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- What is atenolol, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for atenolol?
- Is atenolol available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for atenolol?
- What are the side effects of atenolol?
- What is the dosage for atenolol?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with atenolol?
- Is atenolol safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about atenolol?
What is atenolol, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Atenolol is a beta-adrenergic blocking agent that blocks the effects of adrenergic chemicals, for example, adrenaline or epinephrine, released by nerves of the sympathetic nervous system. One of the important function of beta-adrenergic nerves is to stimulate the heart muscle to beat more rapidly. By blocking the stimulation by these nerves, atenolol reduces the heart rate and is useful in treating abnormally rapid heart rhythms. Atenolol also reduces the force of contraction of heart muscle and lowers blood pressure. By reducing the heart rate, the force of muscle contraction, and the blood pressure against which the heart must pump, atenolol reduces the work of heart muscle and the need of the muscle for oxygen. Since angina occurs when oxygen demand of the heart muscle exceeds the supply, atenolol is helpful in treating angina. Atenolol was approved by the FDA in August 1981.
What are the side effects of atenolol?
Atenolol is generally well tolerated, and side effects are mild and transient. Its side effects include:
- abdominal cramps,
- dreaming, memory loss,
- slow heart rate,
- abnormal heart rhythm,
- low blood pressure,
- cold extremities, and
- sore throat.
Atenolol can cause breathing difficulties in patients with asthma, chronic bronchitis, or emphysema. In patients with existing slow heart rates (bradycardias) and heart blocks (defects in the electrical conduction of the heart), atenolol can cause dangerously slow heart rates and even shock. Atenolol reduces the force of heart muscle contraction and can aggravate symptoms of heart failure.
In patients with coronary artery disease, abruptly stopping atenolol can suddenly worsen angina, and occasionally precipitate heart attacks. If it is necessary to discontinue atenolol, its dosage can be reduced gradually over several weeks.
Quick GuideHow to Lower Blood Pressure: Exercise Tips
What is the dosage for atenolol?
- The dose for treating high blood pressure or angina is 25-100 mg once daily.
- Acute myocardial infarction (heart attack) is treated with two 5 mg injections administered 10 minutes apart. Ten minutes after the last injection, give 50 mg every 12 hours followed by 100 mg oral atenolol daily for 6-9 days. If atenolol injections are not appropriate, patients may be treated with 100 mg daily of oral atenolol for 7 days.
Which drugs or supplements interact with atenolol?
: Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and digoxin (Lanoxin) can cause lowering of blood pressure and heart rate to dangerous levels when administered together with atenolol. Atenolol can mask the early warning symptoms of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), and should be used with caution in patients receiving treatment for diabetes.
Is atenolol safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
Atenolol may cause harm and growth retardation in the fetus when given to pregnant women.
Atenolol is excreted in breast milk and my cause adverse effects in an infant being breastfed.
What else should I know about atenolol?
What preparations of atenolol are available?
Tablets: 25, 50 and 100 mg. Injection: 5 mg/10 ml
How should I keep atenolol stored?
Atenolol should be store at room temperature 20 C to 25 C (68 F to 77 F).
Atenolol (Tenormin)is a beta-adrenergic blocking agent, blocking the action of the sympathetic nervous system, a portion of the involuntary nervous system. Atenolol is prescribed for patients with high blood pressure (hypertension), used to treat chest pain (angina pectoris) related to coronary artery disease, and is also useful in slowing and regulating certain types of abnormally rapid heart rates (tachycardias). Other uses for atenolol include the prevention of migraine headaches and the treatment of certain types of tremors (familial or hereditary essential tremors). It is important to be aware of the drug interactions related to atenolol, effects on pregnancy, as well as common side effects on the user.
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
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Medications & Supplements
- timolol (Blocadren and Timolide 10-25 have been discontinued)
- nadolol (Corgard)
- propranolol, Inderal, Inderal LA, Innopran XL
- metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL)
- Sectral (acebutolol)
- bisoprolol and hydrochlorothiazide, Ziac
- bisoprolol, Zebeta
- Beta Blockers (Drug Class, List of Brand and Generic Names)
- atenolol and chlorthalidone, Tenoretic
- betaxolol, Kerlone (Discontinued Brand)
- carvedilol (Coreg, Coreg CR)
- labetalol, Normodyne, Trandate
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Top atenolol Related Articles
Angina SymptomsAngina is chest pain due to inadequate blood supply to the heart. Angina symptoms may include chest tightness, burning, squeezing, and aching. Coronary artery disease is the main cause of angina but there are other causes. Angina is diagnosed by taking the patient's medical history and performing tests such as an electrocardiogram (EKG), blood test, stress test, echocardiogram, cardiac CT scan, and heart catheterization. Treatment of angina usually includes lifestyle modification, medication, and sometimes, surgery. The risk of angina can be reduced by following a heart healthy lifestyle.
Atrial fibrillation (AF or AFib) is an abnormality in the heart rhythm which involves irregular and often rapid beating of the heart. Symptoms may include heart palpitations, dizziness, fainting, fatigue, shortness of breath, and chest pain.
Atrial fibrillation treatment may include medication or procedures like cardioversion or ablation to normalize the heart rate.
Atrial Fibrillation QuizLearn the causes, symptoms, and treatments of the common heart abnormality known as atrial fibrillation (A-fib).
