- What are antidepressants (depression medications)?
- List of the types of antidepressants
- Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
- What are the side effects of SSRIs?
- List of SNRIs
- What are the side effects and drug interactions of SNRIs?
- What are serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)? How do they work?
- What are tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)? What are the side effects?
- Which drugs interact with TCAs?
- List of TCAs
- What are monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)? What are the side effects?
- Which other drugs treat depression?
- How do antidepressants work (mechanism of action)?
What are antidepressants (depression medications)?
- Depression medications (antidepressant drugs) are the most commonly prescribed drug class for treating depression.
- Depression is a serious condition that often can be effectively treated with available therapies. Many antidepressants have been developed over the years. The newer classes of antidepressants are tolerated better and are associated with fewer drug interactions than the older types of antidepressants.
- Antidepressant medication side effects and drug interactions are barriers to successful treatment for depression. Some side effects of antidepressants resolve with continued use while other side effects can be managed by dose reduction or adding other therapies. Appropriate management of side effects and avoiding drugs and alcohol that may interact with antidepressants may improve the success of depression therapy.
List of the types of antidepressants
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or SSRIs are the most widely used class of antidepressants. They work by increasing the level of serotonin in the brain. Unlike MAOIs and TCAs, SSRIs do not significantly affect norepinephrine levels in the brain. SSRIs also have fewer and milder side effects, fewer drug interactions, and are much less likely to be associated with suicide than TCAs.
What are the side effects of SSRIs?
Common side effects of SSRIs include:
- Headaches: SSRIs cause headaches and dose-related nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea that improve with continued treatment.
- Insomnia, restlessness, agitation: Insomnia, restlessness, and agitation-which decrease over time-also are associated with SSRIs. Insomnia can be treated with low dose (50-100 mg) trazodone (Desyrel) at bedtime and agitation may be managed by reducing the SSRI dose or treating with anti-anxiety drugs.
- Sexual dysfunction: SSRIs also are associated with sexual dysfunction. Symptoms of sexual dysfunction in men may be treated with:
- Weight gain or loss: Over time, weight loss or weight gain has been associated with SSRIs. Patients may experience weight loss initially but quickly regain weight.
List of SNRIs
What are the side effects and drug interactions of SNRIs?
Drug interactions and side effects associated with SNRIs are similar to those seen with SSRIs, for example:
- Weight gain or loss
- Sexual dysfunction
What are serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)? How do they work?
Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors or SNRIs are the newest class of antidepressants. SNRIs work by increasing the levels of serotonin and norepinephrine that are active in the brain. Serotonin and norepinephrine are produced by nerves and released into the surrounding tissues where they can attach to nearby receptors on other nerves, thereby stimulating the other nerves. The released serotonin and norepinephrine then are taken up and released again by the nerves that produce them. SNRIs block the uptake ("reuptake") of the serotonin and norepinephrine so that more of the serotonin and norepinephrine are free in the tissues surrounding the nerves.
What are tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)? What are the side effects?
TCAs have been in use since the 1950s when imipramine (Tofranil) was shown to be effective for treating depression. TCAs primarily work by increasing the level of norepinephrine in the brain and to a lesser extent serotonin levels. Some TCAs also are antihistamines (block the action of histamine) or anticholinergic (block the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter), and these additional actions allow for uses of TCAs other than for treating depression as well as additional side effects.
What are the side effects of tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) medications?
Serious side effects and adverse events of tricyclic antidepressants include:
- TCAs are associated with a number of cardiovascular (heart and blood vessels) effects such as orthostatic hypotension and abnormal heart rates and rhythms. Orthostatic hypotension may lead to dizziness, falls, and fractures. Orthostatic hypotension may be managed by reducing or discontinuing the TCA dose, increasing salt intake, or treatment with steroids.
- If abnormal heart rhythms develop, TCAs should be discontinued. TCAs are not a good choice for patients with cardiovascular conditions.
