Alcohol, Alcool, Bière, Cerveza, Ethanol, Éthanol.
Beer is an alcoholic drink.
Beer is used for preventing diseases of the heart and circulatory system, including coronary heart disease, “hardening of the arteries” (atherosclerosis), heart failure, heart attack, and stroke. It is also used to reduce the chance of death from heart attack and from another heart condition called ischemic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction.
Beer is also used for preventing decline of thinking skills in later life, Alzheimer's disease, weak bones (osteoporosis), gallstones, type 2 diabetes, heart disease in people with type 2 diabetes, kidney stones, prostate cancer, breast cancer, other cancers, and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. H. pylori is the bacterium that causes ulcers.
How does it work?
Beer is thought to help prevent heart disease by increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL), also known as "good cholesterol." Also, the vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) contained in beer can help lower homocysteine levels, a chemical considered to be one of the risk factors for heart disease.
Likely Effective for...
- Preventing diseases of the heart and circulatory system, such as heart attack, stroke, “hardening of the arteries” (atherosclerosis), and chest pain (angina). There is some evidence that drinking alcohol can benefit the heart. Drinking one alcoholic beverage per day or drinking alcohol on at least 3 to 4 days per week is a good rule of thumb for people who drink alcohol. But don't drink more than two drinks per day. More than two drinks daily can increase the risk of over-all death as well as dying from heart disease. Here is what researchers have found:
- Drinking alcoholic beverages, including beer, by healthy people seems to reduce the risk of developing heart disease. Moderate alcohol use (one to two drinks per day) reduces the risk of coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, and heart attack by approximately 30% to 50% when compared with nondrinkers.
- Light to moderate alcohol (one to two drinks per day) use reduces the risk of having the type of stroke that is caused by a clot in the blood vessel (ischemic stroke), but increases the risk of having the type of stroke caused by a broken blood vessel (hemorrhagic stroke).
- Light to moderate alcohol consumption (one to two drinks per day) in the year before a first heart attack is associated with a reduced cardiovascular and all-cause mortality risk compared with non-drinkers.
- In men with established coronary heart disease, consumption of 1-14 alcoholic drinks per week, including beer, doesn't seem to have any effect on heart disease or all-cause mortality compared with men who drink less than one drink per week. Drinking three or more drinks per day is associated with increased likelihood of death in men with a history of heart attacks.
- However, some early research suggests that dDrinking about 11 ounces of a a specific type of beer beverage (Maccabee beer) 330 mL daily for 30 days does not seem to reduce blood pressure or improve cholesterol in people with heart disease.
- Reducing the risk of dying from heart disease and stroke and other causes. There is some evidence that light to moderate consumption of alcoholic drinks can reduce the risk of death from any cause in people who are middle-aged and older.
Possibly Effective for...
- Maintaining thinking skills with aging. Elderly men who have a history of drinking one alcoholic drink per day seem to maintain better general thinking ability during their late 70s and 80s compared to non-drinkers. However, drinking more than four alcoholic drinks per day during middle age seems to be linked with significantly poorer thinking ability later in life.
- Congestive heart failure (CHF). There is some evidence that consuming one to four alcoholic drinks per day reduces the risk of heart failure in people aged 65 years or older.
- Diabetes. People who drink alcohol in moderate amounts seem to have a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes. People with diabetes who consume alcohol in moderate amounts seem to have a reduced risk of coronary heart disease compared with non-drinkers with type 2 diabetes. The risk reduction is similar to that found in healthy people who consume light to moderate amounts of alcohol.
- Preventing ulcers caused by a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori. There is some evidence that moderate to high consumption of alcohol (more than 75 grams) per week from beverages such as beer and wine can reduce the risk of H. pylori infection.
Possibly Ineffective for...
- Reducing the risk of death from cancer. Although drinking wine has been linked with some reductions in cancer mortality, drinking beer does not seem to have this effect. In fact, there is some evidence that drinking beer might slightly increase cancer-related death. There is some evidence that drinking one or more alcoholic drinks might increase the likelihood of death from breast cancer.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Preventing Alzheimer's disease. Developing evidence suggests one to two alcoholic drinks per day can reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease in both men and women compared to non-drinkers.
- Anxiety. The effect of alcohol on anxiety is complicated and may be affected by the psychological state of the user. Alcohol sometimes reduces anxiety, sometimes increases it, and sometimes has no effect.
- Weak bones (osteoporosis). There is some developing evidence that suggests moderate alcohol consumption in women who have passed menopause is linked with stronger bones. Alcohol intake of one-half to one drink per day seems to have the greatest effect on bone strength compared with non-drinkers and heavy drinkers of alcohol.
- Preventing prostate cancer.
- Preventing breast cancer.
- Preventing gallstones.
- Preventing kidney stones.
- Stimulating appetite and digestion.
- Other conditions.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Beer is LIKELY SAFE for most people when used in moderation. This translates to two or fewer 12 ounce glasses a day. Drinking more than this at one sitting is POSSIBLY UNSAFE and can cause a lot of side effects, including: flushing, confusion, trouble controlling emotions, blackouts, loss of coordination, seizures, drowsiness, trouble breathing, hypothermia, low blood sugar, vomiting, diarrhea, bleeding, irregular heartbeat, and others.
Long-term use can lead to alcohol dependence and can cause many serious side effects, including: malnutrition, memory loss, mental problems, heart problems, liver failure, swelling (inflammation) of the pancreas, cancers of the digestive track, and others.
Alcohol is also LIKELY UNSAFE to drink when breast-feeding. Alcohol passes into breast milk and can cause abnormal development of skills that involve both mental and muscular coordination, such as the ability to turn over. Alcohol can also disturb the infant's sleep pattern. Despite a rumor to the contrary, alcohol also seems to reduce milk production.
Heart conditions: While there is some evidence that drinking beer in moderation might help to prevent congestive heart failure, beer is harmful when used by someone who already has this condition. Using alcohol can make chest pain and congestive heart failure worse.
Neurological conditions: Drinking alcohol can make certain disorders of the nervous system worse.
A condition of the pancreas called pancreatitis: Drinking alcohol can make pancreatitis worse.
Mental problems: Drinking three or more drinks of alcohol per day can make mental problems worse and reduce thinking skills.
Surgery: Beer can slow down the central nervous system. There is a concern that combining beer with anesthesia and other medications used during and after surgery might slow the central nervous system down too much. Stop drinking beer at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
Disulfiram (Antabuse)Interaction Rating: Major Do not take this combination.
