Black Seed

Last Editorial Review: 6/11/2021
Other Name(s):

Ajenuz, Aranuel, Baraka, Black Cumin, Black Caraway, Charnuska, Cheveux de Vénus, Cominho Negro, Comino Negro, Cumin Noir, Fennel Flower, Fitch, Graine de Nigelle, Graine Noire, Kalajaji, Kalajira, Kalonji, La Grainer Noire, Love in a Mist, Mugrela, Nielle, Nigella sativa, Nigelle de Crête, Nigelle Cultivée, Nutmeg Flower, Poivrette, Roman-Coriander, Schwarzkummel, Small Fennel, Toute Épice, Upakuncika.


Black seed is a plant. People have used the seed to make medicine for over 2000 years. It was even discovered in the tomb of King Tut.

Historically, black seed has been used for headache, toothache, nasal congestion, and intestinal worms. It has also been used for “pink eye” (conjunctivitis), pockets of infection (abscesses), and parasites.

Today, black seed is used for treating digestive tract conditions including gas, colic, diarrhea, dysentery, constipation, and hemorrhoids. It is also used for respiratory conditions including asthma, allergies, cough, bronchitis, emphysema, flu, swine flu, and congestion.

Other uses include lowering blood pressure, lowering cholesterol levels, treating cancer, and boosting the immune system. You may read that a patent has been issued to cover the use of black seed to improve immunity, but don't be misled. The presence of a patent doesn't mean black seed has been shown to be effective for this use.

Women use black seed for birth control, to start menstruation, and to increase milk flow.

Black seed is sometimes used in combination with cysteine, vitamin E, and saffron to ease the side effects of a chemotherapy drug called cisplatin.

Some people apply black seed directly to the skin for joint pain (rheumatism), headache, and certain skin conditions.

In foods, black seed is used as a flavoring or spice.

How does it work?

There is some scientific evidence to suggest that black seed might help boost the immune system, fight cancer, prevent pregnancy, and lessen allergic reactions by acting as an antihistamine, but there isn't enough information in humans yet.


Vitamin D Deficiency: How Much Vitamin D Is Enough? See Slideshow

Uses & Effectiveness

Possibly Effective for...

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • Hay fever (allergic rhinitis). Early research suggests that taking a specific product containing black seed oil, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and biotin (Immerfit by Phyt-Immun) by mouth daily might improve allergy symptoms in people with hay fever.
  • Itchy and inflamed skin (eczema). Early research suggests that taking a specific product containing black seed oil, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and biotin (Immerfit by Phyt-Immun) by mouth daily might improve symptoms in people with itchy and inflamed skin. However, applying 15% black seed oil ointment to the skin for 4 weeks does not appear to improve itching or disease severity in similar patients.
  • Seizures (epilepsy). Early research suggests that taking black seed extract by mouth every eight hours for 4 weeks might reduce the number of seizures in children with epilepsy.
  • High cholesterol. Evidence regarding the effectiveness of black seed for high cholesterol is conflicting. Some early research suggests that taking whole crushed black seed 1 gram twice daily before meals for 4 weeks reduces cholesterol, “bad” low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and blood fats called triglycerides in people with high cholesterol. However, other research shows that taking powdered black seed 1 gram twice daily for 6 weeks does not improve cholesterol.
  • High blood pressure. Early research suggests that taking black seed extract twice daily for 8 weeks might slightly improve blood pressure in some people.
  • Metabolic syndrome. Early research suggests that taking a specific black seed oil product twice daily for 6 weeks might reduce total cholesterol, “bad” low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and blood sugar levels in people with metabolic syndrome.
  • Relieving symptoms related to narcotic drug withdrawal (opiate withdrawal). Early research suggests that taking black seed extract by mouth three times daily for 12 days might reduce symptoms of opiate withdrawal.
  • Sore throat and swollen tonsils (tonsillopharyngitis). Early research suggests that taking a combination of chanca piedra and black seed by mouth for 7 days relieves pain in people with sore throat and swollen tonsils.
  • Digestive problems including intestinal gas and diarrhea.
  • Cough.
  • Bronchitis.
  • Flu.
  • Congestion.
  • Boosting the immune system.
  • Cancer prevention.
  • Birth control.
  • Menstrual disorders.
  • Increasing breast-milk flow.
  • Achy joints (rheumatism).
  • Headache.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of black seed for these uses.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

Side Effects

Black seed, when taken by mouth in small quantities, such as a flavoring for foods, is LIKELY SAFE for most people. Black seed oil and black seed extract are POSSIBLY SAFE when medical amounts are used short-term. There isn't enough information to know if larger, medicinal quantities are safe. Black seed can cause allergic rashes when applied to the skin.


Next to red peppers, you can get the most vitamin C from ________________. See Answer

Special Precautions & Warnings

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Black seed seems to be safe in food amounts during pregnancy. But taking larger medicinal amounts is LIKELY UNSAFE. Black seed can slow down or stop the uterus from contracting.

Not much is known about the safety of using black seed during breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Children: Black seed oil is POSSIBLY SAFE for children when taken by mouth short-term and in recommended amounts.

Bleeding disorders: Black seed might slow blood clotting and increase the risk of bleeding. In theory, black seed might make bleeding disorders worse.

Diabetes: Black seed might lower blood sugar levels in some people. Watch for signs of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and monitor your blood sugar carefully if you have diabetes and use black seed.

Low blood pressure: Black seed might lower blood pressure. In theory, taking black seed might make blood pressure become too low in people with low blood pressure.

Surgery: Black seed might slow blood clotting, reduce blood sugar, and increase sleepiness in some people. In theory, black seed might increase the risk for bleeding and interfere with blood sugar control and anesthesia during and after surgical procedures. Stop using black seed at least two weeks before a scheduled surgery.


Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Black seed might lower blood sugar in some people. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking black seed along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.
br/> Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, metformin (Glucophage), pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), and others.

Medications that decrease the immune system (Immunosuppressants)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Black seed might increase the immune system. By increasing the immune system, black seed might decrease the effectiveness of medications that decrease the immune system.

Some medications that decrease the immune system include include azathioprine (Imuran), basiliximab (Simulect), cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), daclizumab (Zenapax), muromonab-CD3 (OKT3, Orthoclone OKT3), mycophenolate (CellCept), tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf), sirolimus (Rapamune), prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone), corticosteroids (glucocorticoids), and others.

Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Black seed might slow blood clotting. Taking black seed along with medications that also slow blood clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.

Medications used for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Black seed might decrease blood pressure in some people. Taking black seed along with medications used for lowering high blood pressure might cause your blood pressure to go too low. Do not take too much black seed if you are taking medications for high blood pressure.

Some medications for high blood pressure include nifedipine (Adalat, Procardia), verapamil (Calan, Isoptin, Verelan), diltiazem (Cardizem), isradipine (DynaCirc), felodipine (Plendil), amlodipine (Norvasc), and others.

Sedative medications (CNS depressants)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Black seed might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness are called sedatives. Using black seed along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness.

Some sedative medications include Some sedative medications include clonazepam (Klonopin), lorazepam (Ativan), phenobarbital (Donnatal), zolpidem (Ambien), and others.


The appropriate dose of black seed depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for black seed. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

FDA Logo

Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration

You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.


Abbas, A. T., Abdel-Aziz, M. M., Zalata, K. R., and Tel, Abd Al-Galel. Effect of dexamethasone and Nigella sativa on peripheral blood eosinophil count, IgG1 and IgG2a, cytokine profiles and lung inflammation in murine model of allergic asthma. Egypt J Immunol. 2005;12(1):95-102. View abstract.

Abdel-Fattah, A. M., Matsumoto, K., and Watanabe, H. Antinociceptive effects of Nigella sativa oil and its major component, thymoquinone, in mice. Eur.J Pharmacol. 7-14-2000;400(1):89-97. View abstract.

Abdel-Sater KA. Protective effect of nigella sativa oil on stress gastric ulcer in hypothyroidal rats. Internet Journal of Nutrition & Wellness (INTERNET J NUTR WELLNESS). 2009;7(1):9.

Abdel-Wahhab, M. A. and Aly, S. E. Antioxidant property of Nigella sativa (black cumin) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) in rats during aflatoxicosis. J Appl.Toxicol. 2005;25(3):218-223. View abstract.

Aboul-Ela, E. I. Cytogenetic studies on Nigella sativa seeds extract and thymoquinone on mouse cells infected with schistosomiasis using karyotyping. Mutat.Res 4-26-2002;516(1-2):11-17. View abstract.

Abu El Ezz, N. M. Effect of Nigella sativa and Allium cepa oils on Trichinella spiralis in experimentally infected rats. J Egypt Soc.Parasitol. 2005;35(2):511-523. View abstract.

Abu-Al-Basal MA. In vitro and In vivo Anti-Microbial Effects of Nigella sativa Linn. Seed Extracts Against Clinical Isolates from Skin Wound Infections. American Journal of Applied Sciences. 2009;6(8):1440-1447.

Agarwal, R., Kharya, M. D., and Shrivastava, R. Antimicrobial & anthelmintic activities of the essential oil of Nigella sativa Linn. Indian J Exp.Biol. 1979;17(11):1264-1265. View abstract.

Aggarwal, B. B., Kunnumakkara, A. B., Harikumar, K. B., Tharakan, S. T., Sung, B., and Anand, P. Potential of spice-derived phytochemicals for cancer prevention. Planta Med 2008;74(13):1560-1569. View abstract.

Agrawala, I. P., Achar, M. V., and Tamankar, B. P. Galactogogue action of Nigella sativa. Indian J Med Sci 1971;25(8):535-537. View abstract.

Ait, Mbarek L., Ait, Mouse H., Elabbadi, N., Bensalah, M., Gamouh, A., Aboufatima, R., Benharref, A., Chait, A., Kamal, M., Dalal, A., and Zyad, A. Anti-tumor properties of blackseed (Nigella sativa L.) extracts. Braz.J Med Biol.Res 2007;40(6):839-847. View abstract.

Akhondian JAV and et al. A pilot study on the effects of Nigella sativa seeds aqueous extract on paediatric intractable seizures. Epilepsia 2005;46(6):3-415.

Akhondian, J., Parsa, A., and Rakhshande, H. The effect of Nigella sativa L. (black cumin seed) on intractable pediatric seizures. Med Sci Monit. 2007;13(12):CR555-CR559. View abstract.

Al Ali, A., Alkhawajah, A. A., Randhawa, M. A., and Shaikh, N. A. Oral and intraperitoneal LD50 of thymoquinone, an active principle of Nigella sativa, in mice and rats. J Ayub.Med Coll.Abbottabad. 2008;20(2):25-27. View abstract.

Al Awadi, F. M. and Gumaa, K. A. Studies on the activity of individual plants of an antidiabetic plant mixture. Acta Diabetol.Lat. 1987;24(1):37-41. View abstract.

al Awadi, F., Fatania, H., and Shamte, U. The effect of a plants mixture extract on liver gluconeogenesis in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Diabetes Res 1991;18(4):163-168. View abstract.

Al Ghamdi, M. S. Protective effect of Nigella sativa seeds against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage. Am.J Chin Med 2003;31(5):721-728. View abstract.