- TCAs have anticholinergic effects, which manifest as dry mouth, constipation, urinary hesitation, sexual dysfunction, increased heart rate, and visual disturbance. Desipramine (Norpramin) and nortriptyline (Pamelor) cause less anticholinergic effects than other TCAs.
- TCAs should be avoided in people with prostatic hypertrophy, cognitive impairment, or narrow-angle glaucoma because drugs with anticholinergic side effects can worsen symptoms of these conditions.
Some side effects and treatments of tricyclic antidepressants include:
- Dry mouth relief: Sugarless gum or candy, or pilocarpine (Salagen) oral rinse may alleviate dry mouth.
- Constipation: Constipation may be relieved by bulk laxatives and increased drinking hydrating fluids.
- Urinary retention: Urinary hesitation may be treated with bethanechol (Urecholine).
- Visual disturbances: Visual disturbances may be treated with pilocarpine eye drops.
- Sexual dysfunction: Erectile dysfunction (ED, impotence) may be managed with sidenafil (Viagra), reducing the TCA dose, or discontinuing the TCA. Yohimbine, ginkgo, bethanechol, and neostigmine have also been used for managing TCA induced sexual dysfunction in some patients.
Side effects that are more serious include:
- TCAs also cause sedation. Amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep), doxepin (Sinequan), and trimipramine (Surmontil) are more sedating than amoxapine and desipramine (Norpramin). Sedation may improve after a few weeks of treatment. Sedating TCAs may be beneficial for depressed patients who have insomnia.
- Dose dependent and reversible weight gain may occur during TCA treatment. Amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep) causes weight gain more often than desipramine (Norpramin).
Which drugs interact with TCAs?
- TCAs may inhibit the antihypertensive effect of clonidine (Catapres). Therefore, combining TCAs with clonidine may lead to dangerous elevations in blood pressure.
- TCAs may affect the heart's electrical conduction system. Combining TCAs with drugs that also affect the heart's conduction system (for example, disopyramide [Norpace], pimozide [Orap], procainamide [Pronestyl, Procan SR, Procanbid]) may increase the frequency and severity of an abnormal heart rate and rhythm.
- Combining TCAs with carbamazepine (Tegretol) may result in lower TCA blood levels because carbamazepine increases the breakdown of TCAs, potentially reducing their effect.
- TCAs may increase the blood pressure elevating effect of epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, phenylephrine, and dobutamine.
- Cimetidine (Tagamet) may reduce the breakdown of some TCAs, for example, amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep), increasing the level of the TCA in the body, and potentially leading to increased side effects. As mentioned previously, TCAs should not be combined with MAOIs.
List of TCAs
- amitriptyline (Elavil and Endep are discontinued brands in the US)
- clomipramine (Anafranil)
- desipramine (Norpramin)
- doxepin (Sinequan and Adapin are discontinued brands in the US)
- imipramine (Tofranil)
- nortriptyline (Pamelor; Aventyl is a discontinued brand in the US)
- protriptyline (Vivactil)
- trimipramine (Surmontil)
What are monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)? What are the side effects?
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors or MAOIs were the first class of antidepressants to be developed. They fell out of favor because of concerns about interactions with certain foods and numerous drug interactions. MAOIs elevate the levels of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine by inhibiting an enzyme called monoamine oxidase. Monoamine oxidase breaks down norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine. When monoamine oxidase is inhibited, norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine are not broken down, increasing the concentration of all three neurotransmitters in the brain.
Monoamine oxidase also breaks down tyramine, a chemical present in aged cheese, wines, and other aged foods. Since MAOIs inhibit monoamine oxidase, they decrease the breakdown of tyramine from ingested food, increasing the level of tyramine in the body. Excessive tyramine can elevate blood pressure and cause a hypertensive crisis. Patients treated with MAOIs should adhere to recommended dietary modifications that reduce the intake of tyramine. Interestingly, the 6 mg/24 hour dose of selegiline transdermal system (EMSAM, and MAO inhibitor) does not require dietary restrictions because at this dose EMSAM does not substantially inhibit tyramine. Higher selegiline transdermal system (EMSAM) doses require dietary restrictions.