The body breaks down the alcohol in beer to get rid of it. Disulfiram (Antabuse) decreases how fast the body breaks down alcohol. Drinking beer and taking disulfiram (Antabuse) can cause a pounding headache, vomiting, flushing, and other unpleasant reactions. Don't drink any alcohol if you are taking disulfiram (Antabuse).
ErythromycinInteraction Rating: Major Do not take this combination.
The body breaks down the alcohol in beer to get rid of it. Erythromycin can decrease how quickly the body gets rid of alcohol. Drinking beer and taking erythromycin might increase the effects and side effects of alcohol.
Medications that can harm the liver (Hepatotoxic drugs)Interaction Rating: Major Do not take this combination.
The alcohol in beer can harm the liver. Drinking beer and taking medications that can harm the liver can increase the risk of liver damage. Do not drink beer if you are taking a medication that can harm the liver.
Some medications that can harm the liver include acetaminophen (Tylenol and others), amiodarone (Cordarone), carbamazepine (Tegretol), isoniazid (INH), methotrexate (Rheumatrex), methyldopa (Aldomet), fluconazole (Diflucan), itraconazole (Sporanox), erythromycin (Erythrocin, Ilosone, others), phenytoin (Dilantin) , lovastatin (Mevacor), pravastatin (Pravachol), simvastatin (Zocor), and many others.
Sedative medications (CNS depressants)Interaction Rating: Major Do not take this combination.
The alcohol in beer might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness and drowsiness are called sedative medications. Drinking beer and taking sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness and other serious side effects.
Warfarin (Coumadin)Interaction Rating: Major Do not take this combination.
Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. The alcohol in beer can interact with warfarin (Coumadin). Drinking large amounts of alcohol can change the effectiveness of warfarin (Coumadin). Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.
Antibiotics (Sulfonamide antibiotics)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
AspirinInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Aspirin can sometimes damage the stomach and cause ulcers and bleeding. The alcohol in beer can also damage the stomach. Taking aspirin along with beer might increase the chance of ulcers and bleeding in the stomach. Beer might also decrease how much aspirin the body absorbs. This might reduce the efficacy of aspirin. Avoid taking beer and aspirin together.
Cefamandole (Mandol)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
The alcohol in beer can interact with cefamandole (Mandol). This can lead to upset stomach, vomiting, sweating, headache, and an increased heartbeat. Do not drink beer while taking cefamandole (Mandol).
Cefoperazone (Cefobid)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
The alcohol in beer can interact with cefoperazone (Cefobid). This can lead to upset stomach, vomiting, sweating, headache, and an increased heartbeat. Do not drink beer while taking cefoperazone (Cefobid).
Chlorpropamide (Diabinese)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
The body breaks down the alcohol in beer to get rid of it. Chlorpropamide (Diabinese) might decrease how quickly the body breaks down alcohol. Drinking beer and taking chlorpropamide (Diabinese) might cause a headache, vomiting, flushing, and other unpleasant reactions. Don't drink beer if you are taking chlorpropamide (Diabinese).
Cisapride (Propulsid)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Cisapride (Propulsid) might decrease how quickly the body gets rid of the alcohol in beer. Taking cisapride (Propulsid) along with beer might increase the effects and side effects of the alcohol in beer.
Griseofulvin (Fulvicin)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
The body breaks down the alcohol in beer to get rid of it. Griseofulvin (Fulvicin) decreases how quickly the body breaks down alcohol. Drinking beer and taking griseofulvin (Fulvicin) can cause a pounding headache, vomiting, flushing, and other unpleasant reactions. Don't drink any alcohol if you are taking griseofulvin (Fulvicin).
Medications for pain (Narcotic drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
The body breaks down some medications for pain to get rid of them. The alcohol in beer might decrease how quickly the body gets rid of some medications for pain. Drinking beer and taking some medications for pain might increase the effects and side effects of some medications for pain.
Medications that decrease stomach acid (H2-blockers)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some medications that decrease stomach acid might interact with the alcohol in beer. Drinking beer and taking some medications that decrease stomach acid might increase how much alcohol the body absorbs, and increase the risk of side effects of alcohol.
Medications used for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
The alcohol in beer might increase blood pressure. Drinking beer along with medications used for lowering high blood pressure might decrease the efficacy of these medications. Do not drink too much beer if you are taking medications for high blood pressure.
Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), Amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDiuril), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.
Metformin (Glucophage)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Metformin (Glucophage) is broken down by the body in the liver. The alcohol in beer is also broken down in the body by the liver. Drinking beer and taking metformin might cause serious side effects.
Metronidazole (Flagyl)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
The alcohol in beer can interact with metronidazole (Flagyl). This can lead to upset stomach, vomiting, sweating, headache, and an increased heartbeat. Do not drink beer while taking metronidazole (Flagyl).
NSAIDs (Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
NSAIDs are anti-inflammatory medications used for decreasing pain and swelling. NSAIDs can sometimes damage the stomach and intestines and cause ulcers and bleeding. The alcohol in beer can also damage the stomach and intestines. Taking NSAIDs along with beer might increase the chance of ulcers and bleeding in the stomach and intestines. Avoid taking beer and NSAIDs together.
Phenytoin (Dilantin)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
The body breaks down phenytoin (Dilantin) to get rid of it. The alcohol in beer might increase how quickly the body breaks down phenytoin (Dilantin). Drinking beer and taking phenytoin (Dilantin) might decrease the effectiveness of phenytoin (Dilantin) and increase the possibility of seizures.
Sedative medications (Barbiturates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Barbiturates are drugs that cause sleepiness and drowsiness. The body breaks down barbiturates to get rid of them. The alcohol in beer might reduce the breakdown of barbiturates. This might increase the effects of barbiturates and cause too much sleepiness. Do not drink beer if you are taking barbiturates. Some of these medications include pentobarbital (Nembutal), phenobarbital (Luminal), secobarbital (Seconal), and others.
Sedative medications (Benzodiazepines)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Benzodiazepines are drugs that cause sleepiness and drowsiness. The body breaks down benzodiazepines to get rid of them. The alcohol in beer might reduce the breakdown of benzodiazepines. This might increase the effects of benzodiazepines and cause too much sleepiness. Do not drink beer if you are taking benzodiazepines.
Tolbutamide (Orinase)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
The body breaks down the alcohol in beer to get rid of it. Tolbutamide (Orinase) can decrease how quickly the body breaks down alcohol. Drinking beer and taking tolbutamide (Orinase) can cause a pounding headache, vomiting, flushing, and other unpleasant reactions. Don't drink beer if you are taking tolbutamide (Orinase).
