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- What is an antro-duodenal motility study?
- When is an antro-duodenal motility study used?
- How is an antro-duodenal motility study done?
- How are the results of an antro-duodenal motility study evaluated?
- Are there any side effects to an antro-duodenal motility study?
- Are there any alternatives to an antro-duodenal motility study?
What is an antro-duodenal motility study?
- An antro-duodenal motility study is used to evaluate the ability of the muscles of the stomach and the first portion of the small intestine (duodenum) to contract.
- Conditions in which there is abnormal contraction of the muscles of the stomach and the small intestine are referred to as motility disorders.
- Therefore, an antro-duodenal motility study is used to identify motility disorders.
When is an antro-duodenal motility study used?
An antro-duodenal motility study is used to diagnose a motility disorder of the stomach or small intestine, that is, a condition of abnormal function of the muscles of the stomach and/or small intestine. Such abnormal function usually is suspected when there are symptoms and signs of obstruction to or delayed flow of food through the stomach and intestines. These symptoms usually are nausea, vomiting, and intestinal distention (enlargement). The obstruction is a direct result of the inability of the abnormally functioning muscles to propel food through the stomach and intestines. One common cause of motility disorders of the stomach and intestines is diabetes mellitus.
How is an antro-duodenal motility study done?
- For an antro-duodenal motility study, a thin tube (one-eighth inch in diameter) is passed through the nose, down the esophagus, through the stomach and into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine.
- Sensors in the tube measure the amount of pressure generated when the muscles of the stomach and intestine contract and squeeze tightly around the tube; the greater the contraction of the muscles, the greater the pressure sensed by the tube.
- All contractions are recorded by a computer for analysis.
- Contractions are recorded at rest for up to several hours and for one or two hours after a meal. Thus, a study may take up to six hours.
How are the results of an antro-duodenal motility study evaluated?
Normally, there are characteristic patterns of contraction of the stomach and duodenum during fasting periods and after meals. In patients with motility problems of the stomach and/or small intestine, the characteristic patterns are abnormal or completely absent. Such patients may be treated with drugs to stimulate contraction, such as metoclopramide (Reglan).
Are there any side effects to an antro-duodenal motility study?
There are no important side effects; however, the tube can become quite irritating after several hours, giving the patient a sore throat. Occasionally, the tube also causes nasal irritation. Within 24 hours after the tube is removed, the irritation disappears.
Are there any alternatives to an antro-duodenal motility study?
Other tests can help with the evaluation of motility disorders, including upper gastrointestinal X-rays, gastric emptying studies, and electrogastrograms. The most recent device for determining gastrointestinal motility is a radiotelemetry capsule (Smartpill) that senses the pressure generated when the stomach or intestinal muscles contract around it. The capsule is swallowed, and it then travels through the stomach and intestines. While it is traveling, it continually senses the pressure around it and transmits this information wirelessly to a receiver worn on the outside of the body. Later, the data is downloaded from the recorder and analyzed.
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Diabetes MellitusDiabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue. Treatment of diabetes depends on the type.
DyspepsiaIndigestion (dyspepsia) can be caused by diseases or conditions that involve the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and also by some diseases and conditions that do not involve the GI tract. Indigestion can be a chronic condition in which the symptoms fluctuate infrequency and intensity. Signs and symptoms that accompany indigestion include pain in the chest, upper abdominal pain, belching, nausea, bloating, abdominal distention, feeling full after eating only a small portion of food, and rarely, vomiting.
ElectrogastrogramAn electrogastrogram is a test that measures the electrical signals that measure how the muscles of the stomach contract.
Gastric Emptying StudyA gastric emptying study is a procedure that is done by nuclear medicine physicians using radioactive chemicals that measures the speed with which food empties from the stomach and enters the small intestine. A gastric emptying study often is used when there is a possibility of an abnormal delay in food emptying from the stomach. Medically, this is called delayed gastric emptying. The two most common causes of delayed gastric emptying are gastric outlet obstruction and gastroparesis.
GastroparesisGastroparesis is a medical condition in which the muscle of the stomach is paralyzed by a disease of either the stomach muscle itself or the nerves controlling the muscle. As a consequence, food and secretions do not empty normally from the stomach. Gastroparesis symptoms are nausea and vomiting; abdominal bloating, and pain can result.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a GI (gastrointestinal) disorder with signs and symptoms that include abdominal pain, bloating, increased gas (flatulence), abdominal cramping, diarrhea, constipation, and food intolerance.
Two new tests are now available that may help diagnose irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea and constipation (IBS-M) irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D), and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). Treatment for IBS includes diet changes, medications, and other lifestyle changes to manage symptoms.
metoclopramideMetoclopramide, Reglan, Reglan ODT, Metozolv ODT, Octamide, (Maxolon discontinued) is a drug prescribed for the treatment of heartburn and esophagitis due to GERD in patients with gastroparesis. Metoclopramide is also prescribed for the treatment of impaired function of muscles of the small intestine and the nausea due to surgery or cancer chemotherapy. Side effects, drug interactions, dosing information, and pregnancy safety should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
Upper GI SeriesAn upper gastrointestinal GI series, or barium swallow is a test used in assisting in the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal diseases or conditions such as:
- hiatal hernias,
- blockages, and
- abnormalities of the muscular wall of the GI tract.