What are the side effects of MAOIs?
- MAOIs are associated with headache and insomnia, which may decrease with continued use. Headaches may require treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (for example, ibuprofen), and insomnia, which may require treatment with benzodiazepines, for example, diazepam (Valium), or other drugs for insomnia.
- Because MAOIs stimulate the nervous system, they may be beneficial for depressed patients who over sleep or are fatigued.
- Hypertension may occur during therapy with MAOIs. Therefore, blood pressure should be monitored periodically during MAOI treatment. Hypertensive crisis may occur when MAOIs are combined with tyramine containing foods or drugs that constrict blood vessels.
Symptoms of hypertensive crises include
- heart palpitation,
- chest pain,
- increased or decreased heart rate,
- neck stiffness or soreness,
- sweating, and
- dilated pupils.
Other side effects and adverse events of MAOIs include:
- Bleeding in the brain also may occur. Patients should be aware of signs and symptoms of hypertensive crisis and should seek immediate medical treatment if these signs or symptoms are present. Hypertensive crisis may be managed with nitroprusside (Nitropress), labetalol (Normodyne, Trandate), or phentolamine.
- Orthostatic hypotension (feeling faint upon standing due to decreased blood flow to the brain) also occurs. Patients should rise slowly from a sitting position to reduce the effect of orthostatic hypotension. Orthostatic hypotension may be treated with steroids.
- Some patients may experience peripheral edema (swelling of the lower legs and ankles) which can be improved by wearing support stockings.
- MAOIs also are associated with sexual side effects such as:
Sexual side effects may diminish with time or a reduction in dose.
Which other drugs treat depression?
How do antidepressants work (mechanism of action)?
Antidepressants (depression medications) are the most prescribed class of drugs for depression. The exact mechanism of action of antidepressants is unknown.
- The prevailing theory is that antidepressants increase the concentration of one or more brain chemicals (neurotransmitters) that nerves in the brain use to communicate with one another.
- The neurotransmitters affected by antidepressants are norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine.
- The different classes of antidepressants differ in the neurotransmitters they affect. This determines some of their side effects and potential drug interactions.
- All available antidepressants are effective, and for most cases of depression, there is no good evidence that any antidepressant is more effective than another is.
- Side effects, potential drug interactions, and therapy compliance are major factors that influence a doctor's selection of antidepressants for a patient.
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
Learn to Spot Depression: Symptoms, Warning Signs, Medication
Know when you or someone else is depressed. Get information on depression symptoms, signs, tests, and treatments for many types...
What Is Bipolar Disorder? Symptoms, Manic Episodes, Testing
Bipolar disorder (formerly "manic depression") causes extreme mood shifts and manic episodes. Learn about bipolar 1, bipolar 2,...
Sex-Drive Killers: The Causes of Low Libido
Noticing a lack of intimacy with your partner? Here we explore how stress, lack of sleep, weight gain, depression and low T can...
Bipolar Disorder (Mania) Quiz
Who is at risk for developing bipolar disorder? Are you? Take this Bipolar Disorder Quiz to learn more about bipolar disorder, if...
Grief, Bereavement, and Mourning Quiz: Test Your Understanding
Grieving? Whatever your method of dealing with grief, it’s perfectly normal. Take the Grief, Bereavement, and Mourning Quiz to...
Childhood ADHD Quiz: Test, Symptoms & Medication
Find out causes, symptoms, and treatments for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, a widespread behavioral condition...
Depression Quiz: Signs & Symptoms
Many people do not recognize the symptoms and warning signs of depression and depressive disorders in children and adults. With...
Myths and Facts About Therapy
False ideas scare many depression suffers away from therapy and the quick relief and help these pros can provide. Let our experts...
17 Everyday Ways to Ease Depression
The right exercise, diet, and activities -- even playing with a pet --can help you recover from depression. Learn simple...
