- More Information
What is bipolar disorder?
Bipolar disorder is a mental illness, specifically one of the affective (mood) disorders. It is characterized by severe mood swings, at least one episode of mania and may include repeated episodes of depression.
This illness afflicts more than 1% of adults in the United States, up to as many as 4 million people. Some additional facts and statistics about bipolar disorder include the following:
- Bipolar disorder is the fifth leading cause of disability worldwide.
- Bipolar disorder is the ninth leading cause of years lost to death or disability worldwide.
- The number of individuals with bipolar disorder who commit suicide is 60 times higher than that of the general population.
- There seems to be no increase in involvement with violent crime for people with bipolar disorder compared to the general population except for those bipolar disorder sufferers that also suffer from an alcohol or other substance use disorder.
- People who have bipolar disorder are at a higher risk of also suffering from substance abuse such as alcoholism as well as other mental health problems.
- A number of medical problems tend to co-occur with bipolar disorder, including some pain and neurological and genetic disorders.
- Males may develop bipolar disorder earlier in life compared to females.
What are the types of bipolar disorder?
Bipolar disorder has several types, including:
Depending on how rapidly the mood swings occur, the episodes of bipolar disorder can also be described as having mixed (mood-disordered episodes that last less than the usual amount of time required for the diagnosis) features or rapid cycling (four or more mood-disordered episodes per year) features.
About two-fifths of people with bipolar disorder have at least one period of rapid cycling throughout their lifetime.
For every type and duration of the illness, the sufferer experiences significant problems with his or her functioning at school, at work, socially, or otherwise in their community, may need hospitalization, or may have psychotic symptoms (for example, delusions or hallucinations).
- Bipolar I disorder diagnosis requires that the individual has at least one manic episode but does not require a history of major depression.
- Bipolar II disorder is diagnosed if the person has experienced at least one episode of major depression and at least one episode of hypomania (a milder form of mania).
Cyclothymic disorder is characterized by at least two years in adults, or one year in children and adolescents, of episodes of having symptoms of depression and episodes of hypomanic symptoms that do not qualify for having either a full major depressive, manic, or hypomanic episode.
Mixed features are defined as meeting full diagnostic criteria for a manic episode while also suffering from at least three symptoms of a depressive episode, or meeting full diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode while also suffering from at least three symptoms of a manic or hypomanic episode.
People who suffer from significant, debilitating seasonal mood changes year after year may be classified as having a seasonal pattern to their bipolar disorder.
What are bipolar disorder symptoms and signs?
As indicated in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-V), to qualify for the diagnosis of bipolar disorder, a person must experience at least one manic episode. Characteristics of mania must last at least a week (unless it is part of mixed features) and include:
- Elevated, expansive, or irritable mood
- Racing thoughts
- Pressured speech (rapid, excessive, and frenzied speaking)
- Decreased need for sleep
- Grandiose ideas (for example, false beliefs of superiority or failure)
- Tangential speech (repeatedly changing conversational topics to topics that are hardly related)
- Restlessness/increased goal-directed activity
- Impulsivity, poor judgment, or engaging in risky activity (like spending sprees, promiscuity, or excess desire for sex)
Although a major depressive episode is not required for the diagnosis of bipolar disorder, such episodes often alternate with manic episodes. Persistent sadness tends to occur more often than mania in many people with bipolar disorder.
Characteristics of depressive episodes (bipolar depression) include a number of the following symptoms:
- Persistently depressed or irritable mood
- Feelings of apprehension
- Frequent crying, inability to feel pleasure
- Loss of interest in previously pleasurable activities
- Apathy, low motivation
- Increased or decreased appetite, weight loss, or weight gain
- Difficulty falling asleep
- Excess sleepiness, agitation, or lack of activity
- Fatigue/low energy
- Feelings of worthlessness
- Lack of concentration
- Slowness in activity and thought
- Inappropriate feelings of guilt
- Thoughts of death, self-harm, or suicidal thoughts, plans, or actions.
What are bipolar disorder causes and risk factors?
One frequently asked question about bipolar disorder is if it is hereditary. As with most other mental disorders, bipolar disorder is not directly passed from one generation to another genetically. Rather, it is the result of a complex group of genetic, psychological, and environmental vulnerabilities.
- Genetically, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia have much in common, in that the two disorders share a number of the same risk genes. However, both illnesses also have some unique genetic risk factors.
- Other mental health disorders, like anxiety and behavior disorders, can increase the likelihood of developing bipolar disorder.
