Symptoms of asthma develop as a result of the narrowing and inflammation of the airways. Wheezing is a characteristic symptom of asthma, along with shortness of breath. Chest pain or tightness can accompany an asthma attack. Coughing can also be a symptom of asthma. The cough associated with asthma is often worse at night or in the early morning. Nighttime cough can lead to problems with sleep.
Symptoms vary among affected individuals. Some people have mild symptoms that occur infrequently, while others have more frequent or more severe symptoms. Severe asthma attacks can be life-threatening.
Causes of asthma
Asthma is a disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the airways. The inflammation results in narrowing of the airways and difficulty breathing. The precise cause of asthma is unknown, although it is believed to result from an interaction between inherited (genetic) and environmental factors. Those with a family history of asthma are more likely to develop the condition than those without a family history. Other risk factors for asthma include obesity, viral respiratory illness during childhood, exposure to tobacco smoke, and hay fever.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Asthma." Jan. 27, 2017. <http://www.cdc.gov/asthma/faqs.htm>.
Main Article on Asthma Symptoms and Signs
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Examples of Medications for Asthma Symptoms and Signs
- Advair Diskus, Advair HFA (fluticasone and salmeterol oral inhaler)
- albuterol (Accuneb, Ventolin & Proventil [all discontinued])
- beclomethasone hfa inhaler - oral, Qvar
- budesonide (oral inhalation, Pulmicort, Pulmicort Flexhaler)
- budesonide nasal inhaler (Rhinocort Allergy, Rhinocort Aqua)
- flunisolide - oral inhalation, Aerobid
- flunisolide nasal spray, Aerospan (Nasalide, Aerobid, Aerobid HFA are discontinued)
- fluticasone propionate oral inhaler, Flovent (Discontinued), Flovent Diskus, Flovent HFA
- formoterol powder in capsule - oral inhalation, Foradil
- ipratropium bromide inhaler, Atrovent, Atrovent HFA
- ipratropium solution - inhalation, Atrovent
- levalbuterol pre-mixed solution - inhalation, Xopenex
- metaproterenol inhaler - oral, Alupent
- methylprednisolone, Medrol, Depo-Medrol, Solu-Medrol
- montelukast, Singulair
- omalizumab, Xolair
- pirbuterol breath activated aerosol inhaler - oral, Maxair Autohaler
- prednisone (Prednisone Intensol, Rayos) Corticosteroid
- salmeterol, Serevent
- theophylline, Elixophyllin, Theo-24, (Theolair, Uniphyl Theo-Dur, and Slo-Phyllin-discontinued)
- zafirlukast (Accolate)
- zileuton - oral, Zyflo