- What are antidepressants (depression medications)?
- List of the types of antidepressants
- Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
- What are the side effects of SSRIs?
- List of SNRIs
- What are the side effects and drug interactions of SNRIs?
- What are serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)? How do they work?
- What are tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)? What are the side effects?
- Which drugs interact with TCAs?
- List of TCAs
- What are monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)? What are the side effects?
- Which other drugs treat depression?
- How do antidepressants work (mechanism of action)?
What are antidepressants (depression medications)?
- Depression medications (antidepressant drugs) are the most commonly prescribed drug class for treating depression.
- Depression is a serious condition that often can be effectively treated with available therapies. Many antidepressants have been developed over the years. The newer classes of antidepressants are tolerated better and are associated with fewer drug interactions than the older types of antidepressants.
- Antidepressant medication side effects and drug interactions are barriers to successful treatment for depression. Some side effects of antidepressants resolve with continued use while other side effects can be managed by dose reduction or adding other therapies. Appropriate management of side effects and avoiding drugs and alcohol that may interact with antidepressants may improve the success of depression therapy.
List of the types of antidepressants
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or SSRIs are the most widely used class of antidepressants. They work by increasing the level of serotonin in the brain. Unlike MAOIs and TCAs, SSRIs do not significantly affect norepinephrine levels in the brain. SSRIs also have fewer and milder side effects, fewer drug interactions, and are much less likely to be associated with suicide than TCAs.
What are the side effects of SSRIs?
Common side effects of SSRIs include:
- Headaches: SSRIs cause headaches and dose-related nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea that improve with continued treatment.
- Insomnia, restlessness, agitation: Insomnia, restlessness, and agitation-which decrease over time-also are associated with SSRIs. Insomnia can be treated with low dose (50-100 mg) trazodone (Desyrel) at bedtime and agitation may be managed by reducing the SSRI dose or treating with anti-anxiety drugs.
- Sexual dysfunction: SSRIs also are associated with sexual dysfunction. Symptoms of sexual dysfunction in men may be treated with:
- Weight gain or loss: Over time, weight loss or weight gain has been associated with SSRIs. Patients may experience weight loss initially but quickly regain weight.
Latest Depression News
List of SNRIs
What are the side effects and drug interactions of SNRIs?
Drug interactions and side effects associated with SNRIs are similar to those seen with SSRIs, for example:
- Weight gain or loss
- Sexual dysfunction
What are serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)? How do they work?
Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors or SNRIs are the newest class of antidepressants. SNRIs work by increasing the levels of serotonin and norepinephrine that are active in the brain. Serotonin and norepinephrine are produced by nerves and released into the surrounding tissues where they can attach to nearby receptors on other nerves, thereby stimulating the other nerves. The released serotonin and norepinephrine then are taken up and released again by the nerves that produce them. SNRIs block the uptake ("reuptake") of the serotonin and norepinephrine so that more of the serotonin and norepinephrine are free in the tissues surrounding the nerves.
What are tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)? What are the side effects?
TCAs have been in use since the 1950s when imipramine (Tofranil) was shown to be effective for treating depression. TCAs primarily work by increasing the level of norepinephrine in the brain and to a lesser extent serotonin levels. Some TCAs also are antihistamines (block the action of histamine) or anticholinergic (block the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter), and these additional actions allow for uses of TCAs other than for treating depression as well as additional side effects.
What are the side effects of tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) medications?
Serious side effects and adverse events of tricyclic antidepressants include:
- TCAs are associated with a number of cardiovascular (heart and blood vessels) effects such as orthostatic hypotension and abnormal heart rates and rhythms. Orthostatic hypotension may lead to dizziness, falls, and fractures. Orthostatic hypotension may be managed by reducing or discontinuing the TCA dose, increasing salt intake, or treatment with steroids.
- If abnormal heart rhythms develop, TCAs should be discontinued. TCAs are not a good choice for patients with cardiovascular conditions.
