Type 2 diabetes oral medications are prescribed to treat type 2 diabetes in conjuction with lifestyle changes like diet and exercise. There are nine classes of drugs approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Examples of type 2 oral diabetes medications include acarbose (Precose), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL), and metformin (Glucophage). Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precautions, dosage, and breastfeeding and pregnancy safety information should be reviewed prior to taking any medication. Read more: Types of Diabetes Type 2 Medications Article
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
Type 2 Diabetes: Signs, Symptoms, Treatments
Learn about type 2 diabetes warning signs, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. Find out why thirst, headaches, and...
Diabetes: What Raises and Lowers Your Blood Sugar Level?
Want to lower your blood sugar? Learn to better control your glucose levels by preventing blood sugar spikes and swings to avoid...
Diabetes Nerve Pain: Improving Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
Learn how to cope with the symptoms of diabetic peripheral neuropathy through pain management exercises. Find relief for diabetic...
How Diabetes Can Affect Your Feet
Learn more about diabetes related foot problems. For people with diabetes, too much glucose in the blood can cause serious foot...
Diabetes Diet: Healthy Meal Plans for Diabetes-Friendly Eating
Discover the best and worst meals for diabetes-savvy dining. See how to avoid carbs and control your blood sugar with healthier...
Type 2 Diabetes: Test Your Medical IQ
What causes type 2 diabetes? Can it be prevented? Take this online quiz and challenge your knowledge of this common condition....
Diabetes Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
Take the Diabetes Quiz and learn the causes, signs, symptoms, and types of this growing epidemic. What does diabetes have to do...
Diabetes: 15 Famous Celebrities With Diabetes
See pictures of celebrities that have been diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes including Mary Tyler Moore, Salma Hayek, and...
Diabetes Management Tips and Preventing Complications
Learn 10 simple ways to better manage your diabetes. See tips for controlling blood sugar, diet and exercise and other helpful...
Pictures of 10 Muscle-Building Exercises for Diabetes
Watch this slideshow on Diabetes and Exercise. If you have diabetes, see how strengthening your muscles with these 10 weight...
Related Disease Conditions
Normal Blood Sugar Levels (Ranges) In Adults with Diabetes
People with diabetes can manage and prevent low or high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia) by keeping a log of your blood sugar levels when you are eating and fasting and eat foods that are high in carbohydrates and sugar, for example, buttered potatoes, candy, sugary desserts, and fatty foods. Blood tests, for example, the hemoglobin A1c test (A1c test) and urinalysis can diagnose the type of diabetes the person has. Diabetes during pregnancy, called gestational diabetes, should be managed by you and your OB/GYN or another healthcare professional. Extremely high levels of blood glucose in the blood can be dangerous and life threatening if you have type 1, type 2, or gestational diabetes. If you or someone that you are with has extremely high blood glucose levels, call 911 or go to your nearest Urgent Care or Emergency Department immediately. To prevent and manage high blood glucose levels in people with diabetes keep a log of your blood sugar levels, eat foods that are high in carbohydrates sugar, for example, buttered potatoes, candy, sugary deserts, and fatty foods that you can share with your doctor and other healthcare professionals.
Low Blood Sugar (Hypoglycemia)
Low blood sugar, or hypoglycemia, is a syndrome in which a person's blood sugar is dangerously low. People with type 1 and type 2 diabetes are at risk for this condition. There are other diseases that can cause a person's blood sugar levels to go too low, for example, pancreatitis, Cushing's syndrome, and pancreatic cancer. Symptoms and signs that your blood sugar levels are too low include palpitations, trembling, intense hunger, sweating, nervousness, and weakness. If your blood sugars become too low, use these nearby as a quick treatment table sugar, soda, juice, and glucose tablets.