Al Ghamdi, M. S. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity of Nigella sativa. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;76(1):45-48. View abstract.

Al Hariri, M. T., Yar, T., Bamosa, A. O., and El Bahai, M. N. Effects of two-months Nigella sativa supplementation on cardiac hemodynamics and adrenergic responsiveness. J Pak.Med Assoc. 2009;59(6):363-368. View abstract.

Al Homidan, A., Al Qarawi, A. A., Al Waily, S. A., and Adam, S. E. Response of broiler chicks to dietary Rhazya stricta and Nigella sativa. Br Poult.Sci 2002;43(2):291-296. View abstract.

Al Jishi, S. A. and Abuo, Hozaifa B. Effect of Nigella sativa on blood hemostatic function in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;85(1):7-14. View abstract.

Al Johar, D., Shinwari, N., Arif, J., Al Sanea, N., Jabbar, A. A., El Sayed, R., Mashhour, A., Billedo, G., El Doush, I., and Al Saleh, I. Role of Nigella sativa and a number of its antioxidant constituents towards azoxymethane-induced genotoxic effects and colon cancer in rats. Phytother.Res 2008;22(10):1311-1323. View abstract.

Al Majed, A. A., Al Omar, F. A., and Nagi, M. N. Neuroprotective effects of thymoquinone against transient forebrain ischemia in the rat hippocampus. Eur.J Pharmacol. 8-14-2006;543(1-3):40-47. View abstract.

Al Majed, A. A., Daba, M. H., Asiri, Y. A., Al Shabanah, O. A., Mostafa, A. A., and El Kashef, H. A. Thymoquinone-induced relaxation of guinea-pig isolated trachea. Res Commun.Mol.Pathol.Pharmacol. 2001;110(5-6):333-345. View abstract.

Al Mofleh, I. A., Alhaider, A. A., Mossa, J. S., Al Sohaibani, M. O., Al Yahya, M. A., Rafatullah, S., and Shaik, S. A. Gastroprotective effect of an aqueous suspension of black cumin Nigella sativa on necrotizing agents-induced gastric injury in experimental animals. Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2008;14(3):128-134. View abstract.

Al Naggar, T. B., Gomez-Serranillos, M. P., Carretero, M. E., and Villar, A. M. Neuropharmacological activity of Nigella sativa L. extracts. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;88(1):63-68. View abstract.

Al Naqeep, G., Ismail, M., and Allaudin, Z. Regulation of Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor and 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase Gene Expression by Thymoquinone-Rich Fraction and Thymoquinone in HepG2 Cells. J Nutrigenet.Nutrigenomics. 10-30-2009;2(4-5):163-172. View abstract.

Al Shabanah, O. A., Badary, O. A., Nagi, M. N., al Gharably, N. M., Al Rikabi, A. C., and Al Bekairi, A. M. Thymoquinone protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity without compromising its antitumor activity. J Exp.Clin Cancer Res 1998;17(2):193-198. View abstract.

al Sheikh, O. A. and Gad el-Rab, M. O. Allergic contact dermatitis: clinical features and profile of sensitizing allergens in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Int J Dermatol. 1996;35(7):493-497. View abstract.

Alhosin, M., Abusnina, A., Achour, M., Sharif, T., Muller, C., Peluso, J., Chataigneau, T., Lugnier, C., Schini-Kerth, V. B., Bronner, C., and Fuhrmann, G. Induction of apoptosis by thymoquinone in lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells is mediated by a p73-dependent pathway which targets the epigenetic integrator UHRF1. Biochem.Pharmacol. 5-1-2010;79(9):1251-1260. View abstract.

Ali, B. H. and Blunden, G. Pharmacological and toxicological properties of Nigella sativa. Phytother.Res. 2003;17(4):299-305. View abstract.

Ali, B. H. The effect of Nigella sativa oil on gentamicin nephrotoxicity in rats. Am.J Chin Med 2004;32(1):49-55. View abstract.

Ali, Z., Ferreira, D., Carvalho, P., Avery, M. A., and Khan, I. A. Nigellidine-4-O-sulfite, the first sulfated indazole-type alkaloid from the seeds of Nigella sativa. J Nat.Prod. 2008;71(6):1111-1112. View abstract.

Aljabre, S. H., Randhawa, M. A., Akhtar, N., Alakloby, O. M., Alqurashi, A. M., and Aldossary, A. Antidermatophyte activity of ether extract of Nigella sativa and its active principle, thymoquinone. J Ethnopharmacol. 10-3-2005;101(1-3):116-119. View abstract.

Aljabre, S. H., Randhawa, M. A., Alakloby, O. M., and Alzahrani, A. J. Thymoquinone inhibits germination of dermatophyte arthrospores. Saudi Med J 2009;30(3):443-445. View abstract.

Amara, A. A., El Masry, M. H., and Bogdady, H. H. Plant crude extracts could be the solution: extracts showing in vivo antitumorigenic activity. Pak.J Pharm Sci. 2008;21(2):159-171. View abstract.

Amin, K. A. and Nagy, M. A. Effect of Carnitine and herbal mixture extract on obesity induced by high fat diet in rats. Diabetol.Metab Syndr. 2009;1(1):17. View abstract.

Aqel MB. Effects of Nigella sativa seeds on intestinal smooth muscle. International Journal of Pharmacognosy (Netherlands). 1993;31:55-60.

Arayne, M. S., Sultana, N., Mirza, A. Z., Zuberi, M. H., and Siddiqui, F. A. In vitro hypoglycemic activity of methanolic extract of some indigenous plants. Pak.J Pharm.Sci 2007;20(4):268-273. View abstract.

Asgari S and et al. The effects of Nigella sativa on atherosclerosis and its new risk factors in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Iranian Journal of Diabetes & Lipid Disorders (IRANIAN J DIABETES LIPID DISORD) 2007;6(3):E29.

Assayed, M. E. Radioprotective effects of black seed (Nigella sativa) oil against hemopoietic damage and immunosuppression in gamma-irradiated rats. Immunopharmacol.Immunotoxicol. 2010;32(2):284-296. View abstract.

Atapour M and et al. In vitro susceptibility of the Gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori to extracts of Iranian medicinal plants. Pharmaceutical Biology (Netherlands). 2009;47:77-80.

Attia, A., Ragheb, A., Sylwestrowicz, T., and Shoker, A. Attenuation of high cholesterol-induced oxidative stress in rabbit liver by thymoquinone. Eur.J Gastroenterol.Hepatol. 2-18-2010; View abstract.

Awad, E. M. and Binder, B. R. In vitro induction of endothelial cell fibrinolytic alterations by Nigella sativa. Phytomedicine 2005;12(3):194-202. View abstract.

Awad, E. M. In vitro decreases of the fibrinolytic potential of cultured human fibrosarcoma cell line, HT1080, by Nigella sativa oil. Phytomedicine. 2005;12(1-2):100-107. View abstract.

Ayaz, E., Yilmaz, H., Ozbek, H., Tas, Z., and Orunc, O. The effect of Nigella sativa oil against Aspiculuris tetraptera and Hymenolepis nana in naturally infected mice. Saudi Med J 2007;28(11):1654-1657. View abstract.

Azza, M. M. Nadia M. M. Sohair S. Sativa seeds against

Badary, O. A. and Gamal el-Din, A. M. Inhibitory effects of thymoquinone against 20-methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma tumorigenesis. Cancer Detect.Prev. 2001;25(4):362-368. View abstract.

Badary, O. A. Thymoquinone attenuates ifosfamide-induced Fanconi syndrome in rats and enhances its antitumor activity in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 11-1-1999;67(2):135-142. View abstract.

Badary, O. A., Abd-Ellah, M. F., El Mahdy, M. A., Salama, S. A., and Hamada, F. M. Anticlastogenic activity of thymoquinone against benzo(a)pyrene in mice. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2007;45(1):88-92. View abstract.

Badary, O. A., Abdel-Naim, A. B., Abdel-Wahab, M. H., and Hamada, F. M. The influence of thymoquinone on doxorubicin-induced hyperlipidemic nephropathy in rats. Toxicology 3-7-2000;143(3):219-226. View abstract.

Badary, O. A., Nagi, M. N., Al Shabanah, O. A., Al Sawaf, H. A., Al Sohaibani, M. O., and Al Bekairi, A. M. Thymoquinone ameliorates the nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin in rodents and potentiates its antitumor activity. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1997;75(12):1356-1361. View abstract.

Badary, O. A., Taha, R. A., Gamal el-Din, A. M., and Abdel-Wahab, M. H. Thymoquinone is a potent superoxide anion scavenger. Drug Chem.Toxicol. 2003;26(2):87-98. View abstract.

Bamosa, A. O., Ali, B. A., and al Hawsawi, Z. A. The effect of thymoquinone on blood lipids in rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2002;46(2):195-201. View abstract.

Bayrak, O., Bavbek, N., Karatas, O. F., Bayrak, R., Catal, F., Cimentepe, E., Akbas, A., Yildirim, E., Unal, D., and Akcay, A. Nigella sativa protects against ischaemia/reperfusion injury in rat kidneys. Nephrol.Dial.Transplant. 2008;23(7):2206-2212. View abstract.

Benhaddou-Andaloussi A and et al. Antidiabetic activity of Nigella sativa seed extract in cultured pancreatic beta-cells, skeletal muscle cells, and adipocytes. Pharmaceutical Biology (Netherlands) 2010;(46):96-104.

Benhaddou-Andaloussi, A., Martineau, L. C., Vallerand, D., Haddad, Y., Afshar, A., Settaf, A., and Haddad, P. S. Multiple molecular targets underlie the antidiabetic effect of Nigella sativa seed extract in skeletal muscle, adipocyte and liver cells. Diabetes Obes.Metab 2010;12(2):148-157. View abstract.

Boskabady MH and et al. Inhibitory effect of Nigella sativa on histamine receptors of isolated guinea pig tracheal chains. Pharmaceutical Biology (Netherlands). 2002;40:596-602.

Boskabady, M. H. and Farhadi, J. The possible prophylactic effect of Nigella sativa seed aqueous extract on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests on chemical war victims: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Altern.Complement Med 2008;14(9):1137-1144. View abstract.

Boskabady, M. H., Javan, H., Sajady, M., and Rakhshandeh, H. The possible prophylactic effect of Nigella sativa seed extract in asthmatic patients. Fundam.Clin Pharmacol. 2007;21(5):559-566. View abstract.

Boskabady, M. H., Keyhanmanesh, R., and Saadatloo, M. A. Relaxant effects of different fractions from Nigella sativa L. on guinea pig tracheal chains and its possible mechanism(s). Indian J Exp.Biol. 2008;46(12):805-810. View abstract.

Boskabady, M. H., Mohsenpoor, N., and Takaloo, L. Antiasthmatic effect of Nigella sativa in airways of asthmatic patients. Phytomedicine 2-8-2010; View abstract.

Boskabady, M. H., Shafei, M. N., and Parsaee, H. Effects of aqueous and macerated extracts from Nigella sativa on guinea pig isolated heart activity. Pharmazie 2005;60(12):943-948. View abstract.