- TCAs have anticholinergic effects, which manifest as dry mouth, constipation, urinary hesitation, sexual dysfunction, increased heart rate, and visual disturbance. Desipramine (Norpramin) and nortriptyline (Pamelor) cause less anticholinergic effects than other TCAs.
- TCAs should be avoided in people with prostatic hypertrophy, cognitive impairment, or narrow-angle glaucoma because drugs with anticholinergic side effects can worsen symptoms of these conditions.
Some side effects and treatments of tricyclic antidepressants include:
- Dry mouth relief: Sugarless gum or candy, or pilocarpine (Salagen) oral rinse may alleviate dry mouth.
- Constipation: Constipation may be relieved by bulk laxatives and increased drinking hydrating fluids.
- Urinary retention: Urinary hesitation may be treated with bethanechol (Urecholine).
- Visual disturbances: Visual disturbances may be treated with pilocarpine eye drops.
- Sexual dysfunction: Erectile dysfunction (ED, impotence) may be managed with sidenafil (Viagra), reducing the TCA dose, or discontinuing the TCA. Yohimbine, ginkgo, bethanechol, and neostigmine have also been used for managing TCA induced sexual dysfunction in some patients.
Side effects that are more serious include:
- TCAs also cause sedation. Amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep), doxepin (Sinequan), and trimipramine (Surmontil) are more sedating than amoxapine and desipramine (Norpramin). Sedation may improve after a few weeks of treatment. Sedating TCAs may be beneficial for depressed patients who have insomnia.
- Dose dependent and reversible weight gain may occur during TCA treatment. Amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep) causes weight gain more often than desipramine (Norpramin).
Which drugs interact with TCAs?
- TCAs may inhibit the antihypertensive effect of clonidine (Catapres). Therefore, combining TCAs with clonidine may lead to dangerous elevations in blood pressure.
- TCAs may affect the heart's electrical conduction system. Combining TCAs with drugs that also affect the heart's conduction system (for example, disopyramide [Norpace], pimozide [Orap], procainamide [Pronestyl, Procan SR, Procanbid]) may increase the frequency and severity of an abnormal heart rate and rhythm.
- Combining TCAs with carbamazepine (Tegretol) may result in lower TCA blood levels because carbamazepine increases the breakdown of TCAs, potentially reducing their effect.
- TCAs may increase the blood pressure elevating effect of epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, phenylephrine, and dobutamine.
- Cimetidine (Tagamet) may reduce the breakdown of some TCAs, for example, amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep), increasing the level of the TCA in the body, and potentially leading to increased side effects. As mentioned previously, TCAs should not be combined with MAOIs.
List of TCAs
- amitriptyline (Elavil and Endep are discontinued brands in the US)
- clomipramine (Anafranil)
- desipramine (Norpramin)
- doxepin (Sinequan and Adapin are discontinued brands in the US)
- imipramine (Tofranil)
- nortriptyline (Pamelor; Aventyl is a discontinued brand in the US)
- protriptyline (Vivactil)
- trimipramine (Surmontil)
What are monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)? What are the side effects?
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors or MAOIs were the first class of antidepressants to be developed. They fell out of favor because of concerns about interactions with certain foods and numerous drug interactions. MAOIs elevate the levels of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine by inhibiting an enzyme called monoamine oxidase. Monoamine oxidase breaks down norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine. When monoamine oxidase is inhibited, norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine are not broken down, increasing the concentration of all three neurotransmitters in the brain.
Monoamine oxidase also breaks down tyramine, a chemical present in aged cheese, wines, and other aged foods. Since MAOIs inhibit monoamine oxidase, they decrease the breakdown of tyramine from ingested food, increasing the level of tyramine in the body. Excessive tyramine can elevate blood pressure and cause a hypertensive crisis. Patients treated with MAOIs should adhere to recommended dietary modifications that reduce the intake of tyramine. Interestingly, the 6 mg/24 hour dose of selegiline transdermal system (EMSAM, and MAO inhibitor) does not require dietary restrictions because at this dose EMSAM does not substantially inhibit tyramine. Higher selegiline transdermal system (EMSAM) doses require dietary restrictions.
