- What Are They?
- Side Effects
- Drug Interactions
What is the difference between beta blockers and calcium channel blockers?
- Beta blockers and calcium channel blockers are used to treat angina (chest pain), high blood pressure, and abnormal heart rhythms, and to prevent migraine headaches.
- Examples of beta blockers include acebutolol (Sectral), atenolol (Tenormin), betaxolol (Kerlone, Betoptic S), bisoprolol fumarate (Zebeta), carvedilol (Coreg), esmolol (Brevibloc), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL), nadolol (Corgard), nebivolol (Bystolic), penbutolol (Levatol), propranolol (Hemangeol, Inderal LA, Inderal XL, InnoPran XL), sotalol (Betapace, Sorine), and timolol ophthalmic (Timoptic, Betimol, Istalol).
- Examples of calcium channel blockers include amlodipine (Norvasc), amlodipine and atorvastatin (Caduet), amlodipine and benazepril (Lotrel), amlodipine and valsartan (Exforge), amlodipine and telmisartan (Twynsta), amlodipine and olmesartan (Azor), amlodipine and olmesartan and hydroclorothiazide (Tribenzor), amlodipine and aliskiren and hydroclorothiazide, amlodipine and perindopril (Prestalia), clevidipine (Cleviprex), diltiazem (Cardizem), felodipine (Cardene, Cardene SR), isradipine, nicardipine, nimodipine, nisoldipine (Sular), and verapamil (Calan).
- Side effects of beta blockers and calcium channel blockers that are similar include nausea, rash, and sexual dysfunction.
- Side effects of beta blockers that are different from calcium channel blockers include diarrhea, stomach cramps, vomiting, blurred vision, disorientation, insomnia, hair loss, weakness, muscle cramps, and fatigue.
- Side effects of calcium channel blockers that are different from beta blockers include constipation, headache, edema (swelling of the legs and feet), low blood pressure, drowsiness, dizziness, liver dysfunction, and over growth of the gums.
- Sudden withdrawal from beta blockers may worsen angina (chest pain) and cause heart attacks, serious abnormal heart rhythms, or sudden death.
What are beta blockers and calcium channel blockers?
What do beta blockers do?
Beta blockers, also called beta adrenergic blocking agents, block the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and epinephrine (adrenaline) from binding to beta receptors on nerves, which can reduce the heart rate and reduce blood pressure by dilating blood vessels.
- Beta blockers are used to treat high blood pressure, heart failure, angina (chest pain), abnormal heart rhythms, tremors, pheochromocytoma, hypertrophic subaortic stenosis, migraine headache prevention, hyperthyroidism, akathisia (restlessness or inability to sit still), panic disorder, anxiety, eye pressure caused by glaucoma, and aggressive behavior.
- Beta blockers can also prevent further heart attacks and death after a heart attack.
What do calcium channel blockers (CCBs) do?
Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) dilate the arteries, reducing pressure within and making it easier for the heart to pump blood, and, as a result, the heart needs less oxygen.
- By reducing the heart's need for oxygen, calcium channel blockers relieve or prevent angina (chest pain).
- Calcium channel blockers also are used for treating high blood pressure, certain types of abnormally rapid heart rhythms, pulmonary hypertension, Raynaud's syndrome, cardiomyopathy, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and to prevent migraine headaches.
What are the side effects of beta blockers vs. calcium channel blockers?
Beta blockers may cause:
Other important side effects include:
Central nervous system effects of beta blockers include:
Beta blockers that block β2 receptors may cause shortness of breath in asthmatics.
Other serious side effects of beta-blockers include:
- Toxic epidermal necrolysis
- Raynaud's phenomenon
- Lupus erythematosus
- Serious allergic reactions
- Erythema multiform
- Steven Johnson Syndrome
Calcium channel blockers
The most common side effects of calcium channel blockers are:
- Edema (swelling of the legs and feet with fluid)
- Low blood pressure
Liver dysfunction and over growth of the gums also occurs.
When diltiazem (Cardizem) or verapamil (Calan, Isoptin) are given to individuals with heart failure, symptoms of heart failure may worsen because these drugs reduce the ability of the heart to pump blood.
Like other blood pressure medications, calcium channel blockers are associated with sexual dysfunction.
What drugs interact with beta blockers and calcium channel blockers?