Boskabady, M. H., Shirmohammadi, B., Jandaghi, P., and Kiani, S. Possible mechanism(s) for relaxant effect of aqueous and macerated extracts from Nigella sativa on tracheal chains of guinea pig. BMC.Pharmacol. 2-25-2004;4:3. View abstract.

Bourgou, S., Ksouri, R., Bellila, A., Skandrani, I., Falleh, H., and Marzouk, B. Phenolic composition and biological activities of Tunisian Nigella sativa L. shoots and roots. C R.Biol. 2008;331(1):48-55. View abstract.

Breyer, S., Effenberger, K., and Schobert, R. Effects of thymoquinone-fatty acid conjugates on cancer cells. ChemMedChem. 2009;4(5):761-768. View abstract.

Budancamanak, M., Kanter, M., Demirel, A., Ocakci, A., Uysal, H., and Karakaya, C. Protective effects of thymoquinone and methotrexate on the renal injury in collagen-induced arthritis. Arch Toxicol. 2006;80(11):768-776. View abstract.

Burits, M. and Bucar, F. Antioxidant activity of Nigella sativa essential oil. Phytother.Res 2000;14(5):323-328. View abstract.

Buyukozturk, S., Gelincik, A., Ozseker, F., Genc, S., Savran, F. O., Kiran, B., Yillar, G., Erden, S., Aydin, F., Colakoglu, B., Dal, M., Ozer, H., and Bilir, A. Nigella sativa (black seed) oil does not affect the T-helper 1 and T-helper 2 type cytokine production from splenic mononuclear cells in allergen sensitized mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 9-14-2005;100(3):295-298. View abstract.

Cemek, M., Enginar, H., Karaca, T., and Unak, P. In vivo radioprotective effects of Nigella sativa L oil and reduced glutathione against irradiation-induced oxidative injury and number of peripheral blood lymphocytes in rats. Photochem.Photobiol. 2006;82(6):1691-1696. View abstract.

Chaubey, M. K. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils from some common spices against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). J Oleo.Sci 2008;57(3):171-179. View abstract.

Chehl, N., Chipitsyna, G., Gong, Q., Yeo, C. J., and Arafat, H. A. Anti-inflammatory effects of the Nigella sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, in pancreatic cancer cells. HPB (Oxford) 2009;11(5):373-381. View abstract.

Coban, S., Yildiz, F., Terzi, A., Al, B., Aksoy, N., Bitiren, M., and Celik, H. The effects of Nigella sativa on bile duct ligation induced-liver injury in rats. Cell Biochem.Funct. 2010;28(1):83-88. View abstract.

Corder, C., Benghuzzi, H., Tucci, M., and Cason, Z. Delayed apoptosis upon the treatment of Hep-2 cells with black seed. Biomed.Sci.Instrum. 2003;39:365-370. View abstract.

Dahri, A. H., Chandiol, A. M., Rahoo, A. A., and Memon, R. A. Effect of Nigella sativa (kalonji) on serum cholesterol of albino rats. J Ayub.Med Coll.Abbottabad. 2005;17(2):72-74. View abstract.

Demir, H., Kanter, M., Coskun, O., Uz, Y. H., Koc, A., and Yildiz, A. Effect of black cumin (Nigella sativa) on heart rate, some hematological values, and pancreatic beta-cell damage in cadmium-treated rats. Biol.Trace Elem.Res 2006;110(2):151-162. View abstract.

Dirjomuljono, M., Kristyono, I., Tjandrawinata, R. R., and Nofiarny, D. Symptomatic treatment of acute tonsillo-pharyngitis patients with a combination of Nigella sativa and Phyllanthus niruri extract. Int J Clin Pharmacol.Ther 2008;46(6):295-306. View abstract.

Durrani, F. R., Chand, N., Zaka, K., Sultan, A., Khattak, F. M., and Durrani, Z. Effect of different levels of feed added black seed (Nigella sativa L.) on the performance of broiler chicks. Pak.J Biol.Sci 11-15-2007;10(22):4164-4167. View abstract.

Ebru, U., Burak, U., Yusuf, S., Reyhan, B., Arif, K., Faruk, T. H., Emin, M., Aydin, K., Atilla, I. I., Semsettin, S., and Kemal, E. Cardioprotective effects of Nigella sativa oil on cyclosporine A-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2008;103(6):574-580. View abstract.

Edris, A. E. Anti-cancer properties of Nigella spp. essential oils and their major constituents, thymoquinone and beta-elemene. Curr.Clin Pharmacol. 2009;4(1):43-46. View abstract.

Effenberger, K., Breyer, S., and Schobert, R. Terpene conjugates of the Nigella sativa seed-oil constituent thymoquinone with enhanced efficacy in cancer cells. Chem.Biodivers. 2010;7(1):129-139. View abstract.

El Abhar, H. S., Abdallah, D. M., and Saleh, S. Gastroprotective activity of Nigella sativa oil and its constituent, thymoquinone, against gastric mucosal injury induced by ischaemia/reperfusion in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;84(2-3):251-258. View abstract.

el Aziz, M. A., Hassan, H. A., Mohamed, M. H., Meki, A. R., Abdel-Ghaffar, S. K., and Hussein, M. R. The biochemical and morphological alterations following administration of melatonin, retinoic acid and Nigella sativa in mammary carcinoma: an animal model. Int J Exp.Pathol. 2005;86(6):383-396. View abstract.

El Bahai, M. N., Al Hariri, M. T., Yar, T., and Bamosa, A. O. Cardiac inotropic and hypertrophic effects of Nigella sativa supplementation in rats. Int J Cardiol. 1-24-2009;131(3):e115-e117. View abstract.

el Dakhakhny, M. Studies on the Egyptian Nigella sativa L. IV. Some pharmacological properties of the seeds' active principle in comparison to its dihydro compound and its polymer. Arzneimittelforschung. 1965;15(10):1227-1229. View abstract.

el Dakhakhny, M., Barakat, M., El Halim, M. A., and Aly, S. M. Effects of Nigella sativa oil on gastric secretion and ethanol induced ulcer in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;72(1-2):299-304. View abstract.

el Dakhakhny, M., Madi, N. J., Lembert, N., and Ammon, H. P. Nigella sativa oil, nigellone and derived thymoquinone inhibit synthesis of 5-lipoxygenase products in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;81(2):161-164. View abstract.

el Dakhakhny, M., Mady, N. I., and Halim, M. A. Nigella sativa L. oil protects against induced hepatotoxicity and improves serum lipid profile in rats. Arzneimittelforschung. 2000;50(9):832-836. View abstract.

el Dakhakhny, M., Mady, N., Lembert, N., and Ammon, H. P. The hypoglycemic effect of Nigella sativa oil is mediated by extrapancreatic actions. Planta Med 2002;68(5):465-466. View abstract.

el Daly, E. S. Protective effect of cysteine and vitamin E, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa extracts on cisplatin-induced toxicity in rats. J Pharm.Belg. 1998;53(2):87-93. View abstract.

El Fatatry, H. M. Isolation and structure assignment of an antimicrobial principle from the volatile oil of Nigella sativa L. seeds. Pharmazie 1975;30(2):109-111. View abstract.

El Gazzar, M. A. Thymoquinone suppressses in vitro production of IL-5 and IL-13 by mast cells in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Inflamm.Res 2007;56(8):345-351. View abstract.

El Gazzar, M. A., El Mezayen, R., Nicolls, M. R., and Dreskin, S. C. Thymoquinone attenuates proinflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide-activated mast cells by modulating NF-kappaB nuclear transactivation. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 2007;1770(4):556-564. View abstract.

El Gazzar, M., El Mezayen, R., Marecki, J. C., Nicolls, M. R., Canastar, A., and Dreskin, S. C. Anti-inflammatory effect of thymoquinone in a mouse model of allergic lung inflammation. Int Immunopharmacol. 2006;6(7):1135-1142. View abstract.

El Gazzar, M., El Mezayen, R., Nicolls, M. R., Marecki, J. C., and Dreskin, S. C. Downregulation of leukotriene biosynthesis by thymoquinone attenuates airway inflammation in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 2006;1760(7):1088-1095. View abstract.

El Gouhary, I., Mohamed, A., Suleiman, S., and Benghuzzi, H. Comparison of the amelioration effects of two enzyme inducers on the inflammatory process of experimental allergic encephalitis (EAE) using immunohistochemical technique. Biomed.Sci Instrum. 2005;41:376-381. View abstract.

El Hissy, F. T., Abdel-Hafez, S. I., and Abdel-Kader, M. I. Rhizosphere fungi of five plants in Egypt. Z.Allg.Mikrobiol. 1980;20(3):177-184. View abstract.

El Kady, I. A., El Maraghy, S. S., and Eman, Mostafa M. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in different spices in Egypt. Folia Microbiol.(Praha) 1995;40(3):297-300. View abstract.

El Mahdy, M. A., Zhu, Q., Wang, Q. E., Wani, G., and Wani, A. A. Thymoquinone induces apoptosis through activation of caspase-8 and mitochondrial events in p53-null myeloblastic leukemia HL-60 cells. Int J Cancer 11-10-2005;117(3):409-417. View abstract.

El Mahmoudy, A., Matsuyama, H., Borgan, M. A., Shimizu, Y., El Sayed, M. G., Minamoto, N., and Takewaki, T. Thymoquinone suppresses expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in rat macrophages. Int Immunopharmacol. 2002;2(11):1603-1611. View abstract.

El Mahmoudy, A., Shimizu, Y., Shiina, T., Matsuyama, H., El Sayed, M., and Takewaki, T. Successful abrogation by thymoquinone against induction of diabetes mellitus with streptozotocin via nitric oxide inhibitory mechanism. Int Immunopharmacol. 2005;5(1):195-207. View abstract.

El Mahmoudy, A., Shimizu, Y., Shiina, T., Matsuyama, H., Nikami, H., and Takewaki, T. Macrophage-derived cytokine and nitric oxide profiles in type I and type II diabetes mellitus: effect of thymoquinone. Acta Diabetol. 2005;42(1):23-30. View abstract.

El Mezayen, R., El Gazzar, M., Nicolls, M. R., Marecki, J. C., Dreskin, S. C., and Nomiyama, H. Effect of thymoquinone on cyclooxygenase expression and prostaglandin production in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation. Immunol.Lett. 7-15-2006;106(1):72-81. View abstract.

El Najjar, N., Chatila, M., Moukadem, H., Vuorela, H., Ocker, M., Gandesiri, M., Schneider-Stock, R., and Gali-Muhtasib, H. Reactive oxygen species mediate thymoquinone-induced apoptosis and activate ERK and JNK signaling. Apoptosis. 2010;15(2):183-195. View abstract.

El Obeid, A., Al Harbi, S., Al Jomah, N., and Hassib, A. Herbal melanin modulates tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production. Phytomedicine. 2006;13(5):324-333. View abstract.

El Obeid, A., Hassib, A., Ponten, F., and Westermark, B. Effect of herbal melanin on IL-8: a possible role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 6-16-2006;344(4):1200-1206. View abstract.