Type 2 Diabetes Diet Plan
A type 2 diabetes diet or a type 2 diabetic diet is important for blood sugar (glucose) control in people with diabetes to prevent complications of diabetes. There are a variety of type 2 diabetes diet eating plans such as the Mediterranean diet, Paleo diet, ADA Diabetes Diet, and vegetarian diets.Learn about low and high glycemic index foods, what foods to eat, and what foods to avoid if you have type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2)
Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue. Treatment of diabetes depends on the type.
A stroke is an interruption of the blood supply to part of the brain caused by either a blood clot (ischemic) or bleeding (hemorrhagic). Symptoms of a stroke may include: weakness, numbness, double vision or vision loss, confusion, vertigo, difficulty speaking or understanding speech. A physical exam, imaging tests, neurological exam, and blood tests may be used to diagnose a stroke. Treatment may include administration of clot-busting drugs, supportive care, and in some instances, neurosurgery. The risk of stroke can be reduced by controlling high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, and stopping smoking.
High Blood Sugar (Hyperglycemia)
Hyperglycemia or high blood sugar is a serious health problem for diabetics. There are two types of hyperglycemia, 1) fasting, and 2)postprandial or after meal hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia can also lead to ketoacidosis or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS). There are a variety of causes of hyperglycemia in people with diabetes. Symptoms of high blood sugar may include increased thirst, headaches, blurred vision, and frequent urination.Treatment can be achieved through lifestyle changes or medications changes. Carefully monitoring blood glucose levels is key to prevention.
Diabetes Symptoms in Men
Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which a person's blood sugar (blood glucose) is either too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia) due to problems with insulin regulation in the body. There are two main types of diabetes mellitus, type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes usually occurs during childhood, while type 2 diabetes usually occurs during adulthood, however, rates of both types of diabetes in children, adolescents, and teens is increasing. More men than women have diabetes in the US, and the disease can affect men differently than women.Warning symptoms of diabetes that men have and women do not include low testosterone (low-t), sexual problems, impotence (erectile dysfunction), decreased interest in sex, and retrograde ejaculation. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes symptoms and signs that are the same in men and women include skin infections, numbness or tingling in the feet or hands, nausea, excessive thirst or hunger, fatigue, irritability, blurred vision, weight gain, weight loss, urinary tract infections (URIs), and kidney problems. Treatment for type 1 diabetes is insulin, and treatment for type 2 diabetes are lifestyle changes like eating a healthy diet, getting exercise daily, and if necessary, diabetes medications.
Diabetes Symptoms in Women
Diabetes symptoms in women include vaginal itching, pain, or discharge, loss if interest or pain after having sex, polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS), and urinary tract infections or UTIs (which are more common in women. Symptoms of diabetes that are the same in women and men are excessive thirst and hunger, bad breath, and skin infections, darkening of skin in areas of body creases (acanthosis nigricans), breath odor that is fruity, sweet, or acetone, and tingling or numbness in the hands or feet, blurred vision, fatigue, tingling or numbness in the hands or feet, wounds that heal slowly, irritability, and weight loss or gain. Complications of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the same, for example, skin, eye, and circulation problems, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), high blood sugar (hyperglycemia), ketoacidosis, and amputation. If diabetes is not managed a person may not survive.
Prediabetes is a situation where a person's blood sugar levels are higher than they should be, but aren't high enough to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. There are no signs or symptoms of prediabetes. Some of the risk factors for prediabetes are high blood pressure, high cholesterol, heart disease, smoking, family history, poor diet, and lack of activity. Diet changes along with other healthy lifestyle changes are important in treating prediabetes.
Diabetes Treatment: Medication, Diet, and Insulin
The major goal in treating diabetes is controlling elevated blood sugar without causing abnormally low levels of blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes is treated with: insulin, exercise, and a diabetic diet. Type 2 diabetes is first treated with: weight reduction, a diabetic diet, and exercise. When these measures fail to control the elevated blood sugar, oral medications are used. If oral medications are still insufficient, insulin medications are considered.
Gestational Diabetes (Diabetes during Pregnancy))
Learning how to avoid gestational diabetes is possible and maintaining a healthy weight and diet before and during pregnancy can help. Discover risk factors, tests and treatments for, and signs and symptoms of gestational diabetes.
