use budesonide without a spacer device on the inhaler. The risk is even higher with large doses, but is less in children than in adults.
- Hoarseness or sore throat also may occur in 1 in 10 persons. Using a spacer device on the inhaler and washing the mouth out with water following each use reduces the risk of both thrush and hoarseness.
- Less commonly, alterations in voice may occur.
High doses of inhaled glucocorticoid steroids may decrease the formation and increase the breakdown of bone leading to weakened bones and ultimately osteoporosis and fractures. High doses may suppress the body's ability to make its own natural glucocorticoid in the adrenal gland. It is possible that these effects are shared by budesonide. People with suppression of their adrenal glands (which can be tested for by the doctor) need increased amounts of glucocorticoid steroids orally or intravenously during periods of high physical stress, for example, during infections, to prevent serious illness and shock.
Hypersensitivity reactions, which have been reported with the issue of inhaled budesonide include
Use of budesonide should be discontinued if such reactions occur.
Quick GuideAsthma Symptoms, Causes, and Medications
What is the dosage for budesonide inhaler?
Budesonide is used to prevent asthmatic attacks and should not be used to treat an acute attack of asthma.
The Pulmicort Flexhaler
- The Pulmicort Flexhaler is used for individuals six years of age or older.
- Effects can be seen within 24 hours, but maximum effects may not be seen for 1-2 weeks or longer.
- Doses vary widely.
- Adults usually receive 2 to 4 puffs twice daily.
- The starting dose for also is 2 to 4 puffs twice daily.
- For those with mild asthma, treatment once daily may be sufficient.
- Pulmicort is used for individuals 12 months to eight years of age.
- Effects are seen in 2 to 8 days, but maximum effects may not be seen for up to 4 to 6 weeks.
- The usual dose is 0.5-1 mg daily taken in one or two divided doses. A lower starting dose of 0.25 mg once a day may be sufficient in some individuals.
Which drugs or supplements interact with budesonide inhaler?
When budesonide is given with strong liver enzyme inhibitors (CYP 3A4 inhibitors) such as ketoconazole and other drugs including ritonavir (Norvir), atazanavir (Reyataz), clarithromycin (Biaxin, Biaxin XL), indinavir (Crixivan), itraconazole (Sporanox, Onmel), nefazodone, nelfinavir (Viracept), saquinavir (Invirase) and telithromycin (Ketek), the concentration in blood of budesonide may rise increasing the probability of an individual experiencing more side effects.
Is budesonide inhaler safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
When given orally to animals, glucocorticoid steroids similar to budesonide have been shown to cause fetal abnormalities. Studies of pregnant women using inhaled budesonide during early pregnancy, however, do not show an increase in the rate of fetal abnormalities. Nevertheless, since these studies cannot exclude the possibility of rare effects on the fetus, inhaled budesonide should be used with caution during pregnancy.
Budesonide like other drugs of its class is secreted in breast milk. It is not known whether the small amounts that may appear in breast milk have effects on the infant. Nevertheless, the benefits of breastfeeding an infant should be weighed against the possible risks associated with using budesonide in a nursing mother.
What else should I know about budesonide inhaler?
What preparations of budesonide inhaler are available?
- Pulmicort Flexhaler (powder for inhalation), 90 mcg/act, 180 mcg/act.
- Pulmicort (inhalation suspension), 0.25 mg/2ml, 0.5 mg/2ml suspension, and 1 mg/2ml
How should I keep budesonide inhaler stored?
Budesonide should be stored at room temperature, 20 C - 25 C (68 F - 77 F).
Reference: FDA Prescribing Information
Quick GuideAsthma Symptoms, Causes, and Medications
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Top budesonide inhaler Related ArticlesComplete List
Adult-Onset AsthmaAdult-onset asthma is asthma that is diagnosed in people over 20 years of age. Symptoms include wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath and difficulty breathing. Treatment may involve anti-inflammatory medications or bronchodilators.
Asthma Attack SlidesLook at the anatomy of an asthma attack. See these warning signs and symptoms to avoid an asthma emergency such as a persistent cough, changes in breathing, cyanosis and more.
Asthma ComplexitiesThere are many unusual symptoms of asthma, including sighing, difficulty sleeping, anxiety, chronic cough, recurrent walking pneumonia, and rapid breathing. These symptoms may vary from individual to individual. These asthma complexities make it difficult to accurately diagnose and treat asthma.
Asthma in ChildrenAsthma in children manifests with symptoms such as coughing and wheezing. Rates of asthma in children are increasing. Asthma in children is usually diagnosed based on the description of symptoms. Lung function tests may also be used. A variety of medications are used for the treatment of childhood asthma.
Asthma MedicationsThere are two types of asthma medications: long-term control with anti-inflammatory drugs and quick relief from bronchodilators. Asthma medicines may be inhaled using a metered-dose inhaler or nebulizer or they may be taken orally. People with high blood pressure, diabetes, thyroid disease, or heart disease shouldn't take OTC asthma drugs like Primatene Mist and Bronkaid.