Healthy Aging: Sneaky Depression Triggers in Pictures
There are many causes and triggers of depression. From too little vitamin B12 to too much time alone, look at these surprising...
Postpartum Depression: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment
Postpartum depression symptoms include insomnia, anger, and irritability after giving birth. Learn about postpartum depression...
Foods That Help Fight Depression
Foods that help fight depression include turkey, Brazil nuts, carrots, shellfish, coffee, leafy greens, salmon, milk, and...
Depression Myths: Overwork, Recklessness and More in Pictures
Folk remedies and half-truths still prevent many from getting treatment for depression. WebMD's pictures show unusual symptoms in...
Physical Symptoms of Depression in Pictures
Depression can cause physical problems such as insomnia, chest pain, fatigue, headaches, and more. Learn the signs of depression...
Related Disease Conditions
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
Irritable bowel syndrome or IBS is a GI disorder with symptoms of constipation, abdominal pain, bloating, and gas. IBS treatment includes medications, dietary changes, and lifestyle changes.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Multiple sclerosis or MS is an autoimmune disorder in which brain and spinal cord nerve cells become demyelinated. This damage results in symptoms that may include numbness, weakness, vertigo, paralysis, and involuntary muscle contractions. Different forms of MS can follow variable courses from relatively benign to life-threatening. MS is treated with disease-modifying therapies. Some MS symptoms can be treated with medications.
Sexual Problems in Men
Male sexual dysfunction can be caused by physical or psychological problems. Common sexual problems in men include erectile dysfunction (impotence or ED), premature ejaculation, and loss of libido. Treatment for sexual dysfunction in men may involve medication, hormone therapy, psychological therapy, and the use of mechanical aids.
Swollen Ankles and Swollen Feet
Swollen ankles and swollen feet is a symptom of an underlying disease or condition such as edema, medications, pregnancy, injuries, diseases, infections, lymphedema, or blood clots.
Anxiety is a feeling of apprehension and fear characterized by symptoms such as trouble concentrating, headaches, sleep problems, and irritability. Anxiety disorders are serious medical illnesses that affect approximately 19 million American adults. Treatment for anxiety may incorporate medications and psychotherapy.
Migraine headache is a type of headache associated with a sensitivity to light, smells, or sounds, eye pain, severe pounding on one side of the head, and sometimes nausea and vomiting. The exact cause of migraine headaches is not known. Triggers for migraine headaches include certain foods, stress, hormonal changes, strong stimuli (loud noises), and oversleeping. Treatment guidelines for migraines include medicine, pain management, diet changes, avoiding foods that trigger migraines, staying hydrated, getting adequate sleep, and exercising regularly. Prevention of migraine triggers include getting regular exercise, drinking water daily, reducing stress, and avoiding trigger foods.
A number of vital tasks carried out during sleep help maintain good health and enable people to function at their best. Sleep needs vary from individual to individual and change throughout your life. The National Institutes of Health recommend about 7-9 hours of sleep each night for older, school-aged children, teens, and most average adults; 10-12 for preschool-aged children; and 16-18 hours for newborns. There are two stages of sleep: 1) REM sleep (rapid-eye movement), and 2) NREM sleep (non-rapid-eye movement).
Depression is an illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts and affects the way a person eats and sleeps, the way one feels about oneself, and the way one thinks about things. The principal types of depression are major depression, dysthymia, and bipolar disease (also called manic-depressive disease).
Bipolar Disorder in Children, Teens, and Adults
Bipolar disorder (or manic depression) is a mental illness characterized by depression, mania, and severe mood swings. Treatment may incorporate mood-stabilizer medications, antidepressants, and psychotherapy.
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is considered a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). PMDD has also been referred to as late luteal phase dysphoric disorder. The cause of PMDD is unknown. Some of the common symptoms of PMDD (not an inclusive list) include mood swings, bloating, fatigue, headache, irritability, headache, breast tenderness, acne, and hot flashes. Treatment for PMDD is with medication to treat the symptoms of PMDD.