Type 1 vs. Type 2 Diabetes: Differences
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic condition in which a person's blood sugar (glucose) levels are too high. Over 29.1 million children and adults in the US have diabetes. Of that, 8.1 million people have diabetes and don't even know it. Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent, juvenile) is caused by a problem with insulin production by the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent) is caused by: Eating a lot of foods and drinking beverages with simple carbohydrates (pizza, white breads, pastas, cereals, pastries, etc.) and simple sugars (donuts, candy, etc.) Consuming too many products with artificial sweeteners (We found out that they are bad for us!) Lack of activity Exercise Stress Genetics While the signs and symptoms of both types of diabetes are the same, which include: Increased urination Increased hunger Increased thirst Unexplained weight loss. However, the treatments are different. Type 1 diabetes is insulin dependent, which means a person with this type of diabetes requires treatment with insulin. People with type 2 diabetes require medication, lifestyle changes like eating a healthy diet, and getting regular exercise.
Atrial Flutter: ECG, Symptoms, and Treatments
Atrial flutter is a problem with the atria of the heart. In atrial flutter the atria of the heart rapidly and repeatedly beat due to an anomaly in the electrical system of the heart. It is a type of arrhythmia and can be dangerous because complications can develop easily. Signs and symptoms of atrial flutter include near fainting, palpitations, mild shortness of breath, and fatigue. While the exact cause of atrial flutter is not clearly understood, it's most likely related to your health, what medical conditions you certainly have, poor diet, lack of exercise, and drinking too much alcohol. Atrial flutter is diagnosed by physical examination, medical history, and a sawtooth ECG wave pattern.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that may be reversible with diet and lifestyle changes. Symptoms include excessive thirst, frequent urination, weight loss, fatigue, and an unusual odor to your urine. Most people don't know they have type 2 diabetes until they have a routine blood test. Treatment options include medications, a type 2 diabetes diet, and other lifestyle changes.
A diabetic diet, or diabetes diet helps keep blood glucose levels in the target range for patients. Exercise and medication may also help stabilize blood glucose levels. Keeping track of when you take your diabetic medicine, keeping track of food choices, eating the proper amount of fruits, vegetables, carbohydrates, and fats will also help maintain proper blood glucose levels.
Atrial Flutter vs. Atrial Fibrillation
Atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation (AFib) are two types of a heart problem called atrial tachycardia. Both of these conditions involve the heart's electrical activity, but they are not the same disease. Both diseases are serious and need medical treatment. Common symptoms of these diseases are similar and include: Fatigue Blurry vision Lightheadedness Palpitations Feeling like you may faint Serious symptoms of both conditions are similar and include: Fainting Sweating Severe shortness of breath Chest pain Atrial flutter and AFib are heart conditions that require medical diagnosis (ECG) and treatment by a doctor or other medical health-care professional.
Which is Worse - Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes?
Learn about the similarities and differences between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes.
Snoring is caused by the vibrations of the soft tissues at the back of the nose and throat while a person sleeps. There are many causes of snoring like being pregnant, allergies, asthma, colds, the flu, excess alcohol, some medications, smoking, and sleep position. Obstructive sleep apnea is a condition that causes snoring and can be serious. Treatments to reduce or stop snoring include lifestyle changes, home remedies, antisnoring devices and aids, medical treatments, and at times, surgery.
Diabetes Foot Problems
Diabetes related foot problems can affect your health with two problems: diabetic neuropathy, where diabetes affects the nerves, and peripheral vascular disease, where diabetes affects the flow of blood. Common foot problems for people with diabetes include athlete's foot, fungal infection of nails, calluses, corns, blisters, bunions, dry skin, foot ulcers, hammertoes, ingrown toenails, and plantar warts.
