Articles on Breast Cancer
What are breast cancer treatment options?
- Treatment for early breast cancer typically involves surgery to remove the tumor.
- After surgery, medical professionals may administer radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or targeted therapy.
- Doctors then perform tests on the surgically removed tissue to determine what type (for example, hormone receptor-positive, HER2-positive, triple-negative) of cancer is present to help determine the optimum treatment.
- Treatment for metastatic breast cancer usually involves chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and/or advanced hormone therapies.
Overall, patients with breast cancer have many treatment options. These treatment options undergo frequent adjustments, and your health care provider will have the information on the current standard of care available. Discuss treatment options with a health care team. The following are the basic treatment modalities used in the treatment of breast cancer.
This surgery will only remove part of the breast (sometimes referred to as partial mastectomy). The size and location of the tumor determine the extent of the surgery.
- In a lumpectomy, surgeons only remove the breast lump and some surrounding tissue. Medical professionals inspect the surrounding tissue (surgical margins) for cancer cells.
- If doctors find no cancer cells, this indicates "negative" or "clear margins." Frequently, patients receive radiation therapy after lumpectomies.
During a mastectomy (sometimes also referred to as a simple mastectomy), doctors remove all the breast tissue. If considering immediate reconstruction, surgeons sometimes perform a skin-sparing mastectomy.
Radical mastectomy options
- During this surgery, the surgeon removes the axillary lymph nodes, as well as the chest wall muscle in addition to the breast.
- Physicians perform this procedure much less frequently than in the past, as in most cases, a modified radical mastectomy is as effective.
Modified radical mastectomy
- This surgery removes the axillary lymph nodes in addition to the breast tissue.
- Depending on the stage of the cancer, a health care team might give someone a choice between a lumpectomy and a mastectomy.
- Lumpectomy allows sparing of the breast but usually requires radiation therapy afterward. If lumpectomy is indicated, long-term follow-up shows no advantage of a mastectomy over the lumpectomy.
For a small group of patients who have a very high risk of breast cancer, surgery to remove the breasts may be an option. Although this reduces the risk significantly, a small chance of developing cancer remains.
Double mastectomy is a surgical option to prevent breast cancer. This prophylactic (preventive) surgery can decrease the risk of breast cancer by about 90% for women at moderate to high risk for breast cancer.
Discuss such an approach with a health care team.
The discussion about whether to undergo any preventive surgery should include
Radiation therapy destroys cancer cells with high-energy rays. There are two ways to administer radiation therapy.
External beam radiation
This is the usual way health care providers administer radiation therapy for breast cancer. An external machine beam of radiation focuses onto the affected area. A health care team determines the extent of the treatment and is based on the surgical procedure performed and whether lymph nodes were affected or not.
- The local area will usually be marked after the radiation team has determined the exact location for the treatments.
- Usually, the patient receives the treatment 5 days a week for 5-6 weeks.
Brachytherapy and chemotherapy
This form of delivering radiation uses radioactive seeds or pellets. Instead of a beam from the outside delivering the radiation, these seeds are implanted into the breast next to the cancer.
Chemotherapy is treatment of cancers with medications that travel through the bloodstream to the cancer cells. These medications are given either by intravenous injection or by mouth.
Chemotherapy can have different indications and may be performed in different settings as follows:
- Adjuvant chemotherapy: Though surgery can remove all of the visible cancer, there is still the possibility that cancer cells have broken off or stay behind. If health care providers administer chemotherapy to assure that these small amounts of cells are killed as well, it is called adjunct chemotherapy. Medical professionals don't administer chemotherapy in all cases, since some women have a very low risk of recurrence even without chemotherapy, depending upon the tumor type and characteristics.
- Neoadjuvant chemotherapy: If health care professionals administer chemotherapy before surgery, it is referred to as neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Although there seems to be no advantage to long-term survival whether the therapy is given before or after surgery, there are advantages to see if the cancer responds to the therapy and by shrinking the cancer before surgical removal.
- Chemotherapy for advanced cancer: If the cancer has metastasized to distant sites in the body, chemotherapy can be used for treatment. With cases of metastatic breast cancer, the health care team will need to determine the most appropriate length of treatment.
There are many different chemotherapeutic agents that are either given alone or in combination. Usually, these drugs are given in cycles with certain treatment intervals followed by a rest period. The cycle length and rest intervals differ from drug to drug.
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This therapy is often used to help reduce the risk of cancer reoccurrence after surgery, but it can also be an adjunct treatment. Estrogen (a hormone produced by the ovaries) promotes the growth of a few breast cancers, specifically those containing receptors for estrogen (ER positive) or progesterone (PR positive). The following drugs are examples of those health care providers use in hormone therapy:
- Tamoxifen (Nolvadex): This drug prevents estrogen from binding to estrogen receptors on breast cells.
- Toremifene (Fareston) works similar to Tamoxifen and is only indicated in metastatic breast cancer.
- Fulvestrant (Faslodex): This drug eliminates the estrogen receptor and can be used even if tamoxifen is no longer useful.
- Aromatase inhibitors: They stop estrogen production in postmenopausal women. Examples include letrozole (Femara), anastrozole (Arimidex), and exemestane (Aromasin).
BRCA-mutated breast cancer therapy
Early in 2018, the U.S. FDA approved olaparib (Lynparza) for treatment of metastatic breast cancer for patients who carry the BRCA mutation.
- Olaparib has already been used in ovarian cancer. The drug acts as an inhibitor of the enzyme PARP (known as a PARP-inhibitor drug), which is involved in the repair of damaged DNA. Blocking this enzyme may make it less likely to repair cancerous cells, leading to a slowdown or even stoppage of tumor growth.
- Two other PARP inhibitors are approved for treating ovarian cancer but do not currently have approval in breast cancer (rucaparib [Rubraca], niraparib [Zejula]).
As we are learning more about gene changes and their involvement in causing cancer, medical researchers are developing drugs that specifically target the cancer cells.
- As an example, researchers have developed drugs that attack cells carrying the HER2 protein for use in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer.
- Targeted therapy drugs tend to have fewer side effects than chemotherapy (as they target only the cancer cells) but usually are still used in adjunct with chemotherapy.
Whenever a disease has the potential for much harm and death, physicians search for alternative treatments.
- As a patient or the loved one of a patient, there may be an inclination to try everything and leave no option unexplored.
- The danger in this approach is usually found in the fact that the patient might not avail themselves of existing, proven therapies.
- One should discuss any interest in alternative treatments with a qualified health care team and together explore the different options.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Salerno, K.E. "NCCN Guidelines Update: Evolving Radiation Therapy Recommendations for Breast Cancer." J Natl Compr Canc Netw 15(5S) May 2017: 682-684.
Shield, Kevin D., et al. "Alcohol Use and Breast Cancer: A Critical Review." Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research Apr. 30, 2016.
Top Breast Cancer/Treatment Related Articles
At What Stage of Cancer is Chemotherapy Used?The decision to use chemotherapy may vary depending on the aggressiveness, stage and type of cancer. Usually, chemotherapy may be used for all stages in most cancer types. Chemotherapy is a type of medicine or combination of medications that is used to treat or kill cancer cells.
Breast cancer is an invasive tumor that develops in the mammary gland. Breast cancer is detected via mammograms, breast self-examination (BSE), biopsy, and specialized testing on breast cancer tissue. Treatment of breast cancer may involve surgery, radiation, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Breast cancer risk may be lowered by managing controllable risk factors.
What you should know about breast cancer
- Breast cancer is the most common cancer among American women.
- One in every eight women in the United States develops breast cancer.
- There are many types of breast cancer that differ in their capability of spreading (metastasize) to other body tissues.
- The causes of breast cancer are unknown, although medical professionals have identified a number of risk factors.
- There are many different types of breast cancer.
- Breast cancer symptoms and signs include
- a lump in the breast or armpit,
- bloody nipple discharge,
- inverted nipple,
- orange-peel texture or dimpling of the breast's skin (peau d'orange),
- breast pain or sore nipple,
- swollen lymph nodes in the neck or armpit, and
- a change in the size or shape of the breast or nipple.
- Breast cancer can also be symptom free, which makes following national screening recommendations an important practice.
- Breast cancer is diagnosed during a physical exam, by a self-exam of the breasts, mammography, ultrasound testing, and biopsy.
- Treatment of breast cancer depends on the type of cancer and its stage (0-IV) and may involve surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy.
Breast Cancer RecurrenceBreast cancer most often recurs within the first three to five years after the initial treatment. Changes in the look, feel, or appearance of the breast may indicate breast cancer recurrence. Factors related to recurrence include tumor size, tumor grade, hormone receptor status, lymph node involvement, and oncogene expression. Treatment for recurrent breast cancer depends on the initial treatment.
Breast Cancer Facts
Breast cancer is the most common non-skin cancer of American women, but it can also occur in men. Every year in the U.S., there are over 266,000 new diagnoses of breast cancer. A woman has a risk of one in eight for developing breast cancer at some point during her lifetime.
Breast Cancer StagesBreast cancer staging is the determination of the extent and spread of the cancer. An individual's health care team uses stages to summarize the extent of the cancer in a standardized way that is recognized by all health care providers. They use this staging to determine the treatment most appropriate for the type of cancer. Cancer staging helps to determine the prognosis, or outlook, of a cancer, including rates of recurrence and survival rates.
Can Fibroadenomas Turn Into Breast Cancer?A fibroadenoma is the most common type of benign, non-cancerous lump of the breast. Although it is rare, complex fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors have a chance to develop into malignant breast cancer.
Inflammatory Breast CancerInflammatory breast cancer is an accelerated form of breast cancer that is not usually detected by mammogram or ultrasound. Symptoms of inflammatory breast cancer include pain in the breast, skin change in the breast area, bruise on the breast,sudden swelling of the breast, nipple retraction or discharge, and swelling of the lymph nodes.
What Is the Difference Between a Radical Mastectomy and Modified Radical Mastectomy?In a radical mastectomy, the entire breast tissue along with the nipple, covering skin, lymph nodes (filter organs for harmful substances) in the armpit and chest wall muscle under the breast is removed. It is known as a standard treatment for breast cancer. In a modified radical mastectomy (MRM), the entire breast is removed, including the skin, areola (surrounding the nipple), nipple and most armpit lymph nodes. The underlying chest wall muscles (the pecs) will be left intact. Additionally, the skin covering the chest wall may or may not be removed.
Triple-Negative Breast CancerTriple-negative breast cancer is more common in Hispanic and African-American women. Signs and symptoms include a lump in the armpit or breast, nipple discharge and inversion, and changes in the breast's skin. Treatment may incorporate surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
What Is Usually the First Sign of Breast Cancer?A lump in the breast or in the armpits is often the first sign of breast cancer. This may be felt while in the shower. There may or may not be changes in the structure of the breast. Other early signs include changes in breast skin, breast pain and others.