IMAGESBrowse through our medical image collection to see illustrations of human anatomy and physiology See Images
Alcohol intake is often measured in number of "drinks." One drink is equivalent to a 4 oz or a 120 mL glass of wine, 12 oz of beer, or 1 oz of spirits.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For lowering the chance of developing heart disease or stroke: one or two 12 oz drinks of beer per day.
- For lowering the chance of developing heart failure: Up to four glasses per day.
- For a smaller reduction in thinking skills in older men: Up to one drink per day.
- For reduced risk of type 2 diabetes in healthy men: Three drinks per day to two drinks per week.
- For reducing the risk of coronary heart disease in people with type 2 diabetes: Up to seven drinks per week.
- For lowering a chance of developing Helicobacter pylori infection: Consuming 75 grams of alcohol from beverages such as beer. Helicobacter pylori are bacteria that cause stomach ulcers.
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Altieri, A., Bosetti, C., Gallus, S., Franceschi, S., Dal, Maso L., Talamini, R., Levi, F., Negri, E., Rodriguez, T., and La, Vecchia C. Wine, beer and spirits and risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer: a case-control study from Italy and Switzerland. Oral Oncol. 2004;40(9):904-909. View abstract.
Anderson, P., Cremona, A., Paton, A., Turner, C., and Wallace, P. The risk of alcohol. Addiction 1993;88(11):1493-1508. View abstract.
Balazs, T. and Herman, E. H. Toxic cardiomyopathies. Ann Clin Lab Sci 1976;6(6):467-476. View abstract.
Bechetoille, A., Ebran, J. M., Allain, P., and Mauras, Y. [Therapeutic affect of zinc sulfate on central scotoma due to optic neuropathy of alcohol and tobacco abuse]. J Fr.Ophtalmol. 1983;6(3):237-242. View abstract.
Beulens, J. W., Sierksma, A., Schaafsma, G., Kok, F. J., Struys, E. A., Jakobs, C., and Hendriks, H. F. Kinetics of homocysteine metabolism after moderate alcohol consumption. Alcohol Clin.Exp.Res. 2005;29(5):739-745. View abstract.
Bode, C. and Bode, J. C. Alcohol's role in gastrointestinal tract disorders. Alcohol Health Res World 1997;21(1):76-83. View abstract.
Boeing, H., Frentzel-Beyme, R., Berger, M., Berndt, V., Gores, W., Korner, M., Lohmeier, R., Menarcher, A., Mannl, H. F., Meinhardt, M., and . Case-control study on stomach cancer in Germany. Int J Cancer 4-1-1991;47(6):858-864. View abstract.
Bushman, B. J. and Cooper, H. M. Effects of alcohol on human aggression: an integrative research review. Psychol.Bull 1990;107(3):341-354. View abstract.
Carstensen, J. M., Bygren, L. O., and Hatschek, T. Cancer incidence among Swedish brewery workers. Int J Cancer 3-15-1990;45(3):393-396. View abstract.
Chao, C. Associations between beer, wine, and liquor consumption and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007;16(11):2436-2447. View abstract.
Christiansen, C., Thomsen, C., Rasmussen, O., Glerup, H., Berthelsen, J., Hansen, C., Orskov, H., and Hermansen, K. Acute effects of graded alcohol intake on glucose, insulin and free fatty acid levels in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 1993;47(9):648-652. View abstract.
Cleophas, T. J. Wine, beer and spirits and the risk of myocardial infarction: a systematic review. Biomed.Pharmacother. 1999;53(9):417-423. View abstract.
Colin, Slaughter J. The naturally occurring furanones: formation and function from pheromone to food. Biol Rev Camb.Philos.Soc 1999;74(3):259-276. View abstract.
Covas, M. I., Miro-Casas, E., Fito, M., Farre-Albadalejo, M., Gimeno, E., Marrugat, J., and De La Torre, R. Bioavailability of tyrosol, an antioxidant phenolic compound present in wine and olive oil, in humans. Drugs Exp Clin Res 2003;29(5-6):203-206. View abstract.
Croft, K. D., Puddey, I. B., Rakic, V., Abu-Amsha, R., Dimmitt, S. B., and Beilin, L. J. Oxidative susceptibility of low-density lipoproteins--influence of regular alcohol use. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1996;20(6):980-984. View abstract.
de, Gaetano G., Di, Castelnuovo A., Rotondo, S., Iacoviello, L., and Donati, M. B. A meta-analysis of studies on wine and beer and cardiovascular disease. Pathophysiol.Haemost.Thromb. 2002;32(5-6):353-355. View abstract.
De, Stefani E., Deneo-Pellegrini, H., Carzoglio, J. C., Ronco, A., and Mendilaharsu, M. Dietary nitrosodimethylamine and the risk of lung cancer: a case-control study from Uruguay. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1996;5(9):679-682. View abstract.
DeCaprio, A. P. The toxicology of hydroquinone--relevance to occupational and environmental exposure. Crit Rev Toxicol. 1999;29(3):283-330. View abstract.
Delves-Broughton, J., Blackburn, P., Evans, R. J., and Hugenholtz, J. Applications of the bacteriocin, nisin. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 1996;69(2):193-202. View abstract.
Dimmitt, S. B., Rakic, V., Puddey, I. B., Baker, R., Oostryck, R., Adams, M. J., Chesterman, C. N., Burke, V., and Beilin, L. J. The effects of alcohol on coagulation and fibrinolytic factors: a controlled trial. Blood Coagul.Fibrinolysis 1998;9(1):39-45. View abstract.
Eidelman, R. S., Vignola, P., and Hennekens, C. H. Alcohol consumption and coronary heart disease: a causal and protective factor. Semin.Vasc.Med 2002;2(3):253-256. View abstract.
Farriol, M., Segovia, T., Venereo, Y., and Orta, X. [Importance of the polyamines: review of the literature]. Nutr Hosp. 1999;14(3):101-113. View abstract.
Fenves, A. Z., Thomas, S., and Knochel, J. P. Beer potomania: two cases and review of the literature. Clin Nephrol. 1996;45(1):61-64. View abstract.
Ferraroni, M., Decarli, A., Franceschi, S., and La, Vecchia C. Alcohol consumption and risk of breast cancer: a multicentre Italian case-control study. Eur J Cancer 1998;34(9):1403-1409. View abstract.