DVT (Deep Vein Thrombosis) During Pregnancy
Deep vein thrombosis or DVT is a condition in which a blood clot becomes embedded in one of the deep veins of the arms, thighs, pelvis, or lower legs. Warning signs and symptoms of DVT include pain, warmth, redness, swelling, leg cramps, and worsening leg pain in the affected extremity. Many conditions and other factors can cause DVTs, for example, during pregnancy including postpartum (6-8 weeks after delivery of the baby), obesity, heart attacks or heart failure, cancer, birth control pills (oral contraceptives), recent surgery, high altitudes, and advanced age. Treatment guidelines for DVT diagnosed during pregnancy is anticoagulation (anti-clotting) drugs, usually, low-molecular-weight heparins. DVT treatment may need to be continued postpartum. Warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) should not be used to treat DVT during pregnancy because it can harm the developing fetus.
How to Prevent Diabetes Naturally
Prediabetes is a condition in which a person has early symptoms of diabetes, but has not yet fully developed the condition. If prediabetes is not treated with lifestyle changes, the person could develop type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes can be prevented with lifestyle changes, for example, eating a healthy diet, getting more exercise, reducing stress, quitting smoking, reducing or managing blood pressure and cholesterol, and managing any other health conditions or risk factors that you may have for developing type 2 diabetes.
Eye Problems and Diabetes
Diabetes and eye problems are generally caused by high blood sugar levels over an extended period of time. Types of eye problems in a person with diabetes include glaucoma, cataracts, and retinopathy. Examples of symptoms include blurred vision, headaches, eye aches, pain, halos around lights, loss of vision, watering eyes. Treatment for eye problems in people with diabetes depend on the type of eye problem. Prevention of eye problems include reducing blood pressure, cholesterol levels, quitting smoking, and maintaining proper blood glucose levels.
Sex, Urinary, and Bladder Problems of Diabetes
Having diabetes can mean early onset and increased severity of bladder symptoms (urinary incontinence and urinary tract infections) and changes in sexual function. Men may have erectile dysfunction; and women may have problems with sexual response and vaginal lubrication. Keep your diabetes under control, and you can lower your risk of sexual and urologic problems.
What Is Paresthesia and What Causes It?
Paresthesia is a tingling or numb sensation that most people have experienced. Learn the signs of paresthesia, what causes paresthesia, how doctors diagnose paresthesia, and what you can do to treat paresthesia.
Diabetes and Kidney Disease
In the United States diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure. High blood pressure and high levels of blood glucose increase the risk that a person with diabetes will eventually progress to kidney failure. Kidney disease in people with diabetes develops over the course of many years. albumin and eGFR are two key markers for kidney disease in people with diabetes. Controlling high blood pressure, blood pressure medications, a moderate protein diet, and compliant management of blood glucose can slow the progression of kidney disease. For those patients who's kidneys eventually fail, dialysis or kidney transplantation is the only option.
Tips for Managing Type 1 and 2 Diabetes at Home
Managing your diabetes is a full time commitment. The goal of diabetic therapy is to control blood glucose levels and prevent the complications of diabetes. Information about exercise, diet, and medication will help you manage your diabetes better. Blood glucose reagent strips, blood glucose meters, urine glucose tests, tests for urinary ketones, continuous glucose sensors, and Hemoglobin A1C testing information will enable you to mange your diabetes at home successfully.
Diabetes: Caring for Your Diabetes at Special Times
Taking care of a disease such as diabetes is a life-long process. Learn how to care for yourself or loved one with diabetes in situations such as illness, work, school, travel, or a natural disaster.
What Are the Early Signs of Type 2 Diabetes?
Type 2 Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by increased blood sugar (glucose) level. Type 2 Diabetes is caused by either insufficient insulin secretion or resistance to that hormone’s action. Insulin is produced by the pancreas and helps process the glucose in the blood. Thus, with inadequate insulin, the bodies can’t burn all the blood sugar for energy in an efficient way. This means the glucose level in the blood rises, causing a variety of symptoms and when severe may even lead to death.