- Stress is a significant contributor to the development of most mental health conditions, including bipolar disorder. For example, gay, lesbian, and bisexual people are thought to experience increased emotional struggles associated with the multiple social stressors that are linked to coping with societal reactions to their sexuality. People who have similar stress levels are equally prone to developing bipolar disorder regardless of nationality, race, or socioeconomic status.
How is bipolar disorder diagnosed?
As is true with virtually any mental health diagnosis, no one test definitively assesses that someone has bipolar disorder. Therefore, healthcare clinicians, like psychiatrists and clinical psychologists, diagnose this disease by gathering comprehensive medical, family, and mental health information.
The healthcare professional will also either perform a physical examination or request that the individual's primary care doctor perform one. The medical examination will usually include lab tests to evaluate the person's general health and to explore whether or not the individual has mental health symptoms like:
- Agitated depression
- Rarely paranoia or other symptoms of psychosis that are associated with a medical condition
In asking questions about mental health symptoms, mental health professionals are often exploring if the individual suffers from depression and/or manic disorders, but also anxiety, substance abuse, hallucinations or delusions, as well as some personality and behavioral disorders.
Healthcare professionals may provide the people they evaluate with a quiz or self-test as a screening tool for bipolar disorder and other mood disorders.
Since some of the symptoms of bipolar disorder can also occur in other mental illnesses, the mental health screening is to determine if the individual suffers from bipolar disorder, a depressive disorder, or the less severe symptoms of depression and hypomania associated with cyclothymia.
Any disorder that is associated with sudden changes in behavior, mood, or thinking, like a psychotic disorder, borderline personality disorder, or multiple personality disorder (MPD), may be particularly challenging to distinguish from bipolar disorder. To assess the person's current emotional state, healthcare professionals perform a mental status examination, as well.
Subscribe to MedicineNet's General Health Newsletter
What is the treatment for bipolar disorder?
Many people, whether they suffer from bipolar disorder or any medical or other mental illness, understandably wonder how they might help themselves to have the best outcome of treatment. While there is no cure for bipolar disorder, medications and psychotherapies remain the mainstays of treatment of this illness.
Medications that treat bipolar disorder
In terms of the overall approach to treatment, people with bipolar disorder can expect their mental health professionals to consider several medical interventions in the form of medications, psychotherapies, and lifestyle advice.
Treatment of bipolar disorder with medications (psychopharmacology) tends to address two aspects:
- Relieving already existing symptoms of the manic or depressive phases of the illness
- Preventing symptoms from returning
Antipsychotic medications are thought to be particularly effective in treating manic and mixed symptoms. Antipsychotic drugs belong to a group of medications called neuroleptics and are known for having the ability to work quickly (in 1-2 weeks) compared to many other psychiatric medications.
Mood-stabilizer medications as well as antiseizure (anticonvulsant) medications can be useful in treating active (acute) symptoms of manic or mixed episodes, as well as preventing the return of such symptoms. These medications may take a bit longer to work compared to the neuroleptic medications and some require monitoring of medication blood levels.
Antidepressant medications are the primary medical treatment for the depressive symptoms of bipolar disorder. Examples of antidepressants that are commonly prescribed for that purpose include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonergic/adrenergic medications (SNRIs). While antidepressant medication remains a mainstay of treatment for the sadness of bipolar disorder, the prescribing physician will remain watchful since there is some risk that antidepressants can induce a manic or near-manic (hypomanic) episode or the rapid mood-cycling pattern of symptoms.
Despite its stigmatized history, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can be a viable treatment for people whose bipolar disorder is severe and has inadequately responded to psychotherapies and several drug trials. Transmagnetic stimulation (TMS) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of mildly resistant depression and is thought to be a helpful addition to medication in the treatment of bipolar disorder in individuals who have not responded to at least one trial of medication. However, it is not yet considered to be an adequate treatment for this illness by itself.
Talk therapy (psychotherapy) is an important part of helping individuals who are living with bipolar disorder achieve the highest level of functioning possible by improving ways of coping with the illness from day to day, as well as on a long-term basis. These interventions are therefore seen by some as being forms of occupational therapy for people with bipolar disorder.
Psychotherapy may also engage people with bipolar disorder who prefer to receive treatment without medication. While medications can be quite helpful in alleviating and preventing overt symptoms, they do not address the many complex social and psychological issues that can play a major role in how the person with this disease functions at work, at home, and in his or her relationships.