Asthma Myths SlideshowThere is currently no cure for asthma, and no specific, single cause for asthma has been identified. Take this quiz on asthma myths to test your asthma IQ and take an active role in your own health.
Asthma OverviewAsthma is a condition in which hyperreactive airways constrict and result in symptoms like wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Causes of asthma include genetics, environmental factors, personal history of allergies, and other factors. Asthma is diagnosed by a physician based on a patient's family history and results from lung function tests and other exams. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting bronchodilators (LABAs) are used in the treatment of asthma. Generally, the prognosis for a patient with asthma is good. Exposure to allergens found on farms may protect against asthma symptoms.
Asthma SlideshowWhat is asthma? Learn about asthma, a chronic inflammation disorder of the bronchiole tubes (airways). Discover information about an asthma attack, asthma symptoms, prevention and treatments such as asthma medications and inhalers.
Take the Asthma QuizAsthma is a chronic disease of the airways of the lungs, which can be managed with proper treatment. Triggered by two main causes, asthma symptoms can be brought on by environmental factors and surprising allergens.
Asthma: Over The Counter TreatmentPatients who have infrequent, mild bouts of asthma attacks may use over-the-counter (OTC) medications to treat their asthma symptoms. OTC asthma medicines are limited to epinephrine and ephedrine. These OTC drugs are best used with the guidance of a physician, as there may be side effects and the drugs may not be very effective.
COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)
COPD or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a lung condition caused by smoking tobacco, exposure to secondhand smoke, and/or air pollutants. Conditions that accompany COPD include:
- Chronic bronchitis
- Chronic cough
Symptoms of COPD include:
- Shortness of breath
- Chronic cough
Treatment of COPD include smoking cessation, medications, and surgery. The life expectancy of a person with COPD depends on the stage of the disease.
COPD vs. Emphysema Differences Similarities
COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is the term doctors and other health care professionals use to describe a group of serious, progressive (worsens over time), chronic lung diseases that include emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and sometimes asthma. The number one cause of COPD or emphysema, is smoking, and smoking is the third leading cause of death in the US. When a person first develops COPD, he or she may not have any symptoms. As the disease progresses, the symptoms worsen and become more severe and include:
- Difficulty breathing with exertion or physical activity, which in the advanced stages, eventually leads to breathlessness all of the time.
- Chronic cough
- Excessive phlegm production
- Upper respiratory infections like the flu or common cold.
- A barrel-shaped chest
- A bluish tint to the skin from lack of oxygen
- Chest tightness
- varenicline (Chantix) to quit smoking
- The antidepressant and bupropion (Zyban) to reduce nicotine withdrawals
- Drugs that are prescribed for another condition (off label), for example, nortriptyline (Pamelor) and clonidine (Catapres)
- Short-term bronchodilators, for example, albuterol (Ventolin, Proventil)
- Long-term bronchodilators, for example, salmeterol (Serevent) and formoterol (Foradil)
- Anticholinergic bronchodilators, for example, ipratropium (Atrovent) and tiotropium (Spiriva)
- Combined drugs using steroids and long acting bronchodilators
- Roflumilast (Daxas, Daliresp)
You can prevent getting COPD or emphysema if you:
- Quit smoking and making healthy lifestyle changes
- Avoid secondhand smoke
- Avoid home and workplace air pollutants
- Prevent upper respiratory tract infections
There is a genetic cause of COPD called alpha-1 antitrypsin.
CDC. "Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)." Updated: Sep 16, 2016.
NIH; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. "COPD National Action Plan." Updated: May 15, 2017.
NIH; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. "What is COPD?" Updated: Apr 28, 2017.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. "COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)." Updated: Oct 31, 2014.
Victoria State Government. "Emphysema." Updated: Nov 2014.
Sharafkhaneh, A. et al. Emphysema. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2008 May 1; 5(4): 475â€“477. doi: 10.1513/pats.200708-126ET
Boka, K. "Emphysema." Medscape. Updated: Aug 31. 2016.
Kleinschmidt, P. "Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Emphysema in Emergency Medicine." Medscape. Updated: Jun 08, 2017.
Emphysema (Lung Condition)Emphysema is a COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) that often occurs with other obstructive pulmonary problems and chronic bronchitis. Causes of emphysema include chronic cigarette smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke, air pollution, and in the underdeveloped parts of the world. Symptoms of emphysema include chronic cough, chest discomfort, breathlessness, and wheezing. Treatments include medication and lifestyle changes.
Lungs PictureThe lungs are a pair of spongy, air-filled organs located on either side of the chest (thorax). See a picture of the Lungs and learn more about the health topic.
NeutropeniaNeutropenia is a marked decrease in the number of neutrophils, neutrophils being a type of white blood cell (specifically a form of granulocyte) filled with neutrally-staining granules, tiny sacs of enzymes that help the cell to kill and digest microorganisms it has engulfed by phagocytosis.
Worst Asthma CitiesDo you live in one of the 10 worst cites for asthma? There is no such thing as an asthma-free city, but some are more difficult than others for people with asthma to live in, according to the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America.