Franke, A., Teyssen, S., Harder, H., and Singer, M. V. Effect of ethanol and some alcoholic beverages on gastric emptying in humans. Scand J Gastroenterol 2004;39(7):638-644. View abstract.
Gammon, M. D., Schoenberg, J. B., Ahsan, H., Risch, H. A., Vaughan, T. L., Chow, W. H., Rotterdam, H., West, A. B., Dubrow, R., Stanford, J. L., Mayne, S. T., Farrow, D. C., Niwa, S., Blot, W. J., and Fraumeni, J. F., Jr. Tobacco, alcohol, and socioeconomic status and adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and gastric cardia. J Natl Cancer Inst. 9-3-1997;89(17):1277-1284. View abstract.
Gavaler, J. S. Alcoholic beverages as a source of estrogens. Alcohol Health Res World 1998;22(3):220-227. View abstract.
Gerhauser, C. Beer constituents as potential cancer chemopreventive agents. Eur J Cancer 2005;41(13):1941-1954. View abstract.
Gigleux, I., Gagnon, J., St-Pierre, A., Cantin, B., Dagenais, G. R., Meyer, F., Despres, J. P., and Lamarche, B. Moderate alcohol consumption is more cardioprotective in men with the metabolic syndrome. J Nutr 2006;136(12):3027-3032. View abstract.
Glynn, S. A., Albanes, D., Pietinen, P., Brown, C. C., Rautalahti, M., Tangrea, J. A., Taylor, P. R., and Virtamo, J. Alcohol consumption and risk of colorectal cancer in a cohort of Finnish men. Cancer Causes Control 1996;7(2):214-223. View abstract.
Goldbohm, R. A., Van den Brandt, P. A., Van, 't, V, Dorant, E., Sturmans, F., and Hermus, R. J. Prospective study on alcohol consumption and the risk of cancer of the colon and rectum in the Netherlands. Cancer Causes Control 1994;5(2):95-104. View abstract.
Gorinstein, S., Caspi, A., Goshev, I., Aksu, S., Salnikow, J., Scheler, C., Delgado-Licon, E., Rosen, A., Weisz, M., Libman, I., and Trakhtenberg, S. Structural changes in plasma circulating fibrinogen after moderate beer consumption as determined by electrophoresis and spectroscopy. J Agric Food Chem 1-29-2003;51(3):822-827. View abstract.
Gorinstein, S., Zemser, M., Lichman, I., Berebi, A., Kleipfish, A., Libman, I., Trakhtenberg, S., and Caspi, A. Moderate beer consumption and the blood coagulation in patients with coronary artery disease. J Intern Med 1997;241(1):47-51. View abstract.
Grainge, M. J., Coupland, C. A., Cliffe, S. J., Chilvers, C. E., and Hosking, D. J. Cigarette smoking, alcohol and caffeine consumption, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. The Nottingham EPIC Study Group. Osteoporos Int 1998;8(4):355-363. View abstract.
Gronbaek, M. Factors influencing the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease. Curr Opin.Lipidol. 2006;17(1):17-21. View abstract.
Guinard, J. X., Zoumas-Morse, C., Dietz, J., Goldberg, S., Holz, M., Heck, E., and Amoros, A. Does consumption of beer, alcohol, and bitter substances affect bitterness perception? Physiol Behav 1996;59(4-5):625-631. View abstract.
Gustafson, R. Beer intoxication and physical aggression in males. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1988;21(3):237-242. View abstract.
Harding, A. H., Sargeant, L. A., Khaw, K. T., Welch, A., Oakes, S., Luben, R. N., Bingham, S., Day, N. E., and Wareham, N. J. Cross-sectional association between total level and type of alcohol consumption and glycosylated haemoglobin level: the EPIC-Norfolk Study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002;56(9):882-890. View abstract.
Hendriks, H. F., Veenstra, J., Velthuis-te Wierik, E. J., Schaafsma, G., and Kluft, C. Effect of moderate dose of alcohol with evening meal on fibrinolytic factors. BMJ 4-16-1994;308(6935):1003-1006. View abstract.
Imhof, A., Woodward, M., Doering, A., Helbecque, N., Loewel, H., Amouyel, P., Lowe, G. D., and Koenig, W. Overall alcohol intake, beer, wine, and systemic markers of inflammation in western Europe: results from three MONICA samples (Augsburg, Glasgow, Lille). Eur Heart J 2004;25(23):2092-2100. View abstract.
Joffe, B. I., Roach, L., Baker, S., Shires, R., Sandler, M., and Seftel, H. C. Failure to induce reactive hypoglycaemia by drinking a starch-based alcohol beverage (sorghum beer). Ann Clin Biochem 1981;18(Pt 1):22-24. View abstract.
Jugdaohsingh, R., O'Connell, M. A., Sripanyakorn, S., and Powell, J. J. Moderate alcohol consumption and increased bone mineral density: potential ethanol and non-ethanol mechanisms. Proc Nutr Soc 2006;65(3):291-310. View abstract.
Kaplan, R. F., Hesselbrock, V. M., O'Connor, S., and DePalma, N. Behavioral and EEG responses to alcohol in nonalcoholic men with a family history of alcoholism. Prog.Neuropsychopharmacol.Biol Psychiatry 1988;12(6):873-885. View abstract.
Kelso, J. M., Keating, M. U., Squillace, D. L., O'Connell, E. J., Yunginger, J. W., and Sachs, M. I. Anaphylactoid reaction to ethanol. Ann Allergy 1990;64(5):452-454. View abstract.
Knoll, M. R., Kolbel, C. B., Teyssen, S., and Singer, M. V. Action of pure ethanol and some alcoholic beverages on the gastric mucosa in healthy humans: a descriptive endoscopic study. Endoscopy 1998;30(3):293-301. View abstract.
Kolbel, C. B., Singer, M. V., Dorsch, W., Krege, P., Eysselein, V. E., Layer, P., and Goebell, H. Pancreatic and gastric responses to gastric versus jejunal beer in humans. Pancreas 1988;3(1):89-94. View abstract.
Kondo, K. Beer and health: preventive effects of beer components on lifestyle-related diseases. Biofactors 2004;22(1-4):303-310. View abstract.
Konrat, C., Mennen, L. I., Caces, E., Lepinay, P., Rakotozafy, F., Forhan, A., and Balkau, B. Alcohol intake and fasting insulin in French men and women. The D.E.S.I.R. Study. Diabetes Metab 2002;28(2):116-123. View abstract.