Beta blocker drug interactions
- Combining propranolol (Inderal) or pindolol (Visken) with thioridazine (Mellaril) or chlorpromazine (Thorazine) may result in low blood pressure (hypotension) and abnormal heart rhythms because the drugs interfere with each other's elimination and result in increased levels of the drugs.
- Dangerous elevations in blood pressure may occur when clonidine (Catapres) is combined with a beta blocker, or when clonidine or beta blocker is discontinued after their concurrent use. Blood pressure should be closely monitored after initiation or discontinuation of clonidine or a beta blocker when they have been used together.
- Phenobarbital and similar agents may increase the breakdown and reduce blood levels of propanolol (Inderal) or metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL). This may reduce effectiveness of the beta blocker.
- Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (for example, ibuprofen) may counteract the blood pressure reducing effects of beta blockers by reducing the effects of prostaglandins, which play a role in control of blood pressure.
- Beta blockers may prolong hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) and mask symptoms of hypoglycemia in diabetics who are taking insulin or other diabetic medications.
Calcium channel blocker drug interactions
- Most of the interactions of calcium channel blockers occur with verapamil (Calan, Isoptin) or diltiazem (Cardizem). The interaction occurs because verapamil and diltiazem decrease the elimination of a number of drugs by the liver. Through this mechanism, verapamil and diltiazem may reduce the elimination and increase the blood levels of carbamazepine (Tegretol), simvastatin (Zocor), atorvastatin (Lipitor), and lovastatin (Mevacor). This can lead to toxicity from these drugs.
- Grapefruit juice (approximately 200 ml) may elevate blood concentrations of felodipine (Plendil), verapamil (Calan, Isoptin), nisoldipine (Sular), nifedipine (Adalat, Procardia), nicardipine (Cardene), and possibly amlodipine (Norvasc). Grapefruit juice should not be consumed within 2 hours before or 4 hours after administration of affected calcium channel blockers.
What are the different types of beta blockers and calcium channel blockers?
Beta blockers list
- acebutolol (Sectral)
- atenolol (Tenormin)
- betaxolol (Kerlone)
- betaxolol (Betoptic S)
- bisoprolol fumarate (Zebeta)
- carteolol (Cartrol, discontinued)
- carvedilol (Coreg)
- esmolol (Brevibloc)
- labetalol (Trandate [Normodyne - discontinued])
- metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL)
- nadolol (Corgard)
- nebivolol (Bystolic)
- penbutolol (Levatol)
- pindolol (Visken, discontinued)
- propranolol (Hemangeol, Inderal LA, Inderal XL, InnoPran XL)
- sotalol (Betapace, Sorine)
- timolol (Blocadren, discontinued)
- timolol ophthalmic solution (Timoptic, Betimol, Istalol)
Calcium channel blockers list
The calcium channel blockers that have been approved for use in the US include:
- amlodipine (Norvasc)
- amlodipine and atorvastatin (Caduet)
- amlodipine and benazepril (Lotrel)
- amlodipine and valsartan (Exforge)
- amlodipine and telmisartan (Twynsta)
- amlodipine and olmesartan (Azor)
- amlodipine and olmesartan and hydroclorothiazide (Tribenzor)
- amlodipine and aliskiren and hydroclorothiazide
- amlodipine and perindopril (Prestalia)
- clevidipine (Cleviprex)
- diltiazem (Cardizem)
- felodipine (Cardene, Cardene SR)
- nisoldipine (Sular)
- verapamil (Calan)
IMAGESBrowse through our medical image collection to see illustrations of human anatomy and physiology See Images
Beta blockers and calcium channel blockers are medications used to treat high blood pressure, angina (chest pain), and abnormal heart rhythms, and to prevent migraine headaches. Beta blockers and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) both dilate the blood vessels through different mechanisms, reducing pressure within and making it easier for the heart to pump blood.
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Related Disease Conditions
What Is the Normal Blood Pressure Range?
Blood pressure is the force applied by the blood over the inner walls of the arteries. Although the average blood pressure for a person remains constant, it shows minor fluctuations throughout the day—declining while relaxing and momentarily increasing while being excited or under stress. An increase in resting blood pressure can scar, stiffen, or harden the arteries.
Why Is My Bottom Blood Pressure Number High?
Isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) occurs when your systolic blood pressure is normal, and only your diastolic blood pressure is high (over 80 mm Hg). Causes of high diastolic blood pressure include a high-sodium diet, obesity, lack of physical activity, excessive alcohol consumption, stress and anxiety.