What are the side effects of MAOIs?
- MAOIs are associated with headache and insomnia, which may decrease with continued use. Headaches may require treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (for example, ibuprofen), and insomnia, which may require treatment with benzodiazepines, for example, diazepam (Valium), or other drugs for insomnia.
- Because MAOIs stimulate the nervous system, they may be beneficial for depressed patients who over sleep or are fatigued.
- Hypertension may occur during therapy with MAOIs. Therefore, blood pressure should be monitored periodically during MAOI treatment. Hypertensive crisis may occur when MAOIs are combined with tyramine containing foods or drugs that constrict blood vessels.
Symptoms of hypertensive crises include
- heart palpitation,
- chest pain,
- increased or decreased heart rate,
- neck stiffness or soreness,
- sweating, and
- dilated pupils.
Other side effects and adverse events of MAOIs include:
- Bleeding in the brain also may occur. Patients should be aware of signs and symptoms of hypertensive crisis and should seek immediate medical treatment if these signs or symptoms are present. Hypertensive crisis may be managed with nitroprusside (Nitropress), labetalol (Normodyne, Trandate), or phentolamine.
- Orthostatic hypotension (feeling faint upon standing due to decreased blood flow to the brain) also occurs. Patients should rise slowly from a sitting position to reduce the effect of orthostatic hypotension. Orthostatic hypotension may be treated with steroids.
- Some patients may experience peripheral edema (swelling of the lower legs and ankles) which can be improved by wearing support stockings.
- MAOIs also are associated with sexual side effects such as:
Sexual side effects may diminish with time or a reduction in dose.
Which other drugs treat depression?
How do antidepressants work (mechanism of action)?
Antidepressants (depression medications) are the most prescribed class of drugs for depression. The exact mechanism of action of antidepressants is unknown.
- The prevailing theory is that antidepressants increase the concentration of one or more brain chemicals (neurotransmitters) that nerves in the brain use to communicate with one another.
- The neurotransmitters affected by antidepressants are norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine.
- The different classes of antidepressants differ in the neurotransmitters they affect. This determines some of their side effects and potential drug interactions.
- All available antidepressants are effective, and for most cases of depression, there is no good evidence that any antidepressant is more effective than another is.
- Side effects, potential drug interactions, and therapy compliance are major factors that influence a doctor's selection of antidepressants for a patient.
Depression medications or antidepressants are drugs prescribed for treating depression. There are several types of drug classes of antidepressants including tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs).
Side effects depend on the medication prescribed. Drug interactions, warnings and precautions, and pregnancy and breastfeeding safety should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
Grief, Bereavement, and Mourning Quiz: Test Your Understanding
Grieving? Whatever your method of dealing with grief, it’s perfectly normal. Take the Grief, Bereavement, and Mourning Quiz to...
Childhood ADHD Quiz: Test, Symptoms & Medication
Find out causes, symptoms, and treatments for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, a widespread behavioral condition...
Bipolar Disorder (Mania) Quiz: Test Your Emotional Wellness IQ
Who is at risk for developing bipolar disorder? Are you? Take this Bipolar Disorder Quiz to learn more about bipolar disorder, if...
Depression Quiz: Signs & Symptoms
Many people do not recognize the symptoms and warning signs of depression and depressive disorders in children and adults. With...
Learn to Spot Depression: Symptoms, Warning Signs, Medication
What is depression? Get information on symptoms, signs, tests, and treatments for many types of depression including major...
Bipolar Disorder: Symptoms, Testing for Bipolar Depression
Bipolar disorder (once called manic depression) causes extreme mood shifts and can be disorienting. Our experts define bipolar...
17 Everyday Ways to Ease Depression
The right exercise, diet, and activities -- even playing with a pet --can help you recover from depression. Learn simple...
Sex-Drive Killers: The Causes of Low Libido
Noticing a lack of intimacy with your partner? Here we explore how stress, lack of sleep, weight gain, depression and low T can...
Depression Myths: Overwork, Recklessness and More in Pictures
Folk remedies and half-truths still prevent many from getting treatment for depression. WebMD's pictures show unusual symptoms in...