Krivachy, P., Szabo, K., Koiss, I., and Balint, A. [Prevention of carcinoid tumor crisis]. Orv.Hetil. 1-19-1992;133(3):163-166. View abstract.
Kuendig, H., Plant, M. A., Plant, M. L., Miller, P., Kuntsche, S., and Gmel, G. Alcohol-related adverse consequences: cross-cultural variations in attribution process among young adults. Eur J Public Health 2008;18(4):386-391. View abstract.
Launoy, G., Milan, C., Day, N. E., Faivre, J., Pienkowski, P., and Gignoux, M. Oesophageal cancer in France: potential importance of hot alcoholic drinks. Int J Cancer 6-11-1997;71(6):917-923. View abstract.
Lauwerys, R. and Lison, D. Health risks associated with cobalt exposure--an overview. Sci Total Environ 6-30-1994;150(1-3):1-6. View abstract.
Leira, R. and Rodriguez, R. [Diet and migraine]. Rev Neurol. 1996;24(129):534-538. View abstract.
Letenneur, L., Larrieu, S., and Barberger-Gateau, P. Alcohol and tobacco consumption as risk factors of dementia: a review of epidemiological studies. Biomed.Pharmacother. 2004;58(2):95-99. View abstract.
Lijinsky, W. N-Nitroso compounds in the diet. Mutat.Res 7-15-1999;443(1-2):129-138. View abstract.
Lindenthal, B. and von, Bergmann K. Urinary excretion and serum concentration of mevalonic acid during acute intake of alcohol. Metabolism 2000;49(1):62-66. View abstract.
Lukasiewicz, E., Mennen, L. I., Bertrais, S., Arnault, N., Preziosi, P., Galan, P., and Hercberg, S. Alcohol intake in relation to body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio: the importance of type of alcoholic beverage. Public Health Nutr 2005;8(3):315-320. View abstract.
Martinez-Florez, S., Gonzalez-Gallego, J., Culebras, J. M., and Tunon, M. J. [Flavonoids: properties and anti-oxidizing action]. Nutr Hosp. 2002;17(6):271-278. View abstract.
Masarei, J. R., Puddey, I. B., Rouse, I. L., Lynch, W. J., Vandongen, R., and Beilin, L. J. Effects of alcohol consumption on serum lipoprotein-lipid and apolipoprotein concentrations. Results from an intervention study in healthy subjects. Atherosclerosis 1986;60(1):79-87. View abstract.
Mennen, L. I., de Courcy, G. P., Guilland, J. C., Ducros, V., Zarebska, M., Bertrais, S., Favier, A., Hercberg, S., and Galan, P. Relation between homocysteine concentrations and the consumption of different types of alcoholic beverages: the French Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78(2):334-338. View abstract.
Monaci, L. and Palmisano, F. Determination of ochratoxin A in foods: state-of-the-art and analytical challenges. Anal.Bioanal.Chem 2004;378(1):96-103. View abstract.
Mortensen, L. H., Sorensen, T. I., and Gronbaek, M. Intelligence in relation to later beverage preference and alcohol intake. Addiction 2005;100(10):1445-1452. View abstract.
Mukamal, K. J., Maclure, M., Muller, J. E., and Mittleman, M. A. Binge drinking and mortality after acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 12-20-2005;112(25):3839-3845. View abstract.
Nathan, P. A., Keniston, R. C., Lockwood, R. S., and Meadows, K. D. Tobacco, caffeine, alcohol, and carpal tunnel syndrome in American industry. A cross-sectional study of 1464 workers. J Occup.Environ Med 1996;38(3):290-298. View abstract.
Niebergall-Roth, E., Harder, H., and Singer, M. V. A review: acute and chronic effects of ethanol and alcoholic beverages on the pancreatic exocrine secretion in vivo and in vitro. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1998;22(7):1570-1583. View abstract.
Noonan, D. M., Benelli, R., and Albini, A. Angiogenesis and cancer prevention: a vision. Recent Results Cancer Res 2007;174:219-224. View abstract.
Pehl, C., Wendl, B., and Pfeiffer, A. White wine and beer induce gastro-oesophageal reflux in patients with reflux disease. Aliment.Pharmacol Ther 6-1-2006;23(11):1581-1586. View abstract.
Pelucchi, C., Negri, E., Franceschi, S., Talamini, R., and La, Vecchia C. Alcohol drinking and bladder cancer. J Clin Epidemiol 2002;55(7):637-641. View abstract.
Peterson, W. L. The influence of food, beverages and NSAIDs on gastric acid secretion and mucosal integrity. Yale J Biol Med 1996;69(1):81-84. View abstract.
Pomerleau, J., McKee, M., Rose, R., Haerpfer, C. W., Rotman, D., and Tumanov, S. Drinking in the Commonwealth of Independent States--evidence from eight countries. Addiction 2005;100(11):1647-1668. View abstract.
Popolim, W. D. and De, V. C. P. Estimate of dietary exposure to sulphites using Brazilian students as a sample population. Food Addit.Contam 2005;22(11):1106-1112. View abstract.
Possemiers, S., Bolca, S., Grootaert, C., Heyerick, A., Decroos, K., Dhooge, W., De, Keukeleire D., Rabot, S., Verstraete, W., and Van de Wiele, T. The prenylflavonoid isoxanthohumol from hops (Humulus lupulus L.) is activated into the potent phytoestrogen 8-prenylnaringenin in vitro and in the human intestine. J Nutr 2006;136(7):1862-1867. View abstract.
Potter, J. F., Watson, R. D., Skan, W., and Beevers, D. G. The pressor and metabolic effects of alcohol in normotensive subjects. Hypertension 1986;8(7):625-631. View abstract.
Puddey, I. B., Beilin, L. J., Vandongen, R., and Rouse, I. L. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of alcohol consumption on blood pressure. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 1985;12(3):257-261. View abstract.
Puddey, I. B., Beilin, L. J., Vandongen, R., Rouse, I. L., and Rogers, P. Evidence for a direct effect of alcohol consumption on blood pressure in normotensive men. A randomized controlled trial. Hypertension 1985;7(5):707-713. View abstract.
Puddey, I. B., Croft, K. D., Abdu-Amsha, Caccetta R., and Beilin, L. J. Alcohol, free radicals and antioxidants. Novartis.Found.Symp. 1998;216:51-62. View abstract.
Purohit, V. Moderate alcohol consumption and estrogen levels in postmenopausal women: a review. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1998;22(5):994-997. View abstract.