How to Lower My Blood Pressure Immediately
If you face any complications of high blood pressure such as a stroke or heart attack, contact your physician without any delay. Do not attempt home remedies in such grave situations. If you have high blood pressure, without any complications, the first thing to do is to calm down and lie flat.
How Can I Lower My Blood Pressure in Minutes?
Learn how to lower your high blood pressure quickly and how to better manage this condition.
High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)
High blood pressure (hypertension) is a disease in which pressure within the arteries of the body is elevated. About 75 million people in the US have hypertension (1 in 3 adults), and only half of them are able to manage it. Many people do not know that they have high blood pressure because it often has no has no warning signs or symptoms. Systolic and diastolic are the two readings in which blood pressure is measured. The American College of Cardiology released new guidelines for high blood pressure in 2017. The guidelines now state that blood normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg. If either one of those numbers is higher, you have high blood pressure. The American Academy of Cardiology defines high blood pressure slightly differently. The AAC considers 130/80 mm Hg. or greater (either number) stage 1 hypertension. Stage 2 hypertension is considered 140/90 mm Hg. or greater. If you have high blood pressure you are at risk of developing life threatening diseases like stroke and heart attack.REFERENCE: CDC. High Blood Pressure. Updated: Nov 13, 2017.
Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)
Low blood pressure, also referred to as hypotension, is blood pressure that is so low that it causes symptoms or signs due to the low flow of blood through the arteries and veins. Some of the symptoms of low blood pressure include light-headedness, dizziness, and fainting if not enough blood is getting to the brain. Diseases and medications can also cause low blood pressure. When the flow of blood is too low to deliver enough oxygen and nutrients to vital organs such as the brain, heart, and kidneys; the organs do not function normally and may be permanently damaged.
What Is Considered Stroke-Level High Blood Pressure?
Blood pressure readings above 180/120 mmHg are considered stroke-level, dangerously high, and require immediate medical attention.
Is 120 Over 60 a Good Blood Pressure Reading?
If your systolic blood pressure is normal (between 100-120), and your diastolic blood pressure is lower (60 or below), you are considered to have low blood pressure, or isolated diastolic hypotension. Low diastolic blood pressure should be monitored closely.
What Does it Mean When the Bottom Number of Your Blood Pressure is Over 100?
Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) is the pressure exerted on the walls of the arteries when the heart muscle relaxes between beats. When the bottom number of blood pressure (diastole) is over 100 mmHg, it may be called diastolic hypertension (DHT). Diastolic blood pressure means the blood pressure reading during the phase when your heart relaxes (diastole). Force of the blood against the walls of the arteries (the blood vessels carrying blood from the heart to other sites) in the body is called blood pressure. The heart pumps the blood into the arteries as it contracts (systole).
How Do You Check Your Blood Pressure With Your Fingers?
Most doctors recommend the use of a blood pressure machine to check blood pressure. An individual may check heart rate with their fingers, but not blood pressure.
What Causes Low Diastolic Blood Pressure?
A diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of somewhere between 60 and 90 mm Hg is good in older people. Causes of low DBP include bed rest, dehydration, loss of water, alcohol use, hormone deficiencies, allergic reactions, nutritional deficiencies and prolonged standing leading to blood pooling in the legs.
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How Is Diastolic Hypertension Treated?
Diastolic hypertension, where only your diastolic blood pressure is elevated, may be treated with lifestyle changes such as weight loss, reducing your sodium intake or alcohol consumption, and quitting smoking. Medications may be prescribed in more severe cases.
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Can Drinking Water Lower Your Blood Pressure?
Keeping well hydrated by drinking six to eight glasses of water daily (even more if working in hot and humid conditions) is beneficial for the blood pressure. High blood pressure (BP) or hypertension is a condition caused by the persistent high pressure of blood against the walls of arteries. It is also called systolic pressure (constantly greater than 139 mmHg) or diastolic pressure (constantly more than 89 mmHg).
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What Is the Blood Pressure of a Very Fit Person?
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Which Blood Pressure Number Is the Most Important?
The blood that flows through the arteries (blood vessels carrying blood from the heart to other parts of the body) exerts pressure against the arterial walls. The number above (120) is called the systolic blood pressure and the number below (80) is called the diastolic blood pressure. Though both readings are important, many doctors believe that systolic blood pressure is a better predictor of complications of hypertension, such as heart disease or stroke.
Which Is More Important: Systolic or Diastolic Blood Pressure?
Systolic blood pressure is often given more attention as a risk factor for heart disease. However, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure are equally important in monitoring the health of your heart.