Since about 60% of people with bipolar disorder take less than 30% of their medications as prescribed, any supports that can promote compliance with treatment and otherwise promote the health of individuals in this population are valuable.
Psychotherapies that are effective in treating bipolar disorder include:
- Family-focused therapy
- Cognitive behavioral therapy
- Interpersonal therapy
- Social rhythm therapy
Family-focused therapy involves the education of family members about the disorder and how to provide appropriate support (psycho-education) to their loved ones. This intervention also includes communication-enhancement training and problem-solving skills training for family members.
Psycho-education involves teaching the person with bipolar disorder and their family members about the symptoms of full-blown depressive and manic symptoms, as well as warning signs (for example, feeling sad, change in sleep pattern or appetite, general discontent, change in activity level, or increased irritability) that the person is beginning to experience either a mood episode or the triggers for mood episodes (like lack of sleep, use of alcohol or other drugs, exposure to severe stress).
In cognitive behavioral therapy, the clinician works to help the person with bipolar disorder identify, challenge, and decrease negative thinking and otherwise dysfunctional belief systems that may impair their functioning relationships and self-esteem.
The goal of interpersonal therapy tends to be identifying and managing problems the sufferers of bipolar disorder may have in their relationships with others.
Social rhythm therapy encourages the stability of sleep-wake cycles, to prevent or alleviate the sleep disturbances often associated with this disorder.
What is the prognosis of bipolar disorder?
While the prognosis for bipolar disorder indicates that individuals with this disorder can expect to experience episodes of some sort of mood problem (like depression, mania, or hypomania) up to 60% of the time, those episodes can be well managed by the combination of psychotherapy and medication treatment.
Clinical trials indicate that people who have a mixed pattern of symptoms can be more difficult to stabilize with treatment and have a more problematic course than those who do not have mixed episodes. Individuals who were misdiagnosed with other mental illnesses, thereby delaying treatment for bipolar disorder, are at risk for a longer, more difficult duration of illness.
There are several potential complications of bipolar disorder, particularly if left untreated. This illness may be compounded by other mental health problems including substance abuse and addiction, whether it be to legal substances like alcohol or tobacco, prescription medications, or illicit drugs like heroin or cocaine.
Bipolar disorder sufferers tend to experience thinking (cognitive) problems and those who are repeatedly hospitalized psychiatrically have more trouble functioning throughout life. The risk of committing suicide is 60 times higher for people with bipolar disorder compared to the general population. That may be partly due to the chronic emotional pain that some people with this disorder experience, in that they endure years of depressive and manic symptoms, the consequences of their actions during those disease states, as well as potentially longing for the increased energy and sense of well-being of mania that may be quelled by psychiatric medications.
As with people with other mood disorders, those with bipolar disorder are at higher risk for developing a medical illness and for having a higher number of medical illnesses than people who do not have a mental illness. Bipolar disorder is the fifth leading cause of disability and the ninth leading cause of years lost to death or disability worldwide.
Is it possible to prevent bipolar disorder?
While far more seems to be known about the prevention of symptoms of bipolar disorder following its diagnosis, there is emerging research about ways to attempt to decrease the development of the full-blown disease altogether. For example, when family-focused therapy is provided to children who have more subtle symptoms preceding bipolar disorder and who have bipolar relatives, they may be less likely to develop the full-blown disorder as adults.
Where can people find more information about bipolar disorder?
Depression and Related Affective Disorders Association
2330 West Joppa Road, Suite 100
Lutherville, MD 21093
National Federation of Families for Children's Mental Health
9605 Medical Center Drive
Rockville, MD 20850
National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI)
3803 N. Fairfax Dr., Suite 100
Arlington, VA 22203
Member services: 888-999-NAMI (6264)
National Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance (DBSA)
730 N. Franklin Street, Suite 501
Chicago, Illinois 60654-7225
National Foundation for Depressive Illness, Inc.
PO Box 2257
New York, NY 10116
National Institute of Mental Health
9000 Rockville Pike
Bethesda, Maryland 20892
Mental Health America
2000 N. Beauregard Street, 6th Floor
Alexandria, VA 22311
Toll free: 800-969-6642
Albanese, M.J., S.E. Nelson, A.J. Peller, and H.J. Shaffer. "Bipolar Disorder as a Risk Factor for Repeat DUI Behavior." Journal of Affective Disorders 121.3 Mar. 2010.
Altshuler, L.L., R.W. Kupka, G. Hellemann, et al. "Gender and depressive symptoms in 711 patients with bipolar disorder evaluated prospectively in the Stanley foundation bipolar treatment outcome network." American Journal of Psychiatry 167 (2010): 708-715.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, Treatment Revision. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc., 2013.