Fixed Drug Eruption PictureA large red-violet plaque on the arm of a child. See a picture of Fixed Drug Eruption and learn more about the health topic.
Heart AttackHeart attack happens when a blood clot completely obstructs a coronary artery supplying blood to the heart muscle. A heart attack can cause chest pain, heart failure, and electrical instability of the heart.
CAD SlideshowWhat is heart disease (coronary artery disease)? Learn about the causes of heart disease. Symptoms of heart disease include chest pain and shortness of breath. Explore heart disease diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.
Heart Disease SlideshowLearn about heart disease and heart attack symptoms and signs of a heart attack in men and women. Read about heart disease diagnostic tests, treatments, and prevention strategies.
High Blood Pressure Hypertension
High blood pressure (hypertension) is a disease in which pressure within the arteries of the body is elevated. About 75 million people in the US have hypertension (1 in 3 adults), and only half of them are able to manage it. Many people do not know that they have high blood pressure because it often has no has no warning signs or symptoms.
Systolic and diastolic are the two readings in which blood pressure is measured. The American College of Cardiology released new guidelines for high blood pressure in 2017. The guidelines now state that blood normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg. If either one of those numbers is higher, you have high blood pressure.
The American Academy of Cardiology defines high blood pressure slightly differently. The AAC considers 130/80 mm Hg. or greater (either number) stage 1 hypertension. Stage 2 hypertension is considered 140/90 mm Hg. or greater.
If you have high blood pressure you are at risk of developing life threatening diseases like stroke and heart attack.
REFERENCE: CDC. High Blood Pressure. Updated: Nov 13, 2017.
Hyperthyroidism is an excess of thyroid hormone due to an overactive thyroid gland. Symptoms can include increased heart rate, weight loss, heart palpitations, frequent bowel movements, depression, fatigue, fine or brittle hair, sleep problems, thinning skin, and irregular vaginal bleeding.
Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. Many other health problems or taking excess thyroid hormone medication can cause an overactive thyroid gland. Treatment for the condition is with medication, radioactive iodine, thyroid surgery (rarely), or reducing the dose of thyroid hormone. No diet has been shown to treat hyperthyroidism or its symptoms and signs.
Hyperthyroidism SlidesWhat is hyperthyroidism? Hyperthyroidism occurs when an overactive thyroid gland produces an excessive amount of thyroid hormones. Learn hyperthyroidism causes, symptoms, and treatment.
MigraineMigraine headache is a type of headache associated with a sensitivity to light, smells, or sounds, eye pain, severe pounding on one side of the head, and sometimes nausea and vomiting. The exact cause of migraine headaches is not known.
Triggers for migraine headaches include certain foods, stress, hormonal changes, strong stimuli (loud noises), and oversleeping.
Treatment guidelines for migraines include medicine, pain management, diet changes, avoiding foods that trigger migraines, staying hydrated, getting adequate sleep, and exercising regularly. Prevention of migraine triggers include getting regular exercise, drinking water daily, reducing stress, and avoiding trigger foods.
Mitral Valve Prolapse
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP), also called "click murmur syndrome" and "Barlow's syndrome," is the most common type of heart valve abnormality. Usually, people with mitral valve prolapse have no signs and symptoms; however, if the prolapsed valve is severe, symptoms may appear. When symptoms of severe mitral valve prolapse do appear, they may include, fatigue, palpitations, chest pain, anxiety, migraine headaches, and pulmonary edema. Echocardiography is the most useful test for mitral valve prolapse. Most people with mitral valve need no treatment. However, if the valve prolapse is severe, treatment medications or surgery may be necessary to repair the heart valve.
Palpitations OverviewPalpitations are uncomfortable sensations of the heart beating hard, rapidly, or irregularly. Some types of palpitations are benign, while others are more serious. Palpitations are diagnosed by taking the patient history and by performing an EKG or heart monitoring along with blood tests. An electrophysiology study may also be performed. Treatment of palpitations may include lifestyle changes, medication, ablation, or implantation of a pacemaker. The prognosis if palpitations depends on the underlying cause.
ParathyroidectomyParathyroidectomy is the removal of one or more of the parathyroid glands to treat hyperparathyroidism. Risks of parathyroidectomy include:
- paralysis of the vocal cords,
- difficulty swallowing thin liquids,
- difficulty breathing,
- and drug reactions.
- damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve,
- bleeding or hematoma,
- problems maintaining calcium levels in the blood,
- need for further and more aggressive surgery,
- need for a limited or total thyroidectomy,
- prolonged pain,
- impaired healing,
- and recurrence of the tumor.
Raynaud's PhenomenonRaynaud's phenomenon is characterized by a pale-blue-red sequence of color changes of the digits, most commonly after exposure to cold. Occurring as a result of spasm of blood vessels, the cause is unknown. Symptoms of Raynaud's phenomenon depend on the severity, frequency, and duration of the blood vessel spasm. Treatments include protection of the digits, medications, and avoiding emotional stresses, smoking, cold temperature, and tools that vibrate the hands.
Take the Thyroid QuizYour unexplained change in weight could indicate a thyroid condition. Take the Thyroid Quiz to learn about common symptoms and treatments of overactive and underactive thyroid disorders.