Atrial Fibrillation (AFib) Treatment Drugs
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Angina is chest pain due to inadequate blood supply to the heart. Angina symptoms may include chest tightness, burning, squeezing, and aching. Coronary artery disease is the main cause of angina but there are other causes. Angina is diagnosed by taking the patient's medical history and performing tests such as an electrocardiogram (EKG), blood test, stress test, echocardiogram, cardiac CT scan, and heart catheterization. Treatment of angina usually includes lifestyle modification, medication, and sometimes, surgery. The risk of angina can be reduced by following a heart healthy lifestyle.
What Causes Low Blood Pressure in Pregnancy?
Migraine headache is a type of headache associated with a sensitivity to light, smells, or sounds, eye pain, severe pounding on one side of the head, and sometimes nausea and vomiting. The exact cause of migraine headaches is not known. Triggers for migraine headaches include certain foods, stress, hormonal changes, strong stimuli (loud noises), and oversleeping. Treatment guidelines for migraines include medicine, pain management, diet changes, avoiding foods that trigger migraines, staying hydrated, getting adequate sleep, and exercising regularly. Prevention of migraine triggers include getting regular exercise, drinking water daily, reducing stress, and avoiding trigger foods.
Hypertension-Related Kidney Disease
Second Source WebMD Medical Reference
High Blood Pressure Treatment (Natural Home Remedies, Diet, Medications)
High blood pressure (hypertension) means high pressure (tension) in the arteries. Treatment for high blood pressure include lifestyle modifications (alcohol, smoking, coffee, salt, diet, exercise), drugs and medications such as ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta blockers, diuretics, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), alpha blockers, clonidine, minoxidil, and Exforge.
Is A Manual Blood Pressure More Accurate?
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How Do I Know If I Have High or Low Blood Pressure Numbers?
High or low blood pressure can lead to serious health conditions. Learn more about what you should do if your pressure is outside the ideal range.
Which ACE Inhibitor Is the Best for Hypertension?
The best ACE inhibitors for hypertension include Trandolapril, Enalapril, and Ramipril.
Why Does Alcohol Cause Hypertension?
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Portal hypertension is most commonly caused by cirrhosis, a disease that results from scarring of the liver. Other causes of portal hypertension include blood clots in the portal vein, blockages of the veins that carry the blood from the liver to the heart, and a parasitic infection called schistosomiasis. Symptoms of portal hypertension include varices (enlarged veins), vomiting blood, blood in the stool, black and tarry stool, ascites (abnormal fluid collection within the peritoneum, the sac that contains the intestines within the abdominal cavity), confusion and lethargy, splenomegaly or enlargement of the spleen, and decreased white blood cell counts.
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What is high blood pressure, and how do you lower it? Learn the signs of high blood pressure and what to do if your blood pressure numbers go above a healthy range.
What Are the Best Fruits for Lowering Blood Pressure?
The best fruits for lowering blood pressure include citrus fruits, berries, bananas, pomegranates, prunes, and melons.
Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension) Causes
Low blood pressure (hypotension) occurs when blood pressure drops below the normal range. Low blood pressure can be temporary, or it can be a chronic (long-lasting) condition.
Hypertensive Kidney Disease
High blood pressure can damage the kidneys and is one of the leading causes of kidney failure (end-stage renal kidney disease). Kidney damage, like hypertension, can be unnoticeable and detected only through medical tests. If you have kidney disease, you should control your blood pressure. Other treatment options include prescription medications.
Pulmonary hypertension is elevated pressure in the pulmonary arteries that carry blood from the lungs to the heart. The most common symptoms are fatigue and difficulty breathing. If the condition goes undiagnosed, more severe symptoms may occur. As pulmonary hypertension worsens, some people with the condition have difficulty performing any activities that require physical exertion. While there is no cure for pulmonary hypertension, it can be managed and treated with medications and supplemental oxygen to increase blood oxygen levels.
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What is normal blood pressure? Learn about normal blood pressure by age and the risk factors of hypertension.
Can High Blood Pressure Hurt My Eyes?
Unfortunately, yes. Suffering from untreated or poorly controlled high blood pressure for a long time can be detrimental to your eyes. Several eye diseases are directly or indirectly caused by high blood pressure (hypertension).
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What Are Abnormal Blood Pressure Number Ranges?