El Saleh, S. C., Al Sagair, O. A., and Al Khalaf, M. I. Thymoquinone and Nigella sativa oil protection against methionine-induced hyperhomocysteinemia in rats. Int J Cardiol. 2004;93(1):19-23. View abstract.

El Shenawy, N. S., Soliman, M. F., and Reyad, S. I. The effect of antioxidant properties of aqueous garlic extract and Nigella sativa as anti-schistosomiasis agents in mice. Rev.Inst.Med Trop.Sao Paulo 2008;50(1):29-36. View abstract.

el Tahir, K. E., Ashour, M. M., and al Harbi, M. M. The cardiovascular actions of the volatile oil of the black seed (Nigella sativa) in rats: elucidation of the mechanism of action. Gen.Pharmacol. 1993;24(5):1123-1131. View abstract.

el Tahir, K. E., Ashour, M. M., and al Harbi, M. M. The respiratory effects of the volatile oil of the black seed (Nigella sativa) in guinea-pigs: elucidation of the mechanism(s) of action. Gen.Pharmacol. 1993;24(5):1115-1122. View abstract.

El Wakil, S. S. Evaluation of the in vitro effect of Nigella sativa aqueous extract on Blastocystis hominis isolates. J Egypt Soc.Parasitol. 2007;37(3):801-813. View abstract.

El-Gharieb MA and et al. Potential hepatoprotective effects of vitamin E and Nigella sativa oil on hepatotoxicity induced by chronic exposure to malathion in human and male albino rats. Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry. 2010;92(2):395-412.

Enomoto, S., Asano, R., Iwahori, Y., Narui, T., Okada, Y., Singab, A. N., and Okuyama, T. Hematological studies on black cumin oil from the seeds of Nigella sativa L. Biol.Pharm.Bull 2001;24(3):307-310. View abstract.

Erdurmus, M., Yagci, R., Yilmaz, B., Hepsen, I. F., Turkmen, C., Aydin, B., and Karadag, R. Inhibitory effects of topical thymoquinone on corneal neovascularization. Cornea 2007;26(6):715-719. View abstract.

Farah, I. O. and Begum, R. A. Effect of Nigella sativa (N. sativa L.) and oxidative stress on the survival pattern of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Biomed.Sci.Instrum. 2003;39:359-364. View abstract.

Farah, N., Benghuzzi, H., Tucci, M., and Cason, Z. The effects of isolated antioxidants from black seed on the cellular metabolism of A549 cells. Biomed.Sci.Instrum. 2005;41:211-216. View abstract.

Fararh, K. M., Atoji, Y., Shimizu, Y., Shiina, T., Nikami, H., and Takewaki, T. Mechanisms of the hypoglycaemic and immunopotentiating effects of Nigella sativa L. oil in streptozotocin-induced diabetic hamsters. Res Vet.Sci 2004;77(2):123-129. View abstract.

Fararh, K. M., Ibrahim, A. K., and Elsonosy, Y. A. Thymoquinone enhances the activities of enzymes related to energy metabolism in peripheral leukocytes of diabetic rats. Res Vet.Sci 2010;88(3):400-404. View abstract.

Fararh, K. M., Shimizu, Y., Shiina, T., Nikami, H., Ghanem, M. M., and Takewaki, T. Thymoquinone reduces hepatic glucose production in diabetic hamsters. Res Vet.Sci 2005;79(3):219-223. View abstract.

Farrag, A. R., Mahdy, K. A., Abdel Rahman, G. H., and Osfor, M. M. Protective effect of Nigella sativa seeds against lead-induced hepatorenal damage in male rats. Pak.J Biol.Sci 9-1-2007;10(17):2809-2816. View abstract.

Fawzia, Al Charchafchi, M. R., Al Shuhumi, H., Al Meselhy, S., Al Busadi, M., and Al Shuhumi, H. Biological activity of seed aqueous extract of Nigella sativa (L.) on germination and seedling growth of Vigna radiata (L.). Pak.J Biol.Sci 12-1-2007;10(23):4319-4322. View abstract.

Finlay, T. M., Jayanth, P., Amith, S. R., Gilmour, A., Guzzo, C., Gee, K., Beyaert, R., and Szewczuk, M. R. Thymoquinone from nutraceutical black cumin oil activates Neu4 sialidase in live macrophage, dendritic, and normal and type I sialidosis human fibroblast cells via GPCR Galphai proteins and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Glycoconj.J 2010;27(3):329-348. View abstract.

Fouda, A. M., Daba, M. H., Dahab, G. M., and Sharaf El-Din, O. A. Thymoquinone ameliorates renal oxidative damage and proliferative response induced by mercuric chloride in rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2008;103(2):109-118. View abstract.

Gali-Muhtasib, H. U., Abou Kheir, W. G., Kheir, L. A., Darwiche, N., and Crooks, P. A. Molecular pathway for thymoquinone-induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in neoplastic keratinocytes. Anticancer Drugs 2004;15(4):389-399. View abstract.

Gali-Muhtasib, H., Diab-Assaf, M., Boltze, C., Al Hmaira, J., Hartig, R., Roessner, A., and Schneider-Stock, R. Thymoquinone extracted from black seed triggers apoptotic cell death in human colorectal cancer cells via a p53-dependent mechanism. Int J Oncol. 2004;25(4):857-866. View abstract.

Gali-Muhtasib, H., Kuester, D., Mawrin, C., Bajbouj, K., Diestel, A., Ocker, M., Habold, C., Foltzer-Jourdainne, C., Schoenfeld, P., Peters, B., Diab-Assaf, M., Pommrich, U., Itani, W., Lippert, H., Roessner, A., and Schneider-Stock, R. Thymoquinone triggers inactivation of the stress response pathway sensor CHEK1 and contributes to apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. Cancer Res 7-15-2008;68(14):5609-5618. View abstract.

Gali-Muhtasib, H., Ocker, M., Kuester, D., Krueger, S., El Hajj, Z., Diestel, A., Evert, M., El Najjar, N., Peters, B., Jurjus, A., Roessner, A., and Schneider-Stock, R. Thymoquinone reduces mouse colon tumor cell invasion and inhibits tumor growth in murine colon cancer models. J Cell Mol.Med 2008;12(1):330-342. View abstract.

Gali-Muhtasib, H., Roessner, A., and Schneider-Stock, R. Thymoquinone: a promising anti-cancer drug from natural sources. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2006;38(8):1249-1253. View abstract.

Galus, R., Zandecki, L., Sajjad, E., Jozwiak, J., and Wlodarski, K. [Factors affecting melanogenesis and methods used for identification of pigmentation disorders]. Pol.Merkur Lekarski. 2008;25(146):188-191. View abstract.

Gawlik-Dziki. Influence of simulated digestion in various pH conditions on antioxidant activity and composition of extracts from selected spices. Herba Polonica (Poland) 2007;53:279-285.

Geng, D., Zhang, S., and Lan, J. [Analysis on chemical components of volatile oil and determination of thymoquinone from seed of Nigella glandulifera]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2009;34(22):2887-2890. View abstract.

Ghannadi, A., Hajhashemi, V., and Jafarabadi, H. An investigation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Nigella sativa seed polyphenols. J Med Food 2005;8(4):488-493. View abstract.

Ghosheh, O. A., Houdi, A. A., and Crooks, P. A. High performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the pharmacologically active quinones and related compounds in the oil of the black seed (Nigella sativa L.). J Pharm.Biomed.Anal. 1999;19(5):757-762. View abstract.

Gilani, A. H., Aziz, N., Khurram, I. M., Chaudhary, K. S., and Iqbal, A. Bronchodilator, spasmolytic and calcium antagonist activities of Nigella sativa seeds (Kalonji): a traditional herbal product with multiple medicinal uses. J Pak.Med Assoc. 2001;51(3):115-120. View abstract.

Hadjzadeh, M. A., Khoei, A., Hadjzadeh, Z., and Parizady, M. Ethanolic extract of nigella sativa L seeds on ethylene glycol-induced kidney calculi in rats. Urol.J 2007;4(2):86-90. View abstract.

Hadjzadeh, M. A., Mohammadian, N., Rahmani, Z., and Rassouli, F. B. Effect of thymoquinone on ethylene glycol-induced kidney calculi in rats. Urol.J 2008;5(3):149-155. View abstract.

Hajhashemi, V., Ghannadi, A., and Jafarabadi, H. Black cumin seed essential oil, as a potent analgesic and antiinflammatory drug. Phytother.Res 2004;18(3):195-199. View abstract.

Hamdy, N. M. and Taha, R. A. Effects of Nigella sativa oil and thymoquinone on oxidative stress and neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Pharmacology 2009;84(3):127-134. View abstract.

Hannan, A., Saleem, S., Chaudhary, S., Barkaat, M., and Arshad, M. U. Anti bacterial activity of Nigella sativa against clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Ayub.Med Coll.Abbottabad. 2008;20(3):72-74. View abstract.

Hansen, J. T., Benghuzzi, H., Tucci, M., and Cason, Z. The role of black seed in the proliferation and biochemical marker levels of Hep-2 cells. Biomed.Sci.Instrum. 2003;39:371-376. View abstract.

Haq, A., Lobo, P. I., Al Tufail, M., Rama, N. R., and Al Sedairy, S. T. Immunomodulatory effect of Nigella sativa proteins fractionated by ion exchange chromatography. Int.J.Immunopharmacol. 1999;21(4):283-295. View abstract.

Hassan SA and et al. In Vitro Challenge using Thymoquinone on Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HepG2) Cell Line. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2008;7:283-290.

Hawsawi, Z. A., Ali, B. A., and Bamosa, A. O. Effect of Nigella sativa (Black Seed) and thymoquinone on blood glucose in albino rats. Ann.Saudi Med 2001;21(3-4):242-244. View abstract.

Hossein, B. M., Nasim, V., and Sediqa, A. The protective effect of Nigella sativa on lung injury of sulfur mustard-exposed Guinea pigs. Exp.Lung Res 2008;34(4):183-194. View abstract.

Hosseinzadeh, H. and Parvardeh, S. Anticonvulsant effects of thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, in mice. Phytomedicine 2004;11(1):56-64. View abstract.

Hosseinzadeh, H., Parvardeh, S., Asl, M. N., Sadeghnia, H. R., and Ziaee, T. Effect of thymoquinone and Nigella sativa seeds oil on lipid peroxidation level during global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat hippocampus. Phytomedicine 2007;14(9):621-627. View abstract.

Hosseinzadeh, H., Parvardeh, S., Nassiri-Asl, M., and Mansouri, M. T. Intracerebroventricular administration of thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, suppresses epileptic seizures in rats. Med Sci Monit. 2005;11(4):BR106-BR110. View abstract.

Ibrahim, Z. S., Ishizuka, M., Soliman, M., ElBohi, K., Sobhy, W., Muzandu, K., Elkattawy, A. M., Sakamoto, K. Q., and Fujita, S. Protection by Nigella sativa against carbon tetrachloride-induced downregulation of hepatic cytochrome P450 isozymes in rats. Jpn.J Vet.Res 2008;56(3):119-128. View abstract.