Postpartum Depression: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment
Postpartum depression is a treatable medical illness which affects women after giving birth. Learn about the symptoms, diagnosis...
Physical Symptoms of Depression in Pictures
Depression can cause physical problems such as insomnia, chest pain, fatigue, headaches, and more. Learn the signs of depression...
Healthy Aging: Sneaky Depression Triggers in Pictures
There are many causes and triggers of depression. From too little vitamin B12 to too much time alone, look at these surprising...
Depression Therapy: Myths, Facts, and More in Pictures
False ideas scare many depression suffers away from therapy and the quick relief and help these pros can provide. Let our experts...
Foods That Help Fight Depression
Food cannot prevent depression, but a healthy diet may boost your mood. Foods like salmon, carrots, Brazil nuts and even...
Related Disease Conditions
Childhood ADD or ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) causes the following symptoms in children: excessive activity, problems concentrating, and difficulty controlling impulses. There are three types of ADHD: the predominantly inattentive type, the predominantly hyperactive/impulsive type, and the combined (inattentive, hyperactive, and impulsive) type. Stimulant medications are the most common medication used to treat ADHD.
Depression is an illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts and affects the way a person eats and sleeps, the way one feels about oneself, and the way one thinks about things. The principal types of depression are major depression, dysthymia, and bipolar disease (also called manic-depressive disease).
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a GI (gastrointestinal) disorder with signs and symptoms that include abdominal pain, bloating, increased gas (flatulence), abdominal cramping, diarrhea, constipation, and food intolerance.Two new tests are now available that may help diagnose irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea and constipation (IBS-M) irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D), and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). Treatment for IBS includes diet changes, medications, and other lifestyle changes to manage symptoms.
Holiday Depression, Anxiety, and Stress
Though the holidays are a fun time for most, for others, they're a sad, lonely and anxiety-filled time. Get tips on how to avoid depression and stress during the holiday season.
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)
Seasonal affective disorder is a type of depression that tends to occur as the days grow shorter in the fall and winter. Symptoms of seasonal affective disorder include tiredness, fatigue, depression, irritability, body aches, poor sleep, and overeating.
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a psychiatric condition, can develop after any catastrophic life event. Symptoms include nightmares, flashbacks, sweating, rapid heart rate, detachment, amnesia, sleep problems, irritability, and exaggerated startle response. Treatment may involve psychotherapy, group support, and medication.
Bipolar disorder (or manic depression) is a mental illness characterized by depression, mania, and severe mood swings. Treatment may incorporate mood-stabilizer medications, antidepressants, and psychotherapy.
Suicide is the process of intentionally ending one's own life. Approximately 1 million people worldwide commit suicide each year, and 10 million to 20 million attempt suicide annually.
Separation anxiety disorder is a common childhood anxiety disorder that has many causes. Infants, children, older kids and adults can suffer from symptoms of separation anxiety disorder. Common separation anxiety treatment methods include therapy and medications. Factors that contribute to how quickly or successfully a child moves past separation anxiety by preschool age include: how well the parent and child reunite, the skills the child and adult have at coping with the separation, and how well the adult responds to the infant's separation issues. For example, children of anxious parents tend to be anxious children.
Postpartum depression is a form of depression that occurs within a year after delivery. It is thought that rapid hormone changes after childbirth may lead to depression. Symptoms of postpartum depression include crying a lot, headaches, chest pains, eating too little or too much, sleeping too little or too much, withdrawal from friends and family, and feeling irritable, sad, hopeless, worthless, guilty, and overwhelmed. Treatment typically involves talk therapy and medication.
Depression in Children
Childhood depression can interfere with social activities, interests, schoolwork and family life. Symptoms and signs include anger, social withdrawal, vocal outbursts, fatigue, physical complaints, and thoughts of suicide. Treatment may involve psychotherapy and medication.
Depression in teenagers may be caused by many factors. Symptoms of teen depression include apathy, irresponsible behavior, sadness, sudden drop in grades, withdrawal from friends, and alcohol and drug use. Treatment of depression in adolescents may involve psychotherapy and medications.