Pyorala, E. Trends in alcohol consumption in Spain, Portugal, France and Italy from the 1950s until the 1980s. Br J Addict. 1990;85(4):469-477. View abstract.
Rakic, V., Puddey, I. B., Burke, V., Dimmitt, S. B., and Beilin, L. J. Influence of pattern of alcohol intake on blood pressure in regular drinkers: a controlled trial. J Hypertens 1998;16(2):165-174. View abstract.
Rakic, V., Puddey, I. B., Dimmitt, S. B., Burke, V., and Beilin, L. J. A controlled trial of the effects of pattern of alcohol intake on serum lipid levels in regular drinkers. Atherosclerosis 1998;137(2):243-252. View abstract.
Ranstam, J. and Olsson, H. Alcohol, cigarette smoking, and the risk of breast cancer. Cancer Detect.Prev 1995;19(6):487-493. View abstract.
Rimm, E. B., Klatsky, A., Grobbee, D., and Stampfer, M. J. Review of moderate alcohol consumption and reduced risk of coronary heart disease: is the effect due to beer, wine, or spirits. BMJ 3-23-1996;312(7033):731-736. View abstract.
Rohsenow, D. J., Howland, J., Minsky, S. J., and Arnedt, J. T. Effects of heavy drinking by maritime academy cadets on hangover, perceived sleep, and next-day ship power plant operation. J Stud.Alcohol 2006;67(3):406-415. View abstract.
Saag, K. G. and Mikuls, T. R. Recent advances in the epidemiology of gout. Curr Rheumatol Rep 2005;7(3):235-241. View abstract.
Scalbert, A. and Williamson, G. Dietary intake and bioavailability of polyphenols. J Nutr 2000;130(8S Suppl):2073S-2085S. View abstract.
Schulz, M., Liese, A. D., Mayer-Davis, E. J., D'Agostino, R. B., Jr., Fang, F., Sparks, K. C., and Wolever, T. M. Nutritional correlates of dietary glycaemic index: new aspects from a population perspective. Br J Nutr 2005;94(3):397-406. View abstract.
Seiler, C. [Alcohol, the heart and cardiovascular system]. Ther Umsch. 2000;57(4):200-204. View abstract.
Sierksma, A., Sarkola, T., Eriksson, C. J., van der Gaag, M. S., Grobbee, D. E., and Hendriks, H. F. Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone, and estradiol levels in middle-aged men and postmenopausal women: a diet-controlled intervention study. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2004;28(5):780-785. View abstract.
Sierksma, A., van der Gaag, M. S., Kluft, C., and Hendriks, H. F. Moderate alcohol consumption reduces plasma C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels; a randomized, diet-controlled intervention study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002;56(11):1130-1136. View abstract.
Sierksma, A., van der Gaag, M. S., van, Tol A., James, R. W., and Hendriks, H. F. Kinetics of HDL cholesterol and paraoxonase activity in moderate alcohol consumers. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2002;26(9):1430-1435. View abstract.
Singer, M. V. and Leffmann, C. Alcohol and gastric acid secretion in humans: a short review. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 1988;146:11-21. View abstract.
Stevens, J. F. and Page, J. E. Xanthohumol and related prenylflavonoids from hops and beer: to your good health! Phytochemistry 2004;65(10):1317-1330. View abstract.
Swanson, C. A., Wilbanks, G. D., Twiggs, L. B., Mortel, R., Berman, M. L., Barrett, R. J., and Brinton, L. A. Moderate alcohol consumption and the risk of endometrial cancer. Epidemiology 1993;4(6):530-536. View abstract.
Tat-Ha, C. [alcohol and pregnancy: what is the level of risk?]. J Toxicol.Clin Exp 1990;10(2):105-114. View abstract.
Uyarel, H., Ozdol, C., Gencer, A. M., Okmen, E., and Cam, N. Acute alcohol intake and QT dispersion in healthy subjects. J Stud.Alcohol 2005;66(4):555-558. View abstract.
van der Gaag, M. S., van den, Berg R., van den, Berg H., Schaafsma, G., and Hendriks, H. F. Moderate consumption of beer, red wine and spirits has counteracting effects on plasma antioxidants in middle-aged men. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;54(7):586-591. View abstract.
van der Gaag, M. S., van, Tol A., Scheek, L. M., James, R. W., Urgert, R., Schaafsma, G., and Hendriks, H. F. Daily moderate alcohol consumption increases serum paraoxonase activity; a diet-controlled, randomised intervention study in middle-aged men. Atherosclerosis 1999;147(2):405-410. View abstract.
van der Gaag, M. S., van, Tol A., Vermunt, S. H., Scheek, L. M., Schaafsma, G., and Hendriks, H. F. Alcohol consumption stimulates early steps in reverse cholesterol transport. J Lipid Res 2001;42(12):2077-2083. View abstract.
Visconti, A. and De, Girolamo A. Fitness for purpose--ochratoxin A analytical developments. Food Addit.Contam 2005;22 Suppl 1:37-44. View abstract.
Wellmann, K. F. ["Biere au cobalt". Remarks on the "Quebec myocardosis of beer drinker"]. Dtsch.Med Wochenschr. 3-15-1968;93(11):500-501. View abstract.
Westney, L., Bruney, R., Ross, B., Clark, J. F., Rajguru, S., and Ahluwalia, B. Evidence that gonadal hormone levels in amniotic fluid are decreased in males born to alcohol users in humans. Alcohol Alcohol 1991;26(4):403-407. View abstract.
Yamamoto, T., Moriwaki, Y., and Takahashi, S. Effect of ethanol on metabolism of purine bases (hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid). Clin Chim Acta 2005;356(1-2):35-57. View abstract.
Yamamoto, T., Moriwaki, Y., Takahashi, S., Tsutsumi, Z., Ka, T., Fukuchi, M., and Hada, T. Effect of beer on the plasma concentrations of uridine and purine bases. Metabolism 2002;51(10):1317-1323. View abstract.
Zilkens, R. R., Burke, V., Hodgson, J. M., Barden, A., Beilin, L. J., and Puddey, I. B. Red wine and beer elevate blood pressure in normotensive men. Hypertension 2005;45(5):874-879. View abstract.
Zilkens, R. R., Burke, V., Watts, G., Beilin, L. J., and Puddey, I. B. The effect of alcohol intake on insulin sensitivity in men: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care 2003;26(3):608-612. View abstract.
Zilkens, R. R., Rich, L., Burke, V., Beilin, L. J., Watts, G. F., and Puddey, I. B. Effects of alcohol intake on endothelial function in men: a randomized controlled trial. J Hypertens 2003;21(1):97-103. View abstract.