Iddamaldeniya, S. S., Thabrew, M. I., Wickramasinghe, S. M., Ratnatunge, N., and Thammitiyagodage, M. G. A long-term investigation of the anti-hepatocarcinogenic potential of an indigenous medicine comprised of Nigella sativa, Hemidesmus indicus and Smilax glabra. J Carcinog. 2006;5:11. View abstract.

Iddamaldeniya, S. S., Wickramasinghe, N., Thabrew, I., Ratnatunge, N., and Thammitiyagodage, M. G. Protection against diethylnitrosoamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis by an indigenous medicine comprised of Nigella sativa, Hemidesmus indicus and Smilax glabra: a preliminary study. J Carcinog. 10-18-2003;2(1):6. View abstract.

Ilhan, A., Gurel, A., Armutcu, F., Kamisli, S., and Iraz, M. Antiepileptogenic and antioxidant effects of Nigella sativa oil against pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling in mice. Neuropharmacology 2005;49(4):456-464. View abstract.

Inouye, S., Uchida, K., Takizawa, T., Yamaguchi, H., and Abe, S. Evaluation of the effect of terpenoid quinones on Trichophyton mentagrophytes by solution and vapor contact. J Infect.Chemother. 2006;12(2):100-104. View abstract.

Isik, A. F., Kati, I., Bayram, I., and Ozbek, H. A new agent for treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome: thymoquinone. An experimental study in a rat model. Eur.J Cardiothorac.Surg. 2005;28(2):301-305. View abstract.

Islam, S. K., Ahsan, M., Hassan, C. M., and Malek, M. A. Antifungal activities of the oils of Nigella sativa seeds. Pak.J Pharm.Sci 1989;2(1):25-28. View abstract.

Islam, S. N., Begum, P., Ahsan, T., Huque, S., and Ahsan, M. Immunosuppressive and cytotoxic properties of Nigella sativa. Phytother.Res. 2004;18(5):395-398. View abstract.

Ismail, M., Al Naqeep, G., and Chan, K. W. Nigella sativa thymoquinone-rich fraction greatly improves plasma antioxidant capacity and expression of antioxidant genes in hypercholesterolemic rats. Free Radic.Biol.Med 3-1-2010;48(5):664-672. View abstract.

Ivankovic, S., Stojkovic, R., Jukic, M., Milos, M., Milos, M., and Jurin, M. The antitumor activity of thymoquinone and thymohydroquinone in vitro and in vivo. Exp.Oncol. 2006;28(3):220-224. View abstract.

Jadayil, S. A., Tukan, S. K., and Takruri, H. R. Bioavailability of iron from four different local food plants in Jordan. Plant Foods Hum.Nutr. 1999;54(4):285-294. View abstract.

Juhas, S., Cikos, S., Czikkova, S., Vesela, J., Il'kova, G., Hajek, T., Domaracka, K., Domaracky, M., Bujnakova, D., Rehak, P., and Koppel, J. Effects of borneol and thymoquinone on TNBS-induced colitis in mice. Folia Biol.(Praha) 2008;54(1):1-7. View abstract.

Kacem, R. and Meraihi, Z. Effects of essential oil extracted from Nigella sativa (L.) seeds and its main components on human neutrophil elastase activity. Yakugaku Zasshi 2006;126(4):301-305. View abstract.

Kacem, R. and Meraihi, Z. The effect of essential oil extracted from Nigella sativa (L.) seeds on human neutrophil functions. Nat.Prod.Res 2009;23(13):1168-1175. View abstract.

Kailani, S. R., Akhtar, M. S., and Ashraf, M. Antifasciolic efficacy of indigenous plant drugs: kalonji, shahterah and karanjwa in buffaloes. Pak.J Pharm.Sci 1995;8(1):17-27. View abstract.

Kaleem, M., Kirmani, D., Asif, M., Ahmed, Q., and Bano, B. Biochemical effects of Nigella sativa L seeds in diabetic rats. Indian J Exp.Biol. 2006;44(9):745-748. View abstract.

Kalus, U., Pruss, A., Bystron, J., Jurecka, M., Smekalova, A., Lichius, J. J., and Kiesewetter, H. Effect of Nigella sativa (black seed) on subjective feeling in patients with allergic diseases. Phytother.Res. 2003;17(10):1209-1214. View abstract.

Kamal EH and et al. Some cardiovascular effects of the dethymoquinonated Nigella sativa volatile oil and its major components alpha-pinene and p-cymene in rats. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal (Saudi Arabia). 2003;11:104-110.

Kanter, M. Effects of Nigella sativa and its major constituent, thymoquinone on sciatic nerves in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Neurochem.Res 2008;33(1):87-96. View abstract.

Kanter, M. Effects of Nigella sativa seed extract on ameliorating lung tissue damage in rats after experimental pulmonary aspirations. Acta Histochem. 2009;111(5):393-403. View abstract.

Kanter, M. Nigella sativa and derived thymoquinone prevents hippocampal neurodegeneration after chronic toluene exposure in rats. Neurochem.Res 2008;33(3):579-588. View abstract.

Kanter, M. Protective effects of Nigella sativa on the neuronal injury in frontal cortex and brain stem after chronic toluene exposure. Neurochem.Res 2008;33(11):2241-2249. View abstract.

Kanter, M. Protective effects of thymoquinone on streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy. J Mol.Histol. 2009;40(2):107-115. View abstract.

Kanter, M., Akpolat, M., and Aktas, C. Protective effects of the volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds on beta-cell damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: a light and electron microscopic study. J Mol.Histol. 2009;40(5-6):379-385. View abstract.

Kanter, M., Coskun, O., and Budancamanak, M. Hepatoprotective effects of Nigella sativa L and Urtica dioica L on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats. World J Gastroenterol. 11-14-2005;11(42):6684-6688. View abstract.

Kanter, M., Coskun, O., and Gurel, A. Effect of black cumin (Nigella sativa) on cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the blood of rats. Biol.Trace Elem.Res 2005;107(3):277-287. View abstract.

Kanter, M., Coskun, O., and Uysal, H. The antioxidative and antihistaminic effect of Nigella sativa and its major constituent, thymoquinone on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. Arch Toxicol. 2006;80(4):217-224. View abstract.

Kanter, M., Coskun, O., Kalayci, M., Buyukbas, S., and Cagavi, F. Neuroprotective effects of Nigella sativa on experimental spinal cord injury in rats. Hum.Exp.Toxicol. 2006;25(3):127-133. View abstract.

Kanter, M., Coskun, O., Korkmaz, A., and Oter, S. Effects of Nigella sativa on oxidative stress and beta-cell damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Anat.Rec.A Discov.Mol.Cell Evol.Biol. 2004;279(1):685-691. View abstract.

Kanter, M., Demir, H., Karakaya, C., and Ozbek, H. Gastroprotective activity of Nigella sativa L oil and its constituent, thymoquinone against acute alcohol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. World J Gastroenterol. 11-14-2005;11(42):6662-6666. View abstract.

Kanter, M., Meral, I., Dede, S., Gunduz, H., Cemek, M., Ozbek, H., and Uygan, I. Effects of Nigella sativa L. and Urtica dioica L. on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and some liver enzymes in CCl4-treated rats. J Vet.Med A Physiol Pathol.Clin Med 2003;50(5):264-268. View abstract.

Kanter, M., Meral, I., Yener, Z., Ozbek, H., and Demir, H. Partial regeneration/proliferation of the beta-cells in the islets of Langerhans by Nigella sativa L. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Tohoku J Exp.Med 2003;201(4):213-219. View abstract.

Kaseb, A. O., Chinnakannu, K., Chen, D., Sivanandam, A., Tejwani, S., Menon, M., Dou, Q. P., and Reddy, G. P. Androgen receptor and E2F-1 targeted thymoquinone therapy for hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 8-15-2007;67(16):7782-7788. View abstract.

Keyhanmanesh, R., Boskabady, M. H., Eslamizadeh, M. J., Khamneh, S., and Ebrahimi, M. A. The effect of thymoquinone, the main constituent of Nigella sativa on tracheal responsiveness and white blood cell count in lung lavage of sensitized guinea pigs. Planta Med 2010;76(3):218-222. View abstract.

Khader, M., Bresgen, N., and Eckl, P. M. Antimutagenic effects of ethanolic extracts from selected Palestinian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol. 2-3-2010;127(2):319-324. View abstract.

Khader, M., Bresgen, N., and Eckl, P. M. In vitro toxicological properties of thymoquinone. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2009;47(1):129-133. View abstract.

Khader, M., Eckl, P. M., and Bresgen, N. Effects of aqueous extracts of medicinal plants on MNNG-treated rat hepatocytes in primary cultures. J Ethnopharmacol. 5-30-2007;112(1):199-202. View abstract.

Khadr ME and et al. Antioxidant Activity and Hepatoprotective Potential of Black Seed, Honey and Silymarin on Experimental Liver Injuries Induced by CCl4 in Rats. Journal of Applied Sciences 2007;7(24):3909-3917.

Khalife, K. H. and Lupidi, G. Nonenzymatic reduction of thymoquinone in physiological conditions. Free Radic.Res 2007;41(2):153-161. View abstract.

Khalife, K. H. and Lupidi, G. Reduction of hypervalent states of myoglobin and hemoglobin to their ferrous forms by thymoquinone: the role of GSH, NADH and NADPH. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 2008;1780(4):627-637. View abstract.

Khan MT and et al. Antimotility and antidiarrheal effects of Nigella sativa Linn. as an antagonist to 5-hydroxytryptamine. Indian Drugs (India) 2000;(37):426-432.

Khan, M. A., Ashfaq, M. K., Zuberi, H. S., Mahmood, M. S., and Gilani, A. H. The in vivo antifungal activity of the aqueous extract from Nigella sativa seeds. Phytother.Res 2003;17(2):183-186. View abstract.

Khan, N. and Sultana, S. Inhibition of two stage renal carcinogenesis, oxidative damage and hyperproliferative response by Nigella sativa. Eur.J Cancer Prev. 2005;14(2):159-168. View abstract.

Khan, N., Sharma, S., and Sultana, S. Nigella sativa (black cumin) ameliorates potassium bromate-induced early events of carcinogenesis: diminution of oxidative stress. Hum.Exp.Toxicol. 2003;22(4):193-203. View abstract.

Khattab, M. M. and Nagi, M. N. Thymoquinone supplementation attenuates hypertension and renal damage in nitric oxide deficient hypertensive rats. Phytother.Res 2007;21(5):410-414. View abstract.

Kirui, P. K., Cameron, J., Benghuzzi, H. A., Tucci, M., Patel, R., Adah, F., and Russell, G. Effects of sustained delivery of thymoqiunone on bone healing of male rats. Biomed.Sci Instrum. 2004;40:111-116. View abstract.

Kocyigit, Y., Atamer, Y., and Uysal, E. The effect of dietary supplementation of Nigella sativa L. on serum lipid profile in rats. Saudi Med J 2009;30(7):893-896. View abstract.

Kocyigit, Y., Atamer, Y., Uysal, E., and Baran, M. S. Effect of nigella (Nigella sativa L.) seeds on hematological parameters in rats. Saudi Med J 2009;30(9):1233-1235. View abstract.