IBS Triggers (Prevention)
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disease that can affect the quality of those who suffer from this condition. People with IBS can make lifestyle changes that may modify or control the number and severity of episodes. Certain foods, medications, and hormone levels may trigger IBS episodes, for example fatty foods, dairy products, eating foods in large quantities, foods that contain high levels of sorbitol, foods that produce intestinal gas (broccoli, onions, cabbage, and beans), chocolate, caffeine, physiological stress, some antibiotics, some antidepressants, medicine with sorbitol, and menstrual pain. Exercise, diet, and other lifestyle changes can decrease IBS flares, and prevent the number and severity of IBS episodes of diarrhea and constipation.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Symptoms and Treatments
Multiple sclerosis (MS) symptoms vary from person to person and can last for days to months without periods of remission. Symptoms of MS include sexual problems and problems with the bowel, bladder, eyes, muscles, speech, swallowing, brain, and nervous system. The early symptoms and signs of multiple sclerosis usually start between ages 20-40. MS in children, teens, and those over age 40 is rare. Treatment options for multiple sclerosis vary depending on the type and severity of symptoms. Medications may be prescribed to manage MS symptoms.
Medical Marijuana (Medical Cannabis)
Medical marijuana (medical cannabis) is a medicine that is plant based. There are two species of medical marijuana; 1) Cannabis sativa, and 2) Cannabis indica. Medical marijuana is used to treat pain, nausea, anxiety, MS, insomnia, seizures, and muscle spasms. Medical cannabis is legal in a variety of states in the US. A card or licence is required to purchase medical marijuana in states where it is legal; however, medical cannabis is against Federal law. Medical marijuana comes in a variety of products, for example, gummy bears and other candy, muffins, cookies, drinks, salves, ointments, creams, oils, and wax.
What Is ADHD in Children?
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) causes the following symptoms in children: excessive activity, problems concentrating, and difficulty controlling impulses. Stimulant medications are the most common medication used to treat ADHD.
Overactive Bladder (OAB)
Overactive bladder is a sudden involuntary contraction of the muscle wall of the bladder causing urinary urgency (an immediate unstoppable need to urinate). Overactive bladder is is a form of urinary incontinence. Treatment options may include Kegel exercises, biofeedback, vaginal weight training, pelvic floor electrical stimulation, behavioral therapy, and medications.
The term sex addiction describes the behavior of someone who has an unusually strong sex drive or sexual obsession. Sex and thoughts of sex dominate a sex addict's thinking, making it difficult to work or engage in healthy personal relationships. Sex addicts may engage in exhibitionism, voyeurism, prostitution, compulsive masturbation, or cybersex. Treatment for sex addiction includes individual counseling, marital and/or family therapy, support groups, 12-step recovery programs, and in some cases, medications.
Neuropathic pain is a chronic condition that leads to ongoing pain symptoms. Patients can be predisposed to developing neuropathic pain who have conditions such as diabetes, cancer, stroke, HIV, vitamin deficiencies, shingles, and multiple sclerosis. Patient history and nerve testing are used to diagnose neuropathic pain. Antidepressants, antiseizure medications, and other types of medications are used to treat neuropathic pain. Many people with neuropathic pain are able to attain some level of relief.
Depression in teenagers may be caused by many factors. Symptoms of teen depression include apathy, irresponsible behavior, sadness, sudden drop in grades, withdrawal from friends, and alcohol and drug use. Treatment of depression in adolescents may involve psychotherapy and medications.
Suicide is the process of intentionally ending one's own life. Approximately 1 million people worldwide commit suicide each year, and 10 million to 20 million attempt suicide annually.
What Exactly Does a Psychotherapist Do?
A psychotherapist or therapist is a trained professional who assists people with various mental health conditions such as stress, depression, anxiety, insomnia, addiction, bipolar disorder, negative behavior patterns, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and other debilitating feelings. Psychotherapy is also called talk therapy and can help treat challenges and symptoms associated with mental health and emotional conditions by helping a person understand their repressed feelings, hence equipping them to face new challenges both in the present and future.