Abramson JL, Williams SA, Krumholz HM, Vaccarino V. Moderate alcohol consumption and risk of heart failure among older persons. JAMA 2001;285:1971-7. View abstract.
Ajani UA, Gaziano JM, Lotufo PA, et al. Alcohol consumption and risk of coronary heart disease by diabetes status. Circulation 2000;102:500-5. View abstract.
Ajani UA, Hennekens CH, Spelsberg, A, et al. Alcohol consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus among US male physicians. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:1025-30. View abstract.
Arimoto-Kobayashi S, Sugiyama C, Harada N, et al. Inhibitory effects of beer and other alcoholic beverages on mutagenesis and DNA adduct formation induced by several carcinogens. J Agri Food Chem 1999;47:221-30. View abstract.
Baer DJ, Judd JT, Clevidence BA, et al. Moderate alcohol consumption lowers risk factors for cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women fed a controlled diet. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:593-9. View abstract.
Berger K, Ajani UA, Kase CS, et al. Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption and risk of stroke among US male physicians. N Engl J Med 1999;341:1557-64. View abstract.
Bobak M, Skodova Z, Marmot M. Beer and obesity: a cross-sectional study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003;57:1250-53. View abstract.
Boffetta P, Garfinkel L. Alcohol drinking and mortality among men enrolled in an American Cancer Society prospective study. Epidemiology 1990;1:342-8. View abstract.
Bosetti C, La Vecchia C, Negri E, Franceschi S. Wine and other types of alcoholic beverages and the risk of esophageal cancer. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;54:918-20. View abstract.
Brenner H, Rothenbacher D, Bode G, Adler G. Relation of smoking and alcohol and coffee consumption to active Helicobacter pylori infection: cross sectional study. BMJ 1997;315:1489-92. View abstract.
Burnham TH, ed. Drug Facts and Comparisons, Updated Monthly. Facts and Comparisons, St. Louis, MO.
Camargo CA, Stampfer MJ, Glynn RJ, et al. Moderate alcohol consumption and risk for angina pectoris or myocardial infarction in U.S. male physicians. Ann Intern Med 1997;126:372-5. View abstract.
Cervilla JA, Prince M, Joels S, et al. Long-term predictors of cognitive outcome in a cohort of older people with hypertension. Br J Psychiatry 2000;177:66-71. View abstract.
Colgate EC, Miranda CL, Stevens JF, et al. Xanthohumol, a prenylflavonoid derived from hops induces apoptosis and inhibits NF-kappaB activation in prostate epithelial cells. Cancer Lett 2007;246:201-9. View abstract.
Criqui MH. Alcohol and coronary heart disease: consistent relationship and public health implications. Clin Chim Acta 1996;246:51-7. View abstract.
de Boer MC, Schippers GM, van der Staak CP. Alcohol and social anxiety in women and men: pharmacological and expectancy effects. Addict Behav 1993;18:117-26. View abstract.
Di Castelnuovo A, Rotondo S, Iacoviello L, et al. Meta-analysis of wine and beer consumption in relation to vascular risk. Circulation 2002;105:2836-44.. View abstract.
Dufour MC. If you drink alcoholic beverages do so in moderation: what does this mean? J Nutr 2001;131:552S-61S. View abstract.
Duncan BB, Chambless LE, Schmidt MI, et al. Association of the waist-to-hip ratio is different with wine than with beer or hard liquor consumption. Am J Epidemiol 1995;142:1034-8. View abstract.
Fernandez-Anaya S, Crespo JF, Rodriguez JR, et al. Beer anaphylaxis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;103:959-60.
Feskanich D, Korrick SA, Greenspan SL, et al. Moderate alcohol consumption and bone density among postmenopausal women. J Womens Health 1999;8:65-73. View abstract.
Fraser AG. Pharmacokinetic interactions between alcohol and other drugs. Clin Pharmacokinet 1997;33:79-90. View abstract.
Friedman LA, Kimball AW. Coronary heart disease mortality and alcohol consumption in Framingham. Am J Epidemiol 1986;124:481-9. View abstract.
Galanis DJ, Joseph C, Masaki KH, et al. A longitudinal study of drinking and cognitive performance in elderly Japanese American men: the Honolulu-Asia aging study. Am J Publ Health 2000;90:1254-9. View abstract.
Ganry O, Baudoin C, Fardellone P. Effect of alcohol intake on bone mineral density in elderly women. Am J Epidemiol 2000;151:773-80. View abstract.
Gaziano JM, Buring JE, Breslow JL, et al. Moderate alcohol intake, increased levels of high-density lipoprotein and its subfractions, and decreased risk of myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1993;329:1829-34. View abstract.
Goldberg I, Mosca L, Piano MR, Fisher EA. AHA Science Advisory: Wine and your heart: a science advisory for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, and Council on Cardiovascular Nursing of the American Heart Association. Circulation 2001;103:472-5. View abstract.
Gorinstein S, Zemser M, Berliner M, Lohmann-Matthes ML. Moderate beer consumption and positive biochemical changes in patients with coronary atherosclerosis. J Intern Med 1997;242:219-24. View abstract.
Gronbaek M, Becker U, Johnasen D, et al. Type of alcohol consumed and mortality from all causes, coronary heart disease, and cancer. Ann Int Med 2000;133:411-9. View abstract.
Hart CL, Smith GD, Hole DJ, Hawthorne VM. Alcohol consumption and mortality from all causes, coronary heart disease, and stroke: results from a prospective cohort study of Scottish men with 21 years of follow up. BMJ 1999;318:1725-9. View abstract.
Hennekens CH, Willett W, Rosner B, et al. Effects of beer, wine, and liquor in coronary deaths. JAMA 1979;242:1973-4. View abstract.
Isselbacher KJ, Braunwald E, Wilson JD, et al. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 13th Ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1994.
Ka, T., Yamamoto, T., Moriwaki, Y., Kaya, M., Tsujita, J., Takahashi, S., Tsutsumi, Z., Fukuchi, M., and Hada, T. Effect of exercise and beer on the plasma concentration and urinary excretion of purine bases. J Rheumatol 2003;30(5):1036-1042. View abstract.
Kannel WB, Ellison RC. Alcohol and coronary heart disease: the evidence for a protective effect. Clin Chim Acta 1996;246:59-76. View abstract.