Andreescu, C., B.H. Mulsant, and J.E. Emanuel. "Complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of bipolar disorder – A review of the evidence." Journal of Affective Disorders 110.1 Sept. 2008: 16-26.
Birmaher, B., D. Axelson, B. Goldstein, et al. "Four-Year Longitudinal Course of Children and Adolescents With Bipolar Spectrum Disorders: The Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth (COBY) Study." American Journal of Psychiatry 166 (2009): 795-804.
Carter, G., D.M. Reith, I.M. Whyte, and M. McPherson. "Repeated Self-Poisoning: Increasing Severity of Self-Harm as a Predictor of Subsequent Suicide." The British Journal of Psychiatry 186 (2005): 253-257.
Chou, J.C.Y. "Treatment-Resistant Bipolar Disorder: A Review of Psychotherapeutic Approaches." Psychiatric Times 26.8 July 2009.
Cohen, L.S. "Treatment of Bipolar Disorder During Pregnancy." Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 68.9 (2007): 4-9.
Fazel, S., P. Lichtenstein, M. Grann, et al. "Bipolar disorder and violent crime: new evidence from population-based longitudinal studies and systematic review." Archives of General Psychiatry 67.9 Sept. 2010: 931-938.
Forty, L., A. Ulanova, L. Jones, et al. "Comorbid medical illness in bipolar disorder." The British Journal of Psychiatry 205.6 December 2014: 465-472.
Frank, E., I. Soreca, H.A. Swartz, et al. "The Role of Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy in Improving Occupational Functioning in Patients With Bipolar Disorder." American Journal of Psychiatry 165 (2008): 1559-1565.
Geller, B., R. Tillman, K. Bolhofner, and B. Zimmerman. "Child Bipolar I Disorder: Prospective Continuity With Adult Bipolar I Disorder; Characteristics of Second and Third Episodes; Predictors of 8-Year Outcome." Archives of General Psychiatry 65.10 Oct. 2008: 1125-1133.
Gentile, S. "Antipsychotic Therapy During Early and Late Pregnancy. A Systemic Review." Schizophrenia Bulletin 36.3 Sept. 11, 2008. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Ghaemi, S.N. "Treatment of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder: Are antidepressants mood destabilizers?" American Journal of Psychiatry 165 (2008): 300-302.
Hirschfeld, R.M.A. Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Bipolar Disorder. Arlington: American Psychiatric Association, 2005.
Hirschfeld, R.M.A, A.R. Cass, D.C. Holt, and C.A. Carlson. "Screening for Bipolar Disorder in Patients Treated for Depression in a Family Medicine Clinic." The Journal of the American Board of Family Practice 18 (2005): 233-239.
Keaton, D., N. Lamkin, K.A. Cassidy, et al. "Utilization of Herbal and Nutritional Compounds Among Older Adults With Bipolar Disorder and With Major Depression." International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 24 (2009): 1087-1093.
Kennedy, N., J. Boydell, S. Kalidindi, et al. "Gender Differences in Incidence and Age at Onset of Mania and Bipolar Disorder Over a 35 Year Period in Camberwell, England." American Journal of Psychiatry 162 Feb. 2005: 257-262.
Kennedy, N., P. Fearon, J. Kirkbride, et al. "Incidence of Bipolar Affective Disorder in Three UK Cities." The British Journal of Psychiatry 186 (2005): 126-131.
Krishnan, K.R.R. "Psychiatric and medical comorbidities of bipolar disorder." Psychosomatic Medicine 67 (2005): 1-8.
Kucyi, A., M.T. Alsuwaidan, S.S. Liauw, and R.S. McIntyre. "Aerobic physical exercise as a possible treatment for neurocognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder." Postgraduate Medicine 122.6 Nov. 2010: 107-116.
Kupfer, D.J. "The increasing medical burden in bipolar disorder." Journal of the American Medical Association 2005.
Lee, S., A. Tsang, R.C. Kessler, et al. "Rapid-cycling bipolar disorder: cross-national community study." The British Journal of Psychiatry 196 (2010): 217-225.
MacCabe, J.H., M.P. Lambe, S. Cnattingius, et al. "Excellent School Performance at Age 16 and Risk of Adult Bipolar Disorder: National Cohort Study." The British Journal of Psychiatry 196 (2010): 109-115.