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a psychiatric condition, can develop after any catastrophic life event. Symptoms include nightmares, flashbacks, sweating, rapid heart rate, detachment, amnesia, sleep problems, irritability, and exaggerated startle response. Treatment may involve psychotherapy, group support, and medication.
Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a painful complication of shingles. Symptoms include severe pain, itchy skin, and possible weakness or paralysis of the area. There is no treatment for postherpetic neuralgia that is effective for all patients.
What Is Major Depression Disorder?
The American Psychiatric Association defines major depressive disorder (depression) as a common, but serious, medical illness that negatively affects how one feels, thinks and acts. Depression causes sadness and/or a loss of interest in activities once enjoyed. Depression can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems and decrease a person’s ability to function at work and home.
What Are the Four Main Types of Psychotherapy?
There are various approaches to psychotherapy. Which type of therapy will work best may vary from person to person. Therapists often use more than one type of psychotherapy approach in helping their clients. The four most common types of psychotherapy are psychoanalysis, behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy and humanistic therapy.
Depression in Children
Childhood depression can interfere with social activities, interests, schoolwork and family life. Symptoms and signs include anger, social withdrawal, vocal outbursts, fatigue, physical complaints, and thoughts of suicide. Treatment may involve psychotherapy and medication.
People with bulimia nervosa, an eating disorder that involves episodes of bingeing and purging, experience symptoms and signs such as deteriorating teeth, sore throat, constipation, thinning hair, and dehydration. Treatment of bulimia may involve cognitive behavior therapy, family therapy, nutritional counseling, and medication.
Priapism (Penis Disorder)
Priapism is a penis disorder characterized by a prolonged, unwanted erection of the penis. Medical conditions, trauma, or medications can cause priapism. There are three categories of priapism: ischemic priapisim, non-ischemic priapism, and stuttering priapism. Treatment includes medical intervention, medication, and at times, surgery.
Separation anxiety disorder is a common childhood anxiety disorder that has many causes. Infants, children, older kids and adults can suffer from symptoms of separation anxiety disorder. Common separation anxiety treatment methods include therapy and medications. Factors that contribute to how quickly or successfully a child moves past separation anxiety by preschool age include how well the parent and child reunite, the skills the child and adult have at coping with the separation, and how well the adult responds to the infant's separation issues. For example, children of anxious parents tend to be anxious children.
Postpartum depression is a form of depression that occurs within a year after delivery. It is thought that rapid hormone changes after childbirth may lead to depression. Symptoms of postpartum depression include crying a lot, headaches, chest pains, eating too little or too much, sleeping too little or too much, withdrawal from friends and family, and feeling irritable, sad, hopeless, worthless, guilty, and overwhelmed. Treatment typically involves talk therapy and medication.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Teens
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in teens is a disruption of neurocognitive functioning. Genetics contribute to ADHD. Symptoms of ADHD in teens include inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, or a combination of these. Treatment may include cognitive behavioral therapy, behavior therapy, medication, or alternative therapies.
What Is a Nervous Breakdown?
A nervous or mental breakdown is a general term used to describe a period of overwhelming mental distress. This term is usually used to refer to an intense set of emotions a person experiences in a wide variety of mental illnesses, including depression, stress disorder, and anxiety.
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)
Seasonal affective disorder is a type of depression that tends to occur as the days grow shorter in the fall and winter. Symptoms of seasonal affective disorder include tiredness, fatigue, depression, irritability, body aches, poor sleep, and overeating.
Sick Building Syndrome
Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) or also referred to as sick building syndrome or environmental illness is the name given by some to a condition in which various symptoms reportedly appear after a person has been exposed to any of a wide range of chemicals. The exposure may occur as a major event, such as a chemical spill, or from long-term contact with low-levels of chemicals, such as in an office with poor ventilation. As a result of exposure, people with MCS (sick building syndrome) develop sensitivity and have reactions to the chemicals even at levels most people can tolerate.