Kato H, Yoshikawa M, Miyazaki T, et al. Expression of p53 protein related to smoking and alcoholic beverage drinking habits in patients with esophageal cancers. Cancer Lett 2001;167:65-72. View abstract.
Kiechl S, Willeit J, Rungger G, et al. Alcohol consumption and atherosclerosis: what is the relation? Prospective results from the Bruneck Study. Stroke 1998;29:900-7. View abstract.
Klatsky AL, Armstrong MA, Friedman GD. Red wine, white wine, liquor, beer, and risk for coronary artery disease hospitalization. Am J Cardiol 1997;80:416-20. View abstract.
Klatsky AL. Should patients with heart disease drink alcohol. JAMA 2001;285:2004-6. View abstract.
Koehler KM, Baumgartner RN, Garry PJ, et al. Association of folate intake and serum homocysteine in elderly persons according to vitamin supplementation and alcohol use. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:628-37. View abstract.
Koh-Banerjee P, Chu N, Spiegelman D, et al. Prospective study of the association of changes in dietary intake, physicial activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking with 9-y gain in waist circumference among 16 587 US men. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78:719-27.. View abstract.
Langer RD, Criqui MH, Reed DM. Lipoproteins and blood pressure as biological pathways for effect of moderate alcohol consumption on coronary heart disease. Circulation 1992;85:910-5. View abstract.
Liu Y, Tanaka H, Sasazuki S, et al. Alcohol consumption and severity of angiographically determined coronary artery disease in Japanese men and women. Atherosclerosis 2001;156:177-83. View abstract.
Malarcher AM, Giles WH, Croft JB, et al. Alcohol intake, type of beverage, and the risk of cerebral infarction in young women. Stroke 2001;32:77-83. View abstract.
Mennella J. Alcohol's effect on lactation. Alcohol Res Health 2001;25:230-4. View abstract.
Michaud DS, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, et al. Coffee and alcohol consumption and risk of pancreatic cancer in two prospective United States cohorts. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2001;10:429-37. View abstract.
Monteiro R, Becker H, Azevedo I, Calhau C. Effect of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) flavonoids on aromatase (estrogen synthase) activity. Agric Food Chem 2006;54:2938-43. View abstract.
Mukamal KJ, Conigrave KM, Mittleman MA, et al. Roles of drinking pattern and type of alcohol consumed in coronary heart disease in men. N Engl J Med 2003;348:109-18. View abstract.
Mukamal KJ, Longstreth WT, Mittleman MA. Alcohol consumption and subclinical findings on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in older adults: the cardiovascular health study. Stroke 2001;32:1939-46. View abstract.
Mukamal KJ, Maclure M, Muller JE, et al. Prior alcohol consumption and mortality following acute myocardial infarction. JAMA 2001:285:1965-70. View abstract.
Mukherjee S, Sorrell MF. Effects of alcohol consumption on bone metabolism in elderly women. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:1073. View abstract.
Odou, P., Barthelemy, C., and Robert, H. Influence of seven beverages on salicylate disposition in humans. J Clin Pharm Ther 2001;26(3):187-193. View abstract.
Pearson TA. Alcohol and heart disease. Circulation 1996;94:3023-5. View abstract.
Pearson TA. What to advise patients about drinking alcohol. The clinician's conundrum. JAMA 1994;272:967-8.
Pennell MM. One to two drinks a day may reduce risk of Alzheimer dementia. Reuters Health. www.medscape.com/reuters/prof/2000/07/07.11/20000711epid005.html (Accessed 11 July 2000).
Rapuri PB, Gallagher JC, Balhorn KE, Ryschon KL. Alcohol intake and bone metabolism in elderly women. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:1206-13. View abstract.
Rehm JT, Bondy SJ, Sempos CT, Vuong CV. Alcohol consumption and coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality. Am J Epidemiol 1997;146:495-501. View abstract.
Renaud SC, Gueguen R, Siest G, Salamon R. Wine, beer, and mortality in middle-aged men from eastern France. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:1865-70. View abstract.
Ridker PM, Vaughan DE, Stampfer MJ, et al. Association of moderate alcohol consumption and plasma concentration of endogenous tissue-type plasminogen activator. JAMA 1994;272:929-33. View abstract.
Rimm EB, Chan J, Stampfer MJ, et al. Prospective study of cigarette smoking, alcohol use and the risk of diabetes in men. Br Med J 1995;310:555-9. View abstract.
Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ. Wine, beer, and spirits: are they really horses of a different color? Circulation 2002;105:2806-7. View abstract.
Sacco RL, Elkind M, Boden-Albala B, et al. The protective effect of moderate alcohol consumption on ischemic stroke. JAMA 1999;281:53-60. View abstract.
Sesso HD, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, et al. Seven-year changes in alcohol consumption and subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease in men. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:2605-12. View abstract.
Shaper AG, Wannamethee SG. Alcohol intake and mortality in middle aged men with diagnosed coronary heart disease. Heart 2000;83:394-9. View abstract.
Singletary KW, Gapstur SM. Alcohol and breast cancer: review of epidemiologic and experimental evidence and potential mechanisms. JAMA 2001;286:2143-51. View abstract.
Solomon CG, Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, et al. Moderate alcohol consumption and risk of coronary heart disease among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Circulation 2000;102:494-9. View abstract.
Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC, et al. A prospective study of moderate alcohol consumption and the risk of coronary disease and stroke in women. N Engl J Med 1988;319:267-73. View abstract.
Thadhani R, Camargo CA, Stampfer MJ, et al. Prospective study of moderate alcohol consumption and risk of hypertension in young women. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:569-74. View abstract.
Thummel, K. E., Slattery, J. T., Ro, H., Chien, J. Y., Nelson, S. D., Lown, K. E., and Watkins, P. B. Ethanol and production of the hepatotoxic metabolite of acetaminophen in healthy adults. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000;67(6):591-599. View abstract.
Thun MJ, Peto R, Lopez AD, et al. Alcohol consumption and mortality among middle-aged and elderly US adults. N Engl J Med 1997;337:1705-14. View abstract.
Truelsen T, Gronbaek M, Schnohr P, et al. Intake of beer, wine, and spirits and risk of stroke: the copenhagen city heart study. Stroke 1998;29:2467-72. View abstract.
Vally H, de Klerk N, Thompson PJ. Alcoholic drinks: important triggers for asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;105:462-7. View abstract.
van der Gaag MS, Ubbink JB, Sillanaukee P, et al. Effect of consumption of red wine, spirits, and beer on serum homocysteine. Lancet 2000;355:1522. View abstract.