Marangoni, C., G.L. Faedda, and R.J. Baldessarini. "Clinical and environmental risk factors for bipolar disorder: review of prospective studies." Harvard Review of Psychiatry 26.1 January/February 2018: 1-7.
Marazziti, D., and B. Dell'Osso. "Topiramate Plus Citalopram in the Treatment of Compulsive-Impulsive Sexual Behaviors." Clinical Practice and Epidemiological Mental Health 2 (2006): 9.
Meyer, I.H. "Prejudice, Social Stress, and Mental Health in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Populations: Conceptual Issues and Research Evidence." Psychological Bulletin 129.5 Sept. 2003: 674-697.
Miklowitz, D.J., and K.D. Chang. "Prevention of Bipolar Disorder in At-Risk Children: Theoretical Assumptions and Empirical Foundations." Developmental Psychopathology 20.3 (2008): 881-897.
Muneer, A. "Mixed states in bipolar disorder: etiology, pathogenesis and treatment." Chonnam Medical Journal 53.1 January 2017: 1-13.
Neves, F.S., L.F. Malloy-Diniz, and H. Correa. "Suicidal Behavior in Bipolar Disorder: What Is the Influence of Psychiatric Comorbidities?" Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 70.1 Jan. 2009: 13-18.
Porter, R. Madness : A Brief History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
President and Fellows of Harvard College. "Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder May Share Genetic Origins." Harvard Mental Health Lett 25.12 June 2009: 7.
Rondeau, H. "Our Lost Children: Bipolar Disorder and the Church." Journal of Psychology and Christianity 22.2 (2003): 123-130.
Sagman, D., and M. Tohen. "Comorbidity in Bipolar Disorder: The Complexity of Diagnosis and Treatment." Psychiatric Times 26.4 Mar. 2009.
Steinkuller, A., and J.E. Rheineck. "A Review of Evidence-Based Therapeutic Interventions for Bipolar Disorder." Journal of Mental Health Counseling 31.4 Oct. 2009: 338-350.
Tauman, L., K. Gonca, and N. Ozpoyraz. "Comorbidity of Adult Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Bipolar Disorder: Prevalence and Clinical Correlates." European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 258 (2008): 385-393.
Taylor, M., R.A. Bressan, P.P. Neto, and E. Brietzke. "Early intervention for bipolar disorder: current imperatives, future directions." Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria 33(suppl II) (2011): S197-S204.
Tohen, M., K.N.R. Chengappa, and T. Suppes. "Relapse prevention in Bipolar I Disorder: 18-Month Comparison of Olanzapine Plus Mood Stabilizer v. Mood Stabilizer Alone." The British Journal of Psychiatry 184 (2004): 337-345.
Trede, K., P. Salvatore, C. Baethge, et al. "Manic-Depressive Illness: Evolution in Kraepelin's Textbook, 1883-1926." Harvard Review of Psychiatry May/June 2005: 155-178.
United States. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff: Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Systems. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration July 2011.
Valenti, M., A. Benabarre, M. Garcia-Amador, et al. "Electroconvulsive Therapy in the Treatment of Mixed States in Bipolar Disorder." European Psychiatry 23.1 Jan. 2008: 53-56.
Wagner, K.D., R.A. Kowatch, G.J. Emslie, et al. "A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Oxcarbazepine in the Treatment of Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents." American Journal of Psychiatry 163 July 2006: 1179-1186.
Zhang, L., X. Yu, Y.R. Fang, et al. "Duration of untreated bipolar disorder: a multicenter study." Scientific Reports 7 (2017).
Top Bipolar Disorder Related Articles
Adult ADHD SlideshowMost people don't associate adults with the term ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) but it is a common disorder in adulthood. Learn about symptoms, tests, treatment and medications for ADHD.
Anxiety DisordersAnxiety is a feeling of apprehension and fear characterized by symptoms such as trouble concentrating, headaches, sleep problems, and irritability. Anxiety disorders are serious medical illnesses that affect approximately 19 million American adults. Treatment for anxiety may incorporate medications and psychotherapy.
Bipolar Disorder (Mania) QuizWho is at risk for developing bipolar disorder? Are you? Take this Bipolar Disorder Quiz to learn more about bipolar disorder, if you're at risk, and what you can do about it.
What Is Bipolar Disorder? Symptoms, Manic Episodes, TestingBipolar disorder (formerly "manic depression") causes extreme mood shifts and manic episodes. Learn about bipolar 1, bipolar 2, and the meaning of bipolar disorder. Our experts define bipolar disorder, discuss bipolar symptoms, and describe bipolar medications that can help.