Is Melancholy the Same as Depression?
Melancholy or melancholia is a severe form of depression and it is now termed "melancholic depression." The word “melancholia” is a Greek word to describe the feeling of intense sadness and hopelessness. Melancholic depression makes people lose interest in almost all activities.
What Are the Types of Eye Care?
Many common eye disorders resolve without treatment and some may be managed with over-the-counter (OTC) products. It's important to visit a physician or ophthalmologist is the problem involves the eyeball itself or the condition hasn't improved after 72 hours of use of an OTC eye care product.
Holiday Depression, Anxiety, and Stress
Though the holidays are a fun time for most, for others, they're a sad, lonely and anxiety-filled time. Get tips on how to avoid depression and stress during the holiday season.
Factitious Disorders by Proxy (Munchausen Syndrome)
Factitious disorders are a mental illness (Munchausen syndrome) in which a caregiver secretly abuses a child by faking symptoms in the child. Symptoms of factitious disorders in victims include chest pain, fainting, and hallucinations. They don’t know what causes factitious disorders; however, it is thought to be a combination of biological variables. Treatment for factitious disorders include a healthcare team.
Dysthymia is a less severe form of chronic depression. Symptoms and signs include insomnia, suicidal thoughts, guilt, empty feeling, loss of energy, helplessness, sluggishness, and persistent aches and pains. Treatment may involve psychotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy, and antidepressants.
Depression in the Elderly
Depression in the elderly is very common. That doesn't mean, though, it's normal. Treatment may involve antidepressants, psychotherapy, or electroconvulsive therapy.
Depression and Suicide
Depression is a psychiatric illness that affects one in six people in the United States. Nearly two-thirds of people with depression do not realize that they have a treatable illness and do not seek treatment. Depression could happen when there is a decrease in the functional balance of the brain chemicals e.g., serotonin and norepinephrine.
Fast-food consumption and lack of exercise are just a couple of causes of childhood obesity. Health effects of childhood obesity include type 2 diabetes, heart attack, stroke, high cholesterol, asthma, sleep apnea, gallstones, fatty liver disease, GERD, depression, and eating disorders.
What Are the Top Five Health Concerns?
The top five health concerns today are hypertension, depression, high cholesterol, diabetes, and substance use disorders.
How to Recognize Symptoms of Suicidal Behavior
People who contemplate suicide see it as a solution to run away from the problems that seem never-ending to them. If they get help in the form of counseling and emotional support at an earlier stage, they can be saved. Some of their words and actions can give you clues if they are at risk of hurting themselves.
Is Journaling Good for Mental Health?
Journaling is the process of writing down your thoughts, ideas, and feelings. While writing your way out of depression might not be possible, journaling may help lower symptoms of depression.
Treatment & Diagnosis
Medications & Supplements
- Anxiolytics (for Anxiety) Drug Class Side Effects
- Anticholinergic and Antispasmodic Drugs
- montelukast, Singulair
- amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep)
- paroxetine (Paxil, Pexeva)
- fluvoxamine (Luvox)
- desvenlafaxine (Pristiq, Khedezla)
- Side Effects of Zoloft (sertraline)
- nortriptyline (Pamelor)
- clomipramine (Anafranil)
- Side Effects of Lexapro (escitalopram)
- Side Effects of Paxil (paroxetine)
- nefazodone (Serzone)
- imipramine (Tofranil)
- St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum)
- Types of Medicine for ADHD
- desipramine (Norpramin)
- esketamine (Spravato)
- doxepin (Sinequan and Adapin are discontinued brand in the US; Silenor)
- sodium bicarbonate
- Aldactone (spironolactone) Side Effects, Interactions, and Warnings
- Rexulti (brexpiprazole)
- trimipramine (Surmontil)
- teriflunomide (Aubagio)
- Types of Antidepressant Medications
- dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera)
- Side Effects of Etrafon (perphenazine/amitriptyline)
Prevention & Wellness
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.