Depression in the Elderly
Depression in the elderly is very common. That doesn't mean, though, it's normal. Treatment may involve antidepressants, psychotherapy, or electroconvulsive therapy.
Sexual Problems in Men
Male sexual dysfunction can be caused by physical or psychological problems. Common sexual problems in men include erectile dysfunction (impotence or ED), premature ejaculation, and loss of libido. Treatment for sexual dysfunction in men may involve medication, hormone therapy, psychological therapy, and the use of mechanical aids.
The term sex addiction describes the behavior of someone who has an unusually strong sex drive or sexual obsession. Sex and thoughts of sex dominate a sex addict's thinking, making it difficult to work or engage in healthy personal relationships. Sex addicts may engage in exhibitionism, voyeurism, prostitution, compulsive masturbation, or cybersex. Treatment for sex addiction includes individual counseling, marital and/or family therapy, support groups, 12-step recovery programs, and in some cases, medications.
Anxiety is a feeling of apprehension and fear characterized by symptoms such as trouble concentrating, headaches, sleep problems, and irritability. Anxiety disorders are serious medical illnesses that affect approximately 19 million American adults. Treatment for anxiety may incorporate medications and psychotherapy.
Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD)
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is an illness where a person is overly preoccupied with some minor or imaginary flaw. People with BDD tend to have cosmetic surgery. BDD can be treated with SSRIs and cognitive behavioral therapy.
Dysthymia is a less severe form of chronic depression. Symptoms and signs include insomnia, suicidal thoughts, guilt, empty feeling, loss of energy, helplessness, sluggishness, and persistent aches and pains. Treatment may involve psychotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy, and antidepressants.
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is considered a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). PMDD has also been referred to as late luteal phase dysphoric disorder. The cause of PMDD is unknown. Some of the common symptoms of PMDD (not an inclusive list) include mood swings, bloating, fatigue, headache, irritability, headache, breast tenderness, acne, and hot flashes. Treatment for PMDD is with medication to treat the symptoms of PMDD.
Factitious Disorders by Proxy (Munchausen Syndrome)
Factitious disorders are a mental illness (Munchausen syndrome) in which a caregiver secretly abuses a child by faking symptoms in the child. Symptoms of factitious disorders in victims include chest pain, fainting, and hallucinations. They don’t know what causes factitious disorders; however, it is thought to be a combination of biological variables. Treatment for factitious disorders include a healthcare team.
Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens
Bipolar disorder, or manic-depressive illness, is a disorder that causes unusual and extreme mood changes. Symptoms of bipolar disorder in children and teens include having trouble concentrating, behaving in risky ways, and losing interest in activities they once enjoyed. Treatment for bipolar disorder in children and teenagers incorporates psychotherapy and medications.
IBS Triggers (Prevention)
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disease that can affect the quality of those who suffer from this condition. People with IBS can make lifestyle changes that may modify or control the number and severity of episodes. Certain foods, medications, and hormone levels may trigger IBS episodes, for example fatty foods, dairy products, eating foods in large quantities, foods that contain high levels of sorbitol, foods that produce intestinal gas (broccoli, onions, cabbage, and beans), chocolate, caffeine, physiological stress, some antibiotics, some antidepressants, medicine with sorbitol, and menstrual pain. Exercise, diet, and other lifestyle changes can decrease IBS flares, and prevent the number and severity of IBS episodes of diarrhea and constipation.
Swollen Ankles and Swollen Feet
Swollen ankles and swollen feet is a symptom of an underlying disease or condition such as edema, medications, pregnancy, injuries, diseases, infections, lymphedema, or blood clots.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Teens
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in teens is a disruption of neurocognitive functioning. Genetics contribute to ADHD. Symptoms of ADHD in teens include inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, or a combination of these. Treatment may include cognitive behavioral therapy, behavior therapy, medication, or alternative therapies.
Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a painful complication of shingles. Symptoms include severe pain, itchy skin, and possible weakness or paralysis of the area. There is no treatment for postherpetic neuralgia that is effective for all patients.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) symptoms vary from person to person, and can last for days to months without periods of remission. Symptoms of MS include sexual problems and problems with the bowel, bladder, eyes, muscles, speech, swallowing, brain, and nervous system. The early symptoms and signs of multiple sclerosis usually start between age 20 and 40. MS in children, teens, and those over age 40 is rare. Treatment options for multiple sclerosis vary depending on the type and severity of symptoms. Medications may be prescribed to manage MS symptoms.
Medical Marijuana (Medical Cannabis)
Medical marijuana (medical cannabis) is a medicine that is plant based. There are two species of medical marijuana; 1) Cannabis sativa, and 2) Cannabis indica. Medical marijuana is used to treat pain, nausea, anxiety, MS, insomnia, seizures, and muscle spasms. Medical cannabis is legal in a variety of states in the US. A card or licence is required to purchase medical marijuana in states where it is legal; however, medical cannabis is against Federal law. Medical marijuana comes in a variety of products, for example, gummy bears and other candy, muffins, cookies, drinks, salves, ointments, creams, oils, and wax.
What Is Major Depression Disorder?
The American Psychiatric Association defines major depressive disorder (depression) as a common, but serious, medical illness that negatively affects how one feels, thinks and acts. Depression causes sadness and/or a loss of interest in activities once enjoyed. Depression can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems and decrease a person’s ability to function at work and home.
What Is a Nervous Breakdown?
A nervous or mental breakdown is a general term used to describe a period of overwhelming mental distress. This term is usually used to refer to an intense set of emotions a person experiences in a wide variety of mental illnesses, including depression, stress disorder, and anxiety.
Depression and Suicide
Depression is a psychiatric illness that affects one in six people in the United States. Nearly two-thirds of people with depression do not realize that they have a treatable illness and do not seek treatment. Depression could happen when there is a decrease in the functional balance of the brain chemicals e.g., serotonin and norepinephrine.
How to Recognize Symptoms of Suicidal Behavior
People who contemplate suicide see it as a solution to run away from the problems that seem never-ending to them. If they get help in the form of counseling and emotional support at an earlier stage, they can be saved. Some of their words and actions can give you clues if they are at risk of hurting themselves.
What Are the Four Main Types of Psychotherapy?
There are various approaches to psychotherapy. Which type of therapy will work best may vary from person to person. Therapists often use more than one type of psychotherapy approach in helping their clients. The four most common types of psychotherapy are psychoanalysis, behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy and humanistic therapy.
Treatment & Diagnosis
Medications & Supplements
- Wellbutrin (bupropion)
- venlafaxine, Effexor XR (Effexor has been discontinued in the US)
- amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep)
- fluvoxamine (Luvox)
- paroxetine (Paxil, Pexeva)
- fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem, Prozac Weekly)
- nefazodone (Serzone)
- Zoloft (sertraline)
- doxepin (Sinequan and Adapin are discontinued brand in the US; Silenor)
- nortriptyline (Pamelor)
- desipramine (Norpramin)
- imipramine (Tofranil)
- Citalopram (Celexa)
- montelukast, Singulair
- trimipramine (Surmontil)
- Lexapro (escitalopram)
- ADD or ADHD Medications
- St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum)
- Anticholinergic and Antispasmodic Drugs
- clomipramine (Anafranil)
- Cymbalta (duloxetine)
- desvenlafaxine (Pristiq, Khedezla)
- dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera)
- teriflunomide (Aubagio)
- Anxiolytics (for Anxiety) Drug Class Side Effects
- Buspar vs. Zoloft (Differences between Side Effects and Uses)
- Cymbalta (duloxetine) vs. Effexor (XR, venlafaxine) Differences in Uses, Dose, and Withdrawal
- Alprazolam (Xanax) vs. Sertraline (Zoloft)
- Alprazolam (Xanax) vs. Temazepam (Restoril)
- Cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril) vs. amitriptyline (Elavil)
- esketamine (Spravato)
- Zoloft (sertraline) vs. Cymbalta (duloxetine)
- Sertraline (Zoloft) vs. Venlafaxine (Effexor)
- Zoloft (sertraline) vs. Paxil (paroxetine)
- Zoloft (sertraline) vs. Prozac (fluoxetine)
- Zoloft (sertraline) vs. Wellbutrin (bupropion)
- Zoloft (sertraline) Side Effects, Warnings, and Interactions
- Aldactone (spironolactone) Side Effects, Interactions, and Warnings
- Rexulti (brexpiprazole)
- Side Effects of Etrafon (perphenazine/amitriptyline)
- Side Effects of Paxil (paroxetine)
Prevention & Wellness
- Meds Like Valium, Xanax Linked to Higher Risk of Ectopic Pregnancy
- Coronavirus Pandemic Creates Shortage of Antidepressant Zoloft
- AHA News: Stroke Survivors Might Need Better Screening for Depression
- AI May Help Guide Patients to Most Effective Antidepressant
- Heavy Drinking Plus Xanax, Valium: A Dangerous Mix
- What Works Best to Treat Depression?