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Pseudotumor Cerebri (Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension)
Pseudotumor Cerebri (intracranial hypertension) is a condition where there is an increase in pressure of fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord (cerebrospinal fluid or CSF) mimicing a brain tumor. The cause is unknown. The most common symptom is headache but also include eye-pain, vision loss and double vision. Pseudotumor cerebri is diagnosed with MRI or CAT scans and treated by discontinuing offending medications (if applicable), weight loss and diuretic medications. The condition can also be helped by repeated drainage of spinal fluid using the lumbar puncture.
What Will Happen if Your Blood Pressure is Too High?
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Can I Check My Blood Pressure With My Phone?
The force of the blood against the walls of the blood vessels carrying blood from the heart to other sites in the body (the arteries) is called blood pressure. The heart pumps blood into the arteries as it contracts (systole).
What Are the New Blood Pressure Guidelines for Seniors?
Hypertension or high blood pressure (high BP) is a medical condition where the pressure in the blood vessels is persistently elevated. The heart pumps blood into the arteries, which circulate blood to all parts of the body. In cases of high blood pressure, the heart has to work harder to push the blood column ahead.
What Is “Normal” Blood Pressure?
Normal blood pressure is when the pressure is less than or upto 120/80 mmHg. The value 120 denotes the systolic pressure, and the value 80 denotes the diastolic pressure.
Preeclampsia (Pregnancy Induced Hypertension)
Preeclampsia is related to increased blood pressure and protein in the mother's urine. Preeclampsia typically begins after the 20th week of pregnancy. When preeclampsia causes seizures, it is termed "eclampsia" and is the second leading cause of maternal death of in the US. Preeclampsia is the leading cause of fetal complications. Risk factors for preeclampsia include high blood pressure, obesity, multiple births, and women with preexisting medical conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, or scleroderma. Pregnancy planning and lifestyle changes may reduce the risk of preeclampsia during pregnancy.
What Is the Proper Way to Take Your Blood Pressure?
Nowadays, you can easily measure your blood pressure at home using an automated blood pressure machine or sphygmomanometer. Here’s how to do it step-by-step to make sure you’re doing it the right way.
High Blood Pressure Symptoms
Most people with high blood pressure have no signs or symptoms, even if blood pressure readings reach dangerously high levels. In some patients, symptoms may include fatigue, headaches, dizziness, confusion, sweating, chest pain and vision problems.
Hypertension-Induced Chronic Kidney Disease
Hypertension-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a long-standing kidney condition that develops over time due to persistent or uncontrolled high blood pressure (hypertension).
Is Pseudotumor Cerebri the Same as Intracranial Hypertension?
Pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) is also called idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). The condition causes symptoms similar to a brain tumor.
How Does High Blood Pressure Affect Pregnancy?
High blood pressure during pregnancy can cause serious complications. Learn more about the signs of and risks associated with the condition.
What Is High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)?
High blood pressure or hypertension is when the blood pressure readings consistently range from 140 or higher for systolic or 90 or higher for diastolic. Blood pressure readings above 180/120 mmHg are dangerously high and require immediate medical attention.
What Can You Do For Treatment if Your Blood Pressure Is Too Low?
Learn what medical treatments can help with your low blood pressure and speed up your recovery.
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Medications & Supplements
- High Blood Pressure Drugs (Hypertension)
- betaxolol suspension - ophthalmic, Betoptic S
- timolol solution-gel - ophthalmic, Timoptic-XE
- labetalol - oral, Normodyne, Trandate
- amlodipine/benazepril - oral, Lotrel
- carvedilol - oral, Coreg
- atenolol - oral, Tenormin
- timolol/dorzolamide drops - ophthalmic, Cosopt
- amlodipine - oral, Norvasc
- labetalol, Normodyne, Trandate
- carvedilol (Coreg)
- Calcium Channel Blockers (CCBs)
- amlodipine (Norvasc)
- sotalol, Betapace, Betapace AF, Sorine, Sotylize
- timolol ophthalmic solution (Timoptic)
- Sectral (acebutolol)
- amlodipine and valsartan (Exforge)
- Lotrel (amlodipine and benazepril)
- amlodipine/atorvastatin - oral, Caduet
- Types of High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Medications
- atenolol and chlorthalidone, Tenoretic
- timolol (Betimol)
- nimodipine - oral, Nymalize
- betaxolol, Kerlone (Discontinued Brand)
- betaxolol ophthalmic (Betoptic S, Betoptic)
- isradipine - oral, Dynacirc
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