How and Why Does Ethnicity Affect Diabetes?
Diabetes is a condition that causes elevated blood sugar levels. Acquired risk factors are associated with diabetes although ethnicity plays a role in increasing the incidence of the condition.
Do Certain Ethnic Groups Have a Higher Risk of Diabetes?
One out of every 10 people in the United States has diabetes. Pacific Islanders, Alaskan natives and American Indians have the highest prevalence rates of diabetes among groups studied in the United States Census.
Local ResourcesFind a local Doctor in your town
Treatment & Diagnosis
Medications & Supplements
- metformin (Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Glumetza, Fortamet, Riomet)
- Beta Blocker Side Effects (Adverse Effects)
- Jardiance (empagliflozin)
- Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
- Metformin vs. Janumet
- SGLT2 Inhibitors (Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2)
- Saxenda (liraglutide injection)
- Metformin vs. Januvia
- How Long Does Insulin Last After Injection?
- Metformin (Glucophage) vs. Glipizide (Glucotrol)
- Qsymia (phentermine and topiramate extended-release )
- Jardiance Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
- Victoza (liraglutide)
- Actos (pioglitazone)
- Amaryl (glimepiride)
- Side Effects of Glucophage (metformin)
- Side Effects of Lantus (insulin glargine)
- glipizide and metformin
- Trulicity (dulaglutide)
- Precose (acarbose)
- Amaryl (glimepiride) Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
- Tradjenta (linagliptin)
- Actos (pioglitazone) Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
- Glucovance (glyburide/metformin)
- Side Effects of GlucaGen (glucagon)
- Side Effects of Glucotrol (glipizide)
- Side Effects of Farxiga (dapagliflozin)
- Side Effects of Janumet (metformin and sitagliptin)
- Synjardy (empagliflozin and metformin)
- Victoza (liraglutide) Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
- Types of Insulin Medications for Diabetes
- Adlyxin (lixisenatide)
- Baqsimi (glucagon)
- Side Effects of Prandin (repaglinide)
- Side Effects of Januvia (sitagliptin)
- Xiaflex (collagenase clostridium histolyticum)
- Side Effects of Precose (acarbose)
- Side Effects of Byetta (exenatide)
- Bydureon Bcise (exenatide)
- Side Effects of Monopril (fosinopril)
- Synjardy XR (empagliflozin and metformin extended-release)
- Side Effects of Glyset (miglitol)
- Side Effects of Xultophy (insulin degludec and liraglutide injection)
- Regranex (becaplermin) Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
- tolazamide (Tolinase brand has been discontinued.)
- Side Effects of Invokana (canagliflozin)
- Side Effects of Glucovance (glyburide/metformin)
- Side Effects of Tradjenta (linagliptin)
- Xultophy (insulin degludec and liraglutide injection)
- Side Effects of Starlix (nateglinide)
- Glyxambi (empagliflozin and linagliptin)
- Avandamet (rosiglitazone/metformin)
- Side Effects of Symlin (pramlintide)
- Types of Diabetes Type I And II Medications
- Side Effects of Diabinese (chlorpropamide)
- Side Effects of Tolinase (tolazamide)
- Adlyxin (lixisenatide) Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
Prevention & Wellness
- Weekly Injected Drug Could Boost Outcomes for Patients With Type 2 Diabetes
- Could Certain Diabetes Drugs Fight Asthma, Too?
- Can a Drug Help Prevent Diabetic Vision Loss?
