- What other names is Biotin known by?
- What is Biotin?
- Is Biotin effective?
- How does Biotin work?
- Are there safety concerns?
- Are there any interactions with medications?
- Dosing considerations for Biotin.
Biotina, Biotine, Biotine-D, Coenzyme R, D-Biotin, Vitamin B7, Vitamin H, Vitamine B7, Vitamine H, W Factor, Cis-hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-thieno[3,4-d]-imidazole-4-valeric Acid.
Biotin is a vitamin that is found in small amounts in numerous foods.
Biotin is used for preventing and treating biotin deficiency associated with pregnancy, long-term tube feeding, malnutrition, and rapid weight loss. It is also used orally for hair loss, brittle nails, skin rash in infants (seborrheic dermatitis), diabetes, and mild depression.
Biotin can effectively treat and prevent biotin deficiency. But biotin deficiency is very rare and taking supplements is not usually necessary.
There is some scientific evidence that it might help for brittle finger and toenails.
Likely Effective for...
- Treating and preventing biotin deficiency. Symptoms of deficiency include thinning of the hair (often with loss of hair color), and red scaly rash around the eyes, nose, and mouth. Other symptoms include depression, listlessness, hallucinations, and tingling in the arms and legs. There is some evidence that cigarette smoking may cause mild biotin deficiency.
Possibly Ineffective for...
- Skin rash in infants (seborrheic dermatitis).
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Hair loss. There is some preliminary evidence that hair loss can be reduced when biotin is taken by mouth in combination with zinc while a cream containing the chemical compound clobetasol propionate (Olux, Temovate) is applied to the skin.
- Diabetes. Biotin alone doesn't seem to affect blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes. However, there is some evidence that a combination of biotin and chromium (Diachrome, Nutrition 21) might lower blood sugar in people with diabetes, whose diabetes is poorly controlled by prescription medicines. Other early evidence shows that the same combination reduces ratios of total cholesterol levels to “good” high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, “bad” low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, and non-HDL to HDL cholesterol in people with type 2 diabetes.
- Diabetic nerve pain. There is some evidence that biotin can reduce nerve pain in people with diabetes.
- Brittle fingernails and toenails. Biotin might increase the thickness of fingernails and toenails in people with brittle nails.
- Other conditions.
Biotin is an important component of enzymes in the body that break down certain substances like fats, carbohydrates, and others.
There isn't a good laboratory test for detecting biotin deficiency, so this condition is usually identified by its symptoms, which include thinning of the hair (frequently with loss of hair color) and red scaly rash around the eyes, nose, and mouth. Nervous system symptoms include depression, exhaustion, hallucinations, and tingling of the arms and legs. There is some evidence that diabetes could result in biotin deficiency.
Biotin is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken appropriately and by mouth. Biotin is well tolerated when used at recommended dosages. It is POSSIBLY SAFE when injected into the muscles and used appropriately.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Biotin is POSSIBLY SAFE when used in recommended amounts during pregnancy and breast-feeding.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) substrates)Interaction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Biotin might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking biotin along with some medications that are changed by the liver might increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking biotin, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.
Some of these medications that are changed by the liver include clozapine (Clozaril), cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril), fluvoxamine (Luvox), haloperidol (Haldol), imipramine (Tofranil), mexiletine (Mexitil), olanzapine (Zyprexa), pentazocine (Talwin), propranolol (Inderal), tacrine (Cognex), theophylline, zileuton (Zyflo), zolmitriptan (Zomig), and others.
The appropriate dose of biotin depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for biotin. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.
There is no recommended dietary allowance (RDA) established for biotin. The adequate intakes (AI) for biotin are 7 mcg for infants 0-12 months, 8 mcg for children 1-3 years, 12 mcg for children 4-8 years, 20 mcg for children 9-13 years, 25 mcg for adolescents 14-18 years, 30 mcg for adults over 18 years and pregnant women, and 35 mcg for breast-feeding women.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
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Mock DM, Quirk JG, Mock NI. Marginal biotin deficiency during normal pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:295-9. View abstract.
Mock NI, Malik MI, Stumbo PJ, et al. Increased urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid and decreased urinary excretion of biotin are sensitive early indicators of decreased status in experimental biotin deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65:951-8. View abstract.
Rathman SC, Eisenschenk S, McMahon RJ. The abundance and function of biotin-dependent enzymes are reduced in rats chronically administered carbamazepine. J Nutr 2002;132:3405-10. View abstract.
Rivera JA, González-Cossío T, Flores M, et al. Multiple micronutrient supplementation increases the growth of Mexican infants. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Nov;74:657-63. View abstract.
Rodriguez-Melendez R, Griffin JB, Zempleni J. Biotin supplementation increases expression of the cytochrome P450 1B1 gene in Jurkat cells, increasing the occurrence of single-stranded DNA breaks. J Nutr. 2004 Sep;134:2222-8. View abstract.
Roth K.S. Biotin in clinical medicine--a review. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981 Sep;34:1967-74. View abstract.
Said HM, Redha R, Nylander W. Biotin transport in the human intestine: inhibition by anticonvulsant drugs. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;49:127-31. View abstract.
Said HM. Biotin: the forgotten vitamin. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75:179-80. View abstract.
Schulpis KH, Georgala S, Papakonstantinou ED, et al. The effect of isotretinoin on biotinidase activity. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol. 1999 Jan-Apr;12:28-33. View abstract.
Sealey WM, Teague AM, Stratton SL, Mock DM. Smoking accelerates biotin catabolism in women. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:932-5. View abstract.
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Spencer RP and Brody KR. Biotin transport by small intestine of rat, hamster, and other species. Am J Physiol. 1964 Mar;206:653-7. View abstract.
Zempleni J, Helm RM, Mock DM. In vivo biotin supplementation at a pharmacologic dose decreases proliferation rates of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and cytokine release. J Nutr 2001;131:1479-84. View abstract.
Zempleni J, Mock DM. Bioavailability of biotin given orally to humans in pharmacologic doses. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:504-8. View abstract.
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Zempleni J, Wijeratne SS, Hassan YI. Biotin. Biofactors. 2009 Jan-Feb;35:36-46. View abstract.