Kokoska, L., Havlik, J., Valterova, I., Sovova, H., Sajfrtova, M., and Jankovska, I. Comparison of chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Nigella sativa seed essential oils obtained by different extraction methods. J Food Prot. 2008;71(12):2475-2480. View abstract.

Korshom M., Moghney A. A. Mandour A. Biochemical and parasitological evaluation of

Kruk, I., Michalska, T., Lichszteld, K., Kladna, A., and Aboul-Enein, H. Y. The effect of thymol and its derivatives on reactions generating reactive oxygen species. Chemosphere 2000;41(7):1059-1064. View abstract.

Kumara, S. S. and Huat, B. T. Extraction, isolation and characterisation of antitumor principle, alpha-hederin, from the seeds of Nigella sativa. Planta Med 2001;67(1):29-32. View abstract.

Landa, P., Kokoska, L., Pribylova, M., Vanek, T., and Marsik, P. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of carvacrol: Inhibitory effect on COX-2 catalyzed prostaglandin E(2) biosynthesis. Arch Pharm.Res 2009;32(1):75-78. View abstract.

Landa, P., Marsik, P., Havlik, J., Kloucek, P., Vanek, T., and Kokoska, L. Evaluation of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of seed extracts from six Nigella species. J Med Food 2009;12(2):408-415. View abstract.

Le, P. M., Benhaddou-Andaloussi, A., Elimadi, A., Settaf, A., Cherrah, Y., and Haddad, P. S. The petroleum ether extract of Nigella sativa exerts lipid-lowering and insulin-sensitizing actions in the rat. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;94(2-3):251-259. View abstract.

Mabrouk, G. M., Moselhy, S. S., Zohny, S. F., Ali, E. M., Helal, T. E., Amin, A. A., and Khalifa, A. A. Inhibition of methylnitrosourea (MNU) induced oxidative stress and carcinogenesis by orally administered bee honey and Nigella grains in Sprague Dawely rats. J Exp.Clin Cancer Res 2002;21(3):341-346. View abstract.

Mahdy KA and et al. Amelioration of aluminum toxicity with black seed supplement on rats. Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry 2010;91(3):567-576.

Mahgoub, A. A. Thymoquinone protects against experimental colitis in rats. Toxicol.Lett. 7-20-2003;143(2):133-143. View abstract.

Mahmood, M. S., Gilani, A. H., Khwaja, A., Rashid, A., and Ashfaq, M. K. The in vitro effect of aqueous extract of Nigella sativa seeds on nitric oxide production. Phytother.Res. 2003;17(8):921-924. View abstract.

Mahmoud, M. R., El Abhar, H. S., and Saleh, S. The effect of Nigella sativa oil against the liver damage induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;79(1):1-11. View abstract.

Mankowska D and et al. Nigella sativa L. - active compounds, biological properties. Herba Polonica (Poland). 2009;55:109-125.

Mansour, M. A. Protective effects of thymoquinone and desferrioxamine against hepatotoxicity of carbon tetrachloride in mice. Life Sci 5-19-2000;66(26):2583-2591. View abstract.

Mansour, M. A., Ginawi, O. T., El Hadiyah, T., El Khatib, A. S., Al Shabanah, O. A., and Al Sawaf, H. A. Effects of volatile oil constituents of Nigella sativa on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice: evidence for antioxidant effects of thymoquinone. Res Commun.Mol.Pathol.Pharmacol. 2001;110(3-4):239-251. View abstract.

Mansour, M. A., Nagi, M. N., El Khatib, A. S., and Al Bekairi, A. M. Effects of thymoquinone on antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation and DT-diaphorase in different tissues of mice: a possible mechanism of action. Cell Biochem.Funct. 2002;20(2):143-151. View abstract.

Mansour, M. and Tornhamre, S. Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase and leukotriene C4 synthase in human blood cells by thymoquinone. J Enzyme Inhib.Med Chem. 2004;19(5):431-436. View abstract.

Marozzi, F. J., Jr., Kocialski, A. B., and Malone, M. H. Studies on the antihistaminic effects of thymoquinone, thymohydroquinone and quercetin. Arzneimittelforschung. 1970;20(10):1574-1577. View abstract.

Marsik, P., Kokoska, L., Landa, P., Nepovim, A., Soudek, P., and Vanek, T. In vitro inhibitory effects of thymol and quinones of Nigella sativa seeds on cyclooxygenase-1- and -2-catalyzed prostaglandin E2 biosyntheses. Planta Med 2005;71(8):739-742. View abstract.

Massadeh, A. M., Al Safi, S. A., Momani, I. F., Al Mahmoud, M., and Alkofahi, A. S. Analysis of cadmium and lead in mice organs: effect of Nigella sativa L. (Black Cumin) on the distribution and immunosuppressive effect of cadmium-lead mixture in mice. Biol.Trace Elem.Res 2007;115(2):157-167. View abstract.

McDermott, C., O'Donoghue, M. H., and Heffron, J. J. n-Hexane toxicity in Jurkat T-cells is mediated by reactive oxygen species. Arch Toxicol. 2008;82(3):165-171. View abstract.

Meddah, B., Ducroc, R., El Abbes, Faouzi M., Eto, B., Mahraoui, L., Benhaddou-Andaloussi, A., Martineau, L. C., Cherrah, Y., and Haddad, P. S. Nigella sativa inhibits intestinal glucose absorption and improves glucose tolerance in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 1-30-2009;121(3):419-424. View abstract.

Mehta, B. K., Mehta, P., and Gupta, M. A new naturally acetylated triterpene saponin from Nigella sativa. Carbohydr.Res 1-5-2009;344(1):149-151. View abstract.

Mehta, B. K., Pandit, V., and Gupta, M. New principles from seeds of Nigella sativa. Nat.Prod.Res 2009;23(2):138-148. View abstract.

Meral, I. and Kanter, M. Effects of Nigella sativa L. and Urtica dioica L. on selected mineral status and hematological values in CCl4-treated rats. Biol.Trace Elem.Res 2003;96(1-3):263-270. View abstract.

Meral, I., Yener, Z., Kahraman, T., and Mert, N. Effect of Nigella sativa on glucose concentration, lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidant defence system and liver damage in experimentally-induced diabetic rabbits. J Vet.Med A Physiol Pathol.Clin Med 2001;48(10):593-599. View abstract.

Michelitsch, A., Rittmannsberger, A., Hufner, A., Ruckert, U., and Likussar, W. Determination of isopropylmethylphenols in black seed oil by differential pulse voltammetry. Phytochem.Anal. 2004;15(5):320-324. View abstract.

Mohamed, A. M., Metwally, N. M., and Mahmoud, S. S. Sativa seeds against Schistosoma mansoni different stages. Mem.Inst.Oswaldo Cruz 2005;100(2):205-211. View abstract.

Mohamed, A., Afridi, D. M., Garani, O., and Tucci, M. Thymoquinone inhibits the activation of NF-kappaB in the brain and spinal cord of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Biomed.Sci Instrum. 2005;41:388-393. View abstract.

Mohamed, A., Shoker, A., Bendjelloul, F., Mare, A., Alzrigh, M., Benghuzzi, H., and Desin, T. Improvement of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) by thymoquinone; an oxidative stress inhibitor. Biomed.Sci Instrum. 2003;39:440-445. View abstract.

Mohamed, A., Waris, H. M., Ramadan, H., Quereshi, M., and Kalra, J. Amelioration of chronic relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (cr-eae) using thymoquinone - biomed 2009. Biomed.Sci Instrum. 2009;45:274-279. View abstract.

Morikawa, T., Xu, F., Kashima, Y., Matsuda, H., Ninomiya, K., and Yoshikawa, M. Novel dolabellane-type diterpene alkaloids with lipid metabolism promoting activities from the seeds of Nigella sativa. Org.Lett. 3-18-2004;6(6):869-872. View abstract.

Morikawa, T., Xu, F., Ninomiya, K., Matsuda, H., and Yoshikawa, M. Nigellamines A3, A4, A5, and C, new dolabellane-type diterpene alkaloids, with lipid metabolism-promoting activities from the Egyptian medicinal food black cumin. Chem.Pharm.Bull (Tokyo) 2004;52(4):494-497. View abstract.

Morsi, N. M. Antimicrobial effect of crude extracts of Nigella sativa on multiple antibiotics-resistant bacteria. Acta Microbiol.Pol. 2000;49(1):63-74. View abstract.

Mouhajir F and et al. Antimicrobial thymohydroquinones of Moroccan Nigella sativa seeds detected by electron spin resonance. Pharmaceutical Biology (Netherlands) 1999;(37):391-395.

Mouhajir F and et al. Phenolics in Moroccan Medicinal Plant Species as Studied by ElectronSpin Resonance Spectroscopy. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2001;39(5):391.

Mourad, A. K., Zaghloul, O. A., El Kady, M. B., Nemat, F. M., and Morsy, M. E. A novel approach for the management of the chalkbrood disease infesting honeybee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies in Egypt. Commun.Agric.Appl.Biol.Sci 2005;70(4):601-611. View abstract.

Mousavi, S. H., Tayarani-Najaran, Z., Asghari, M., and Sadeghnia, H. R. Protective Effect of Nigella sativa Extract and Thymoquinone on Serum/Glucose Deprivation-Induced PC12 Cells Death. Cell Mol.Neurobiol. 1-7-2010; View abstract.

Mutabagani A and et al. Study of the anti-inflammatory activity of Nigella sativa L. and thymoquinone in rats. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal (Saudi Arabia). 1997;5:110-113.

Nagi, M. N. and Almakki, H. A. Thymoquinone supplementation induces quinone reductase and glutathione transferase in mice liver: possible role in protection against chemical carcinogenesis and toxicity. Phytother.Res 2009;23(9):1295-1298. View abstract.

Nagi, M. N. and Mansour, M. A. Protective effect of thymoquinone against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats: a possible mechanism of protection. Pharmacol.Res 2000;41(3):283-289. View abstract.

Najmi, A., Nasiruddin, M., Khan, R. A., and Haque, S. F. Effect of Nigella sativa oil on various clinical and biochemical parameters of insulin resistance syndrome. Int J Diabetes Dev.Ctries. 2008;28(1):11-14. View abstract.

Nickavar, B., Mojab, F., Javidnia, K., and Amoli, M. A. Chemical composition of the fixed and volatile oils of Nigella sativa L. from Iran. Z.Naturforsch.C 2003;58(9-10):629-631. View abstract.

Norton. Alive: Canadian Journal of Health & Nutrition. 1998;184:2.

Norwood, A. A., Tan, M., May, M., Tucci, M., and Benghuzzi, H. Comparison of potential chemotherapeutic agents, 5-fluoruracil, green tea, and thymoquinone on colon cancer cells. Biomed.Sci Instrum. 2006;42:350-356. View abstract.

Norwood, A. A., Tucci, M., and Benghuzzi, H. A comparison of 5-fluorouracil and natural chemotherapeutic agents, EGCG and thymoquinone, delivered by sustained drug delivery on colon cancer cells. Biomed.Sci.Instrum. 2007;43:272-277. View abstract.