- New Procedure May End Insulin for Type 2 Diabetes
- Diabetes Drug Metformin May Protect Aging Brains
- Once-a-Week Insulin for Type 2 Diabetes Shows Promise in Early Trial
- Diabetes, Cholesterol Drug Combo Could Be Toxic
- Common Diabetes Meds Linked to Serious Complication Risk
- Patch Pump Device Could Offer Cheaper Insulin Delivery
- Doctors Describe First Drone Delivery of Diabetes Meds to Patient
- Price Hikes Have Patients Turning to Craigslist for Insulin, Asthma Inhalers
- Medtronic MiniMed 600 Series Insulin Pumps Recalled
- Drug Duo Speeds Regeneration of Key Cells Lost in Diabetes
- Medicaid Expansion Meant More Poor in 'Diabetes Belt' Got Insurance
- FDA Not Recommending Recalls of Diabetes Drug
- Certain Diabetes Meds May Lower Gout Risk, Too
- Health Tip: How to Remember to Take Your Medications
- 'Diabetes Burnout' Is Real, Here's How to Cope
- As Diabetes Costs Soar, Many Turn to Black Market for Help
- FDA Testing Levels of Carcinogen in Diabetes Drug Metformin
- Diabetes Technology Often Priced Out of Reach
- Light-Activated Insulin-Producing Cells May Lead to New Drug-Free Diabetes Treatment
- Why Are Insulin Prices Still So High for U.S. Patients?
- Could a Pill Replace Insulin Shots?
- Older Diabetics May Be Getting Too Much Insulin
- FDA OKs New Pill for Type 2 Diabetes
- Keeping Blood Sugar Steady Helps You Live Longer With Diabetes
- Study Finds Diabetes, Heart Failure a Dangerous Duo
- FDA Approves First Needle-Free 'Rescue' Drug for Low Blood Sugar Episodes
- FDA Approves Victoza Injection for Children 10 Years and Older
- Half-Price Version of Humalog Insulin Now Available
- Newer Diabetes Drugs Linked to 'Flesh-Eating' Genital Infection
- Newer Diabetes Drug Shows Promise in Kids, Teens
- Could Diabetes Drug Metformin Help Keep People Slim?
- Common Diabetes Drug May Also Shield Kidneys, Heart
- High Insulin Costs Come Under Fire on Capitol Hill
- Eli Lilly to Sell Cheaper Version of Insulin Drug
- High-Tech Capsule Could One Day Replace Insulin Injections
- Psoriasis Meds Might Help Fight Heart Trouble, Too
- White House Plan to Disclose Drug Prices May Not Drive Down Costs: Study
- Experimental Drug Could Be New Option for Type 2 Diabetes
- Type 2 Diabetes Before 40 Tied to Mental Illness Hospitalizations
- Common Heart, Diabetes Meds May Help Ease Mental Illness
- Study Eases Concern That Common Diabetes Med Might Harm Bones
- Do Your Gut Bacteria Affect Your Diabetes Meds?
- Some Diabetes Drugs Linked to Higher Heart Risks
- Does Diabetes Damage Brain Health?
- High Cost Has Over 1 in 4 Diabetics Cutting Back on Insulin
- High Deductibles May Mean Poorer Diabetes Care
- Diabetes Drug Might Also Ease Heart Failure Risks
- Could Diabetes Drugs Help Curb Alzheimer's?
- Diabetes Can Make Weight-Loss Harder. Here's Help
- Diabetes Drug Might Help Shield the Heart From Smog's Ill Effects
- Storing Insulin in Home Fridges May Lower Effectiveness
- Can Intermittent Fasting Help Reverse Type 2 Diabetes?
- Type 2 Diabetes Tied to Raised Risk of Tumors, Cancer Deaths
- Common Diabetes Meds May Raise Odds for Amputation
- Access to Diabetes Drugs Improved Under Affordable Care Act: Study
- Adding or Switching Diabetes Drugs Can Put Patients at Risk: Study
- Human Insulin as Good as Costly Synthetic Versions
- Will the Future Be Needle-Free for Diabetics?
- Aggressive Treatment Doesn't Slow Type 2 Diabetes in Children: Study
- Can Type 2 Diabetes Lead to Irregular Periods for Teen Girls?
- Primary Care Doctors Loosen Type 2 Diabetes Goals
- Ozempic Approved for Type 2 Diabetes
- Could Big Lifestyle Changes Be Key to Managing Type 2 Diabetes?
- Got Unused Meds? Here's What to Do