- Antidepressant Doesn't Ease Obsessive Behaviors of Autism
- Could Eating Healthier Be a Natural Antidepressant?
- Gender Reassignment Surgery Does Bring Mental Health Benefits
- Antidepressants Might Raise Odds for Serious Pregnancy Complication
- How to Wait Out a Blue Mood
- Common Antidepressants May Work in Unexpected Way: Study
- Experimental Drug Works Quickly on Major Depression
- Signs of Rheumatoid Arthritis Can Show Up Long Before Diagnosis
- Health Tip: Antidepressant Precautions
- Brain Stimulation May Soothe Severe Depression
- FDA Approves Ketamine-Like Drug for Severe Depression
- FDA Panel Backs Ketamine-like Drug for Depression
- Everyday Medications That Can Ruin Your Sex Life
- Many Say Ketamine Eased Their Depression, But Is It Safe?
- Brexit Had Brits Turning to Antidepressants: Study
- Health Tip: What Causes Memory Loss?
- Stimulating One Brain Area May Ease Tough-to-Treat Depression
- PTSD Patients Do Best When They Choose Their Treatment
- Anti-Seizure Drug May Be New Weapon Against Depression
- Ketamine Being Used as Unapproved Treatment for Depression
- Michael Phelps Champions the Fight Against Depression
- Opioid Addicts Turning to Unapproved Antidepressant to Get High
- Could a Blood Test Help Spot Severe Depression?
- Treating Depression May Prevent Repeat Heart Attack
- Could Antidepressants During Pregnancy Slow a Child's Motor Skills?
- Study Affirms What Many Know: Antidepressants May Lead to Weight Gain
- Could Mom-to-Be's Antidepressants Have an Upside for Baby's Brain?
- Ketamine Nasal Spray Shows Promise Against Depression, Suicide
- Antidepressants Do Work, Some Better Than Others: Study
- Many With Depression Delay, Avoid Treatment
- Postpartum Depression Likely to Recur With Future Pregnancies
- Mom-to-Be's Antidepressants Tied to Kids' Psychiatric Woes
- U.S. Antidepressant Use Jumps 65 Percent in 15 Years
- Antidepressants in Pregnancy Tied to Slight Increase in Autism
- No Sign That Antidepressants in Pregnancy Harm Kids' Brains: Study
- Electric Brain Stimulation No Better Than Meds For Depression: Study
- Antidepressants During Pregnancy Safe for Baby: Study
- What You Need to Know About Antidepressants
- Studies Question Link Between Mom's Antidepressant Use, Autism in Kids
- What Drugs Work Best for Diabetic Nerve Pain?
- New Parkinson's Drug Xadago Approved
- Drug No Better Than Placebo for Lower Back, Leg Pain
- Depression May Hasten Death in Years After Heart Diagnosis
- Hold That Pose: Yoga May Ease Tough Depression
- How Much Melatonin Is Really in That Supplement?
- Government Funding Could Save Canadians $4 Billion on Medