Articles on Breast Cancer
What are breast cancer early warning signs and symptoms?
In most cases, there are no early warning signs of breast cancer. Breast cancer may not produce any early symptoms, and in many cases, it is first discovered on screening mammography. The most common sign of breast cancer is a new lump or mass in the breast. In addition, the following are possible signs of breast cancer:
- Thickening or lump in the breast that feels different from the surrounding area
- Inverting of the nipple (as a change from the previous appearance)
- Nipple discharge or redness (especially any bloody discharge)
- Breast or nipple pain
- Swelling in your armpit or collarbone could mean breast cancer has spread to lymph nodes in that area
- Swelling of part of the breast
- Changes in the skin of the breast
- Skin dimpling (peau d'orange)
- Lymph node changes
- Dimpling or Puckering of the Breast Skin
- Recent Breast Asymmetry
What are the different types of breast cancer?
- Ductal carcinoma in situ: The most common type of non-invasive breast cancer is ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). This early-stage breast cancer has not spread and therefore usually has a very high cure rate.
- Invasive ductal carcinoma: This cancer starts in the milk ducts of the breast and grows into other parts of the surrounding tissue. It is the most common form of breast cancer. About 80% of invasive breast cancers are invasive ductal carcinoma.
- Invasive lobular carcinoma: This breast cancer starts in the milk-producing glands of the breast. Approximately 10% of invasive breast cancers are invasive lobular carcinoma.
- Most Invasive ductal and lobular cancers express hormone receptors such as the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR). Some tumors express a growth protein known as HER2. Triple-negative breast cancers are a subtype of invasive cancer with cells that lack estrogen and progesterone receptors and have no excess of a specific protein (HER2) on their surface. It tends to appear more often in younger women and African-American women.
- The remainder of breast cancers are much less common and include the following:
- Mucinous carcinoma are formed from mucus-producing cancer cells. Mixed tumors contain a variety of cell types.
- Medullary carcinoma is an infiltrating breast cancer that presents with well-defined boundaries between the cancerous and noncancerous tissue.
- Inflammatory breast cancer: This cancer makes the skin of the breast appear red and feel warm (giving it the appearance of an infection). These changes are due to the blockage of lymph vessels by cancer cells.
- Paget's disease of the nipple: This cancer starts in the ducts of the breast and spreads to the nipple and the area surrounding the nipple. It usually presents with crusting and redness around the nipple.
- Adenoid cystic carcinoma: These cancers have both glandular and cystic features. They tend not to spread aggressively and have a good prognosis.
- Lobular carcinoma in situ: This is not a cancer but an area of abnormal cell growth. This pre-cancer can increase the risk of invasive breast cancer later in life.
The following are other uncommon types of breast cancer:
- Papillary carcinoma
- Phyllodes tumor
- Tubular carcinoma
What causes breast cancer?
There are many risk factors that increase the chance of developing breast cancer. Although we know some of these risk factors, we don't know the cause of breast cancer or how these factors cause the development of a cancer cell.
- We know that normal breast cells become cancerous because of mutations in the DNA, and although some of these are inherited, most DNA changes related to breast cells are acquired during one's life.
- Proto-oncogenes help cells grow. If these cells mutate, they can increase the growth of cells without any control. Such mutations are referred to as oncogenes. Such uncontrolled cell growth can lead to cancer.
What are symptoms of a male breast cancer?
Breast cancer is rare in men (approximately 2,400 new cases diagnosed per year in the U.S.) but typically has a significantly worse outcome. This is partially related to the often late diagnosis of male breast cancer, when the cancer has already spread.
- Symptoms are similar to the symptoms in women, with the most common symptom being a lump or change in skin of the breast tissue or nipple discharge.
- Although it can occur at any age, male breast cancer usually occurs in men over 60 years of age.
What are breast cancer risk factors?
Some of the breast cancer risk factors can be modified (such as alcohol consumption) while others cannot be influenced (such as age). It is important to discuss these risks with a health care provider when starting new therapies (for example, postmenopausal hormone therapy).
Several risk factors are inconclusive (such as deodorants), while in other areas, the risk is being even more clearly defined (such as alcohol use).
The following are risk factors for breast cancer:
- Age: The chances of breast cancer increase as one gets older.
- Family history: The risk of breast cancer is higher among women who have relatives with the disease. Having a close relative with the disease (sister, mother, daughter) doubles a woman's risk.
- Personal history: Having a breast cancer diagnosis in one breast increases the risk of cancer in the other breast or the chance of an additional cancer in the original breast.
- Women diagnosed with certain benign (non-cancerous) breast conditions have an increased risk of breast cancer. These include atypical hyperplasia, a condition in which there is abnormal proliferation of breast cells but no cancer has developed.
- Menstruation: Women who started their menstrual cycle at a younger age (before 12) or went through menopause later (after 55) have a slightly increased risk.
- Breast tissue: Women with dense breast tissue (as documented by mammogram) have a higher risk of breast cancer.
- Race: White women have a higher risk of developing breast cancer, but African-American women tend to have more tumors that are aggressive when they do develop breast cancer.
- Exposure to previous chest radiation or use of diethylstilbestrol (DES) increases the risk of breast cancer.
- Having no children or the first child after age 30 increases the risk of breast cancer.
- Breastfeeding for 1½ to 2 years might slightly lower the risk of breast cancer.
- Being overweight or obese increases the risk of breast cancer both in pre- and postmenopausal women but at different rates.
- Use of oral contraceptives in the last 10 years increases the risk of breast cancer slightly.
- Using combined hormone therapy after menopause increases the risk of breast cancer.
- Alcohol consumption increases the risk of breast cancer, and this seems to be proportional to the amount of alcohol used. A recent meta-analysis reviewing the research on alcohol use and breast cancer concluded that all levels of alcohol use are associated with an increased risk for breast cancer. This includes even light drinking.
- Exercise seems to lower the risk of breast cancer.
- Genetic risk factors: The most common causes are mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes (breast cancer and ovarian cancer genes). Inheriting a mutated gene from a parent means that one has a significantly higher risk of developing breast cancer.
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Are there any other questions I should ask my doctor about breast cancer?
Yes. There are surely other questions you will wish to ask. Do not hesitate to be very open about your concerns with your doctor.
- There is constantly new information and new research available about breast cancer, whether BRCA-related new treatments or drugs (for example, olaparib [Lynparza]) or new treatment regiments and recommendations.
- The foregoing questions and comments should demonstrate that the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer may not be a simple process.
- Even when all the information is available, there may be difficulties in deciding a proper course of action.
- However, this decision-making process has a better chance of success when you and the doctor are well informed and communicating effectively.
Although the information here cannot be all-inclusive, we hope it will help you work through this process.
What tests do physicians use to diagnose breast cancer?
The American Cancer Society (ACS) has the following recommendations for breast cancer screenings:
- Women should have the choice to begin annual screening between 40-44 years of age.
- Women age 45 and older should have a screening mammogram every year until age 54.
- Women 55 years of age and older should have biennial screening or have the opportunity to continue screening annually.
- Women should continue screening mammography as long as their overall health is good and they have a life expectancy of 10 years or longer.
Mammograms are a very good tool for breast cancer screening. As with any test, mammograms have limitations and will miss some cancers. Patients should discuss their family history and mammogram and breast exam results with their health care provider.
The ACS does not recommend clinical screening exams in women of any age.
Women at high risk (greater than 20% lifetime risk) should get an MRI and a mammogram every year. Women at moderate risk (15%-20%) should talk to their doctor about the benefits and limitations of adding MRI screening to their yearly mammogram.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Salerno, K.E. "NCCN Guidelines Update: Evolving Radiation Therapy Recommendations for Breast Cancer." J Natl Compr Canc Netw 15(5S) May 2017: 682-684.
Shield, Kevin D., et al. "Alcohol Use and Breast Cancer: A Critical Review." Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research Apr. 30, 2016.
Top Breast Cancer/causes and symptoms Related Articles
Breast cancer is an invasive tumor that develops in the mammary gland. Breast cancer is detected via mammograms, breast self-examination (BSE), biopsy, and specialized testing on breast cancer tissue. Treatment of breast cancer may involve surgery, radiation, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Breast cancer risk may be lowered by managing controllable risk factors.
What you should know about breast cancer
- Breast cancer is the most common cancer among American women.
- One in every eight women in the United States develops breast cancer.
- There are many types of breast cancer that differ in their capability of spreading (metastasize) to other body tissues.
- The causes of breast cancer are unknown, although medical professionals have identified a number of risk factors.
- There are many different types of breast cancer.
- Breast cancer symptoms and signs include
- a lump in the breast or armpit,
- bloody nipple discharge,
- inverted nipple,
- orange-peel texture or dimpling of the breast's skin (peau d'orange),
- breast pain or sore nipple,
- swollen lymph nodes in the neck or armpit, and
- a change in the size or shape of the breast or nipple.
- Breast cancer can also be symptom free, which makes following national screening recommendations an important practice.
- Breast cancer is diagnosed during a physical exam, by a self-exam of the breasts, mammography, ultrasound testing, and biopsy.
- Treatment of breast cancer depends on the type of cancer and its stage (0-IV) and may involve surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy.
Breast Cancer and Coping With StressBeing diagnosed with breast cancer is stressful. Learning relaxation techniques, exercising, eating well, getting adequate sleep, receiving psychotherapy, and maintaining a positive attitude can help you cope. Creating documents, such as an advance directive, living will, and durable power of attorney will outline your wishes in the event that you are no longer able to make decisions regarding your care.
Breast Cancer During PregnancyBreast cancer occurs in about 1 in every 1,000 pregnant women. Treatment of breast cancer during pregnancy involves surgery, but it is very difficult to protect the baby from the dangerous effects of radiation and chemotherapy. It can be an agonizing to decide whether or not to undergo breast cancer treatment while one is pregnant.
Breast Cancer in Young WomenAbout 5% of cases of breast cancer occur in women under the age of 40 years old. Some risk factors for breast cancer in young women include a personal history of breast cancer or breast disease, family history of breast cancer, prior radiation therapy, and the presence of BRCA1/BRCA2 gene mutations. Breast self-exams, clinical breast exams, and screening mammograms may help detect breast cancer. Treatment may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and hormone therapy.
Breast Cancer PreventionLifestyle changes, a healthy antioxidant-rich diet, exercise, and weight reduction can help reduce a woman's risk of developing breast cancer. It's important to be aware of how risk factors such as family history, lifestyle factors, breast conditions, radiation therapy, and hormonal factors may influence your chances of developing breast cancer. Mammography and breast self-examinations are crucial steps in breast cancer prevention.
What Questions Should I Ask My Doctor About Breast Cancer?A diagnosis of breast cancer can be overwhelming, so it's important to write down all your questions before meeting with your doctor.
Breast Cancer RecurrenceBreast cancer most often recurs within the first three to five years after the initial treatment. Changes in the look, feel, or appearance of the breast may indicate breast cancer recurrence. Factors related to recurrence include tumor size, tumor grade, hormone receptor status, lymph node involvement, and oncogene expression. Treatment for recurrent breast cancer depends on the initial treatment.
What Are the Complications of Expander-Implant Breast Reconstruction?Breast reconstruction is a surgical procedure to recreate symmetrical, natural-looking breasts after complete (mastectomy) or partial (lumpectomy) removal of the breasts of breast cancer patients. Expander-implant breast reconstruction specifically allows time for other cancer treatment options to be given. Breast reconstruction is also considered for patients with inborn deformities of the breasts and certain patients who have had serious injury to the breast.
Inflammatory Breast CancerInflammatory breast cancer is an accelerated form of breast cancer that is not usually detected by mammogram or ultrasound. Symptoms of inflammatory breast cancer include pain in the breast, skin change in the breast area, bruise on the breast,sudden swelling of the breast, nipple retraction or discharge, and swelling of the lymph nodes.
Breast Cancer Treatment by Stage
Treatment of breast cancer depends upon the stage of the cancer at the time of diagnosis. Some of the various treatments include:
- hormone therapy,
- radiation therapy,
- HER2-targeted therapy,
- neoadjuvant therapy, and
- adjuvant therapy.