Nualkaew, S., Gritsanapan, W., Petereit, F., and Nahrstedt, A. New fatty acid esters originate during storage by the interaction of components in prasaplai, a Thai traditional medicine. Planta Med 2004;70(12):1243-1246. View abstract.

O'Mahony, R., Al Khtheeri, H., Weerasekera, D., Fernando, N., Vaira, D., Holton, J., and Basset, C. Bactericidal and anti-adhesive properties of culinary and medicinal plants against Helicobacter pylori. World J Gastroenterol. 12-21-2005;11(47):7499-7507. View abstract.

Oberg, F., Haseeb, A., Ahnfelt, M., Ponten, F., Westermark, B., and El Obeid, A. Herbal melanin activates TLR4/NF-kappaB signaling pathway. Phytomedicine 2009;16(5):477-484. View abstract.

Oshchepkova, IuI, Veshkurova, O. N., Rogozhin, E. A., Musoliamov, A. K., Smirnov, A. N., Odintsova, T. I., Egorov, TsA, Grishin, E. V., and Salikhov, ShI. [Isolation of the lipid-transporting protein Ns-LTP1 from seeds of the garden fennel flower (Nigella sativa)]. Bioorg.Khim. 2009;35(3):344-349. View abstract.

Ozbek, H. Determination of lethal doses of volatile and fixed oils of several plants. Journal of Medicine (EAST J MED) 2004;9(1):4-6.

Ozugurlu, F., Sahin, S., Idiz, N., Akyol, O., Ilhan, A., Yigitoglu, R., and Isik, B. The effect of Nigella sativa oil against experimental allergic encephalomyelitis via nitric oxide and other oxidative stress parameters. Cell Mol.Biol.(Noisy.-le-grand) 9-5-2005;51(3):337-342. View abstract.

Pagola, S., Benavente, A., Raschi, A., Romano, E., Molina, M. A., and Stephens, P. W. Crystal structure determination of thymoquinone by high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction. AAPS.PharmSciTech. 2004;5(2):e28. View abstract.

Pari, L. and Sankaranarayanan, C. Beneficial effects of thymoquinone on hepatic key enzymes in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Life Sci 12-16-2009;85(23-26):830-834. View abstract.

Parvardeh S and et al. Effects of thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, on the contractile responses of rat vas deferens. Pharmaceutical Biology (Netherlands). 2003;41:616-621.

Perveen, T., Haider, S., Kanwal, S., and Haleem, D. J. Repeated administration of Nigella sativa decreases 5-HT turnover and produces anxiolytic effects in rats. Pak.J Pharm.Sci 2009;22(2):139-144. View abstract.

Qadri, S. M., Mahmud, H., Foller, M., and Lang, F. Thymoquinone-induced suicidal erythrocyte death. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2009;47(7):1545-1549. View abstract.

Qidwai, W., Hamza, H. B., Qureshi, R., and Gilani, A. Effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of powdered Nigella sativa (kalonji) seed in capsules on serum lipid levels, blood sugar, blood pressure, and body weight in adults: results of a randomized, double-blind controlled trial. J Altern.Complement Med 2009;15(6):639-644. View abstract.

Ragheb, A., Attia, A., Elbarbry, F., Prasad, K., and Shoker, A. Attenuated Combined Action of Cyclosporine A and Hyperlipidemia on Atherogenesis in Rabbits by Thymoquinone. Evid.Based Complement Alternat.Med 12-29-2009; View abstract.

Ragheb, A., Attia, A., Eldin, W. S., Elbarbry, F., Gazarin, S., and Shoker, A. The protective effect of thymoquinone, an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, against renal injury: a review. Saudi J Kidney Dis.Transpl. 2009;20(5):741-752. View abstract.

Ramadan, M. F. and Morsel, J. T. Characterization of phospholipid composition of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seed oil. Nahrung 2002;46(4):240-244. View abstract.

Ramadan, M. F., Kroh, L. W., and Morsel, J. T. Radical scavenging activity of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) crude seed oils and oil fractions. J Agric.Food Chem. 11-19-2003;51(24):6961-6969. View abstract.

Rathee PS and et al. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil, fixed oil and unsaponifiable matter of Nigella sativa Linn. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (India) 1982;(44):8-10.

Ravindran, J., Nair, H. B., Sung, B., Prasad, S., Tekmal, R. R., and Aggarwal, B. B. Thymoquinone poly (lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles exhibit enhanced anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, and chemosensitization potential. Biochem.Pharmacol. 6-1-2010;79(11):1640-1647. View abstract.

Raza M and et al. Beneficial interaction of thymoquinone and sodium valproate in experimental models of epilepsy: Reduction in hepatotoxicity of valproate. Scientia Pharmaceutica (Austria) 2006;74:159-173.

Rchid, H., Chevassus, H., Nmila, R., Guiral, C., Petit, P., Chokairi, M., and Sauvaire, Y. Nigella sativa seed extracts enhance glucose-induced insulin release from rat-isolated Langerhans islets. Fundam.Clin Pharmacol. 2004;18(5):525-529. View abstract.

Reindl, W., Yuan, J., Kramer, A., Strebhardt, K., and Berg, T. Inhibition of polo-like kinase 1 by blocking polo-box domain-dependent protein-protein interactions. Chem.Biol. 2008;15(5):459-466. View abstract.

Reiter, M. and Brandt, W. Relaxant effects on tracheal and ileal smooth muscles of the guinea pig. Arzneimittelforschung. 1985;35(1A):408-414. View abstract.

Richards, L. R., Jones, P., Benghuzzi, H., and Tucci, M. A comparison of the morphological changes associated with conventional and sustained treatment with pigallocatechin3gallate, thymoquinone, and tannic acid on lncap cells. Biomed.Sci Instrum. 2008;44:465-470. View abstract.

Richards, L. R., Jones, P., Hughes, J., Benghuzzi, H., and Tucci, M. LNCaP cells exposed to ceramic drug delivery treatment with epigallocatechin-3-gallate, thymoquinone, and tannic acid. Biomed.Sci Instrum. 2007;43:242-247. View abstract.

Roepke, M., Diestel, A., Bajbouj, K., Walluscheck, D., Schonfeld, P., Roessner, A., Schneider-Stock, R., and Gali-Muhtasib, H. Lack of p53 augments thymoquinone-induced apoptosis and caspase activation in human osteosarcoma cells. Cancer Biol.Ther 2007;6(2):160-169. View abstract.

Rooney, S. and Ryan, M. F. Effects of alpha-hederin and thymoquinone, constituents of Nigella sativa, on human cancer cell lines. Anticancer Res. 2005;25(3B):2199-2204. View abstract.

Salama, R. B. Sterols in the seed oil of Nigella sativa. Planta Med 1973;24(4):375-377. View abstract.

Saleem R and et al. Proximate analysis and fatty acid composition of Nigella sativa (Kalonji) seed oil growing in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 2007;50:308-312.

Salem, M. L. and Hossain, M. S. Protective effect of black seed oil from Nigella sativa against murine cytomegalovirus infection. Int J Immunopharmacol. 2000;22(9):729-740. View abstract.

Salih, B., Sipahi, T., and Donmez, E. O. Ancient nigella seeds from Boyali Hoyuk in north-central Turkey. J Ethnopharmacol. 7-30-2009;124(3):416-420. View abstract.

Salim, E. I. and Fukushima, S. Chemopreventive potential of volatile oil from black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seeds against rat colon carcinogenesis. Nutr Cancer 2003;45(2):195-202. View abstract.

Salomi, M. J., Nair, S. C., and Panikkar, K. R. Inhibitory effects of Nigella sativa and saffron (Crocus sativus) on chemical carcinogenesis in mice. Nutr Cancer 1991;16(1):67-72. View abstract.

Sangi, S., Ahmed, S. P., Channa, M. A., Ashfaq, M., and Mastoi, S. M. A new and novel treatment of opioid dependence: Nigella sativa 500 mg. J Ayub.Med Coll.Abbottabad. 2008;20(2):118-124. View abstract.

Sathisha, U. V., Jayaram, S., Harish Nayaka, M. A., and Dharmesh, S. M. Inhibition of galectin-3 mediated cellular interactions by pectic polysaccharides from dietary sources. Glycoconj.J 2007;24(8):497-507. View abstract.

Sayed, A. A. and Morcos, M. Thymoquinone decreases AGE-induced NF-kappaB activation in proximal tubular epithelial cells. Phytother.Res 2007;21(9):898-899. View abstract.

Sayed, A. A. Thymoquinone protects renal tubular cells against tubular injury. Cell Biochem.Funct. 2008;26(3):374-380. View abstract.

Scholz, M., Lipinski, M., Leupold, M., Luftmann, H., Harig, L., Ofir, R., Fischer, R., Prufer, D., and Muller, K. J. Methyl jasmonate induced accumulation of kalopanaxsaponin I in Nigella sativa. Phytochemistry 2009;70(4):517-522. View abstract.

Sener B and et al. Study with the seed oil of Nigella sativa. Gazi Univ.Eczacilik Fak.Derg. 1985;2:1-7.

Sethi, G., Ahn, K. S., and Aggarwal, B. B. Targeting nuclear factor-kappa B activation pathway by thymoquinone: role in suppression of antiapoptotic gene products and enhancement of apoptosis. Mol.Cancer Res 2008;6(6):1059-1070. View abstract.

Shafei, M. N., Boskabady, M. H., and Parsaee, H. Effect of aqueous extract from Nigella sativa L. on guinea pig isolated heart. Indian J Exp.Biol. 2005;43(7):635-639. View abstract.

Shafi, G., Munshi, A., Hasan, T. N., Alshatwi, A. A., Jyothy, A., and Lei, D. K. Induction of apoptosis in HeLa cells by chloroform fraction of seed extracts of Nigella sativa. Cancer Cell Int 2009;9:29. View abstract.

Shoieb, A. M., Elgayyar, M., Dudrick, P. S., Bell, J. L., and Tithof, P. K. In vitro inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in cancer cell lines by thymoquinone. Int J Oncol. 2003;22(1):107-113. View abstract.

Singh, B. B., Khorsan, R., Vinjamury, S. P., Der-Martirosian, C., Kizhakkeveettil, A., and Anderson, T. M. Herbal treatments of asthma: a systematic review. J Asthma 2007;44(9):685-698. View abstract.

Soleimani, H., Ranjbar, A., Baeeri, M., Mohammadirad, A., Khorasani, R., Yasa, N., and Abdollahi, M. Rat Plasma Oxidation Status After Nigella Sativa L. Botanical Treatment in CCL(4)-Treated Rats. Toxicol.Mech.Methods 2008;18(9):725-731. View abstract.

Steinmann, A., Schatzle, M., Agathos, M., and Breit, R. Allergic contact dermatitis from black cumin (Nigella sativa) oil after topical use. Contact Dermatitis 1997;36(5):268-269. View abstract.

Stern T and et al. Black seed oil ointment - A new approach for the treatment of atopic dermatitis? Aktuelle Dermatologie 2002;28(3):74-79.