Breastfeeding (and Formula Feeding)It's important to know whether you will breastfeed or bottle-feed your baby prior to delivery, as the breasts' ability to produce milk diminishes soon after childbirth without the stimulation of breastfeeding. Breast milk is easily digested by babies and contains infection-fighting antibodies and cholesterol, which promotes brain growth. Formula-fed babies actually need to eat somewhat less often since formula is less readily digested by the baby than human milk. This article explores the advantages and disadvantages of both forms of feeding.
CancerCancer is a disease caused by an abnormal growth of cells, also called malignancy. It is a group of 100 different diseases, and is not contagious. Cancer can be treated through chemotherapy, a treatment of drugs that destroy cancer cells.
Depression QuizMany people do not recognize the symptoms and warning signs of depression and depressive disorders in children and adults. With proper diagnosis, treatments and medications are available. Take this quiz to learn more about recovery from depression.
Drug Abuse and AddictionDrug abuse and addiction is a chronic disease that causes drug-seeking behavior and drug use despite negative consequences to the user and those around him. Though the initial decision to use drugs is voluntary, changes in the brain caused by repeated drug abuse can affect a person's self-control and ability to make the right decisions and increase the urge to take drugs. Drug abuse and addiction are preventable.
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) involves passing an electrical current through the brain to produce controlled seizures. ECT is useful for patients with severe depression and for those who are suicidal. ECT is administered in a hospital setting under anesthesia. A common side effect is short-term memory loss.
Genetic DiseasesThe definition of a genetic disease is a disorder or condition caused by abnormalities in a person's genome. Some types of genetic inheritance include single inheritance, including cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, Marfan syndrome, and hemochromatosis. Other types of genetic diseases include multifactorial inheritance. Still other types of genetic diseases include chromosome abnormalities (for example, Turner syndrome, and Klinefelter syndrome), and mitochondrial inheritance (for example, epilepsy and dementia).
Happiness QuizTake the Happiness Quiz! Plenty of people live in pleasant, fulfilling satisfaction. Is it sex or money that factors into happier lives and long-term bliss? Take the quiz and find out for yourself!
Panic AttacksPanic attacks are sudden feelings of terror that strike without warning. These episodes can occur at any time, even during sleep. A person experiencing a panic attack may believe that he or she is having a heart attack or that death is imminent. The fear and terror that a person experiences during a panic attack are not in proportion to the true situation and may be unrelated to what is happening around them. Most people with panic attacks experience several of the following symptoms: racing heartbeat, faintness, dizziness, numbness or tingling in the hands and fingers, chills, chest pains, difficulty breathing, and a feeling of loss or control. There are several treatments for panic attacks.
What's Schizophrenia? Symptoms, Types, Causes, TreatmentWhat is the definition of schizophrenia? What is paranoid schizophrenia? Read about schizophrenia types and learn about schizophrenia symptoms, signs, and treatment options.
StressStress is a normal part of life, but chronic or severe stress can be harmful to your health. Learn what happens in your body when you are stressed and how you can manage your response.
Symptoms of 12 Serious Diseases and Health ProblemsLearn how to recognize early warning signs and symptoms of serious diseases and health problems, for example, chronic cough, headache, chest pain, nausea, stool color or consistency changes, heartburn, skin moles, anxiety, nightmares, suicidal thoughts, hallucinations, delusions, lightheadedness, night sweats, eye problems, confusion, depression, severe pelvic or abdominal pain, unusual vaginal discharge, and nipple changes.
The symptoms and signs of serious health problems can be caused by strokes, heart attacks, cancers, reproductive problems in females (for example, cancers, fibroids, endometriosis, ovarian cysts, and sexually transmitted diseases or STDs), breast problems (for example, breast cancer and non-cancer related diseases), lung diseases (for example, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD, lung cancer, emphysema, and asthma), stomach or digestive diseases (for example, cancers, gallbladder, liver, and pancreatic diseases, ulcerative colitis, or Crohn's disease), bladder problems (for example, urinary incontinence, and kidney infections), skin cancer, muscle and joint problems, emotional problems or mental illness (for example, postpartum depression, major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mania, and schizophrenia), and headache disorders (for example, migraines, or "the worst headache of your life), and eating disorders and weight problems (for example, anorexia or bulimia).
What Are the Types of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)?Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a form of psychotherapy. It helps people manage their emotional and behavioral problems by changing the way they perceive the world and react to it.