Suboh, S. M., Bilto, Y. Y., and Aburjai, T. A. Protective effects of selected medicinal plants against protein degradation, lipid peroxidation and deformability loss of oxidatively stressed human erythrocytes. Phytother.Res. 2004;18(4):280-284. View abstract.

Suddek, G. M. Thymoquinone-induced relaxation of isolated rat pulmonary artery. J Ethnopharmacol. 2-3-2010;127(2):210-214. View abstract.

Swamy, S. M. and Huat, B. T. Intracellular glutathione depletion and reactive oxygen species generation are important in alpha-hederin-induced apoptosis of P388 cells. Mol.Cell Biochem 2003;245(1-2):127-139. View abstract.

Takada, M. On the metabolic detoxication of 4-iodothymol in man. J Toxicol.Sci 1978;3(1):51-56. View abstract.

Tan, M., Norwood, A., May, M., Tucci, M., and Benghuzzi, H. Effects of (-)epigallocatechin gallate and thymoquinone on proliferation of a PANC-1 cell line in culture. Biomed.Sci Instrum. 2006;42:363-371. View abstract.

Tangyuenyongwatana, P. and Gritsanapan, W. A study on artifacts formation in the Thai traditional medicine Prasaplai. Planta Med 2008;74(11):1403-1405. View abstract.

Tangyuenyongwatana, P., Kowapradit, J., Opanasopit, P., and Gritsanapan, W. Cellular transport of anti-inflammatory pro-drugs originated from a herbal formulation of Zingiber cassumunar and Nigella sativa. Chin Med 2009;4:19. View abstract.

Tardy, F., Benghuzzi, H., and Tucci, M. The role of thymoquinone and epigallocatechin-3-gallate on the viability of mrc-5 fibroblasts in culture - biomed 2009. Biomed.Sci Instrum. 2009;45:42-47. View abstract.

Tauseef, Sultan M., Butt, M. S., and Anjum, F. M. Safety assessment of black cumin fixed and essential oil in normal Sprague Dawley rats: Serological and hematological indices. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2009;47(11):2768-2775. View abstract.

Tekeoglu, I., Dogan, A., and Demiralp, L. Effects of thymoquinone (volatile oil of black cumin) on rheumatoid arthritis in rat models. Phytother.Res 2006;20(10):869-871. View abstract.

Tekeoglu, I., Dogan, A., Ediz, L., Budancamanak, M., and Demirel, A. Effects of thymoquinone (volatile oil of black cumin) on rheumatoid arthritis in rat models. Phytother.Res. 2007;21(9):895-897. View abstract.

Thabrew, M. I., Mitry, R. R., Morsy, M. A., and Hughes, R. D. Cytotoxic effects of a decoction of Nigella sativa, Hemidesmus indicus and Smilax glabra on human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Life Sci. 8-5-2005;77(12):1319-1330. View abstract.

Toama, M. A., El Alfy, T. S., and El Fatatry, H. M. Antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil of Nigella sativa Linneaus seeds. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 1974;6(2):225-226. View abstract.

Toppozada, H. H., Mazloum, H. A., and el Dakhakhny, M. The antibacterial properties of the Nigella sativa l. seeds. Active principle with some clinical applications. J.Egypt.Med.Assoc. 1965;48:Suppl-202. View abstract.

Turkdogan, M. K., Agaoglu, Z., Yener, Z., Sekeroglu, R., Akkan, H. A., and Avci, M. E. The role of antioxidant vitamins (C and E), selenium and Nigella sativa in the prevention of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in rabbits: new hopes. Dtsch.Tierarztl.Wochenschr. 2001;108(2):71-73. View abstract.

Turkdogan, M. K., Ozbek, H., Yener, Z., Tuncer, I., Uygan, I., and Ceylan, E. The role of Urtica dioica and Nigella sativa in the prevention of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Phytother.Res 2003;17(8):942-946. View abstract.

Uz, E., Bayrak, O., Uz, E., Kaya, A., Bayrak, R., Uz, B., Turgut, F. H., Bavbek, N., Kanbay, M., and Akcay, A. Nigella sativa oil for prevention of chronic cyclosporine nephrotoxicity: an experimental model. Am.J Nephrol. 2008;28(3):517-522. View abstract.

Vahdati-Mashhadian, N., Rakhshandeh, H., and Omidi, A. An investigation on LD50 and subacute hepatic toxicity of Nigella sativa seed extracts in mice. Pharmazie 2005;60(7):544-547. View abstract.

Vance, S. H., Benghuzzi, H., Wilson-Simpson, F., and Tucci, M. Thymoquinone supplementation and its effect on kidney tubule epithelial cells in vitro. Biomed.Sci Instrum. 2008;44:477-482. View abstract.

Wienkotter, N., Hopner, D., Schutte, U., Bauer, K., Begrow, F., el Dakhakhny, M., and Verspohl, E. J. The effect of nigellone and thymoquinone on inhibiting trachea contraction and mucociliary clearance. Planta Med 2008;74(2):105-108. View abstract.

Wilkins, R., Tucci, M., and Benghuzzi, H. Evaluation of raw 264.7 macrophages treated with epigallocatechin-3-gallate and thymoquinone - biomed 2009. Biomed.Sci Instrum. 2009;45:346-351. View abstract.

Wilson-Simpson, F., Vance, S., and Benghuzzi, H. Physiological responses of ES-2 ovarian cell line following administration of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), thymoquinone (TQ), and selenium (SE). Biomed.Sci Instrum. 2007;43:378-383. View abstract.

Womack, K., Anderson, M., Tucci, M., Hamadain, E., and Benghuzzi, H. Evaluation of bioflavonoids as potential chemotherapeutic agents. Biomed.Sci Instrum. 2006;42:464-469. View abstract.

Xuan, N. T., Shumilina, E., Qadri, S. M., Gotz, F., and Lang, F. Effect of thymoquinone on mouse dendritic cells. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2010;25(2-3):307-314. View abstract.

Yaman, I. and Balikci, E. Protective effects of nigella sativa against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Exp.Toxicol.Pathol. 2010;62(2):183-190. View abstract.

Yar, T., El Hariri, M., El Bahai, M. N., and Bamosa, A. O. Effects of Nigella sativa supplementation for one month on cardiac reserve in rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2008;52(2):141-148. View abstract.

Yi, T., Cho, S. G., Yi, Z., Pang, X., Rodriguez, M., Wang, Y., Sethi, G., Aggarwal, B. B., and Liu, M. Thymoquinone inhibits tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth through suppressing AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways. Mol.Cancer Ther 2008;7(7):1789-1796. View abstract.

Yildiz, F., Coban, S., Terzi, A., Ates, M., Aksoy, N., Cakir, H., Ocak, A. R., and Bitiren, M. Nigella sativa relieves the deleterious effects of ischemia reperfusion injury on liver. World J Gastroenterol. 9-7-2008;14(33):5204-5209. View abstract.

Yildiz, F., Coban, S., Terzi, A., Savas, M., Bitiren, M., Celik, H., and Aksoy, N. Protective effects of Nigella sativa against ischemia-reperfusion injury of kidneys. Ren Fail. 2010;32(1):126-131. View abstract.

Zaoui, A., Cherrah, Y., Alaoui, K., Mahassine, N., Amarouch, H., and Hassar, M. Effects of Nigella sativa fixed oil on blood homeostasis in rat. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;79(1):23-26. View abstract.

Zaoui, A., Cherrah, Y., Lacaille-Dubois, M. A., Settaf, A., Amarouch, H., and Hassar, M. [Diuretic and hypotensive effects of Nigella sativa in the spontaneously hypertensive rat]. Therapie 2000;55(3):379-382. View abstract.

Zaoui, A., Cherrah, Y., Mahassini, N., Alaoui, K., Amarouch, H., and Hassar, M. Acute and chronic toxicity of Nigella sativa fixed oil. Phytomedicine 2002;9(1):69-74. View abstract.

Akhtar MS, Riffat S. Field trial of Saussurea lappa roots against nematodes and Nigella sativa seeds against cestodes in children. J Pak Med Assoc 1991;41:185-7. View abstract.

Aqel M, Shaheen R. Effects of the volatile oil of black seed seeds on the uterine smooth muscle of rat and guinea pig. J Ethnopharmacol 1996;52:23-6. View abstract.

Badary OA, Al-Shabanah OA, Nagi MN, et al. Inhibition of benzo(a)pyrene-induced forestomach carcinogenesis in mice by thymoquinone. Eur J Cancer Prev 1999;8:435-40. View abstract.

Chakravarty N. Inhibition of histamine release from mast cells by nigellone. Ann Allergy 1993;70:237-42. View abstract.

Daba MH, Abdel-Rahman MS. Hepatoprotective activity of thymoquinone in isolated rat hepatocytes. Toxicol Lett 1998;95:23-9. View abstract.

Dehkordi FR, Kamkhah AF. Antihypertensive effect of Nigella sativa seed extract in patients with mild hypertension. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2008;22:447-52. View abstract.

Hanafy MS, Hatem ME. Studies on the antimicrobial activity of Black seed seed (black cumin). J Ethnopharmacol 1991;34:275-8. View abstract.

Haq A, Abdullatif M, Lobo PI, et al. Black seed: effect on human lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocyte phagocytic activity. Immunopharmacology 1995;30:147-55. View abstract.

Haqqaq EG, Abou-Moustafa MA, Boucher W, Theoharides TC. The effect of a herbal water-extract on histamine release from mast cells and on allergic asthma. J Herb Pharmacother 2003;3:41-54. View abstract.

Houghton PJ, Zarka R, de las Heras B, Hoult JR. Fixed oil of Black seed and derived thymoquinone inhibit eicosanoid generation in leukocytes and membrane lipid peroxidation. Planta Med 1995;61:33-6. View abstract.

Keshri G, Singh MM, Lakshmi V, Kamboj VP. Post-coital contraceptive efficacy of the seeds of Black seed in rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1995;39:59-62. View abstract.

Medenica RD. Use of Black seed to increase immune function. U.S. Patent 5,482,711, issued January 9, 1996. Obtained from US Patent and Trademark Ofc on April 12, 2000.

Nagi MN, Alam K, Badary OA, et al. Thymoquinone protects against carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity in mice via an antioxidant mechanism. Biochem Mol Biol Int 1999;47:153-9. View abstract.

Sabzghabaee AM, Dianatkhah M, Sarrafzadegan N, et al. Clinical evaluation of Nigella sativa seeds for the treatment of hyperlipidemia: a randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial. Medicinski Arhiv 2012;66(3):198-200. View abstract.

Salomi NJ, Nair SC, Jayawardhanan KK, et al. Antitumour principles from Black seed seeds. Cancer Lett 1992;63:41-6. View abstract.

Tennekoon KH, Jeevathayaparan S, Kurukulasooriya AP, Karunanayake EH. Possible hepatotoxicity of Nigella sativa seeds and Dregea volubilis leaves. J Ethnopharmacol 1991;31:283-9. View abstract.

Worthen DR, Ghosheh OA, Crooks PA. The in vitro anti-tumor activity of some crude and purified components of blackseed, Black seed L. Anticancer Res 1998;18(3A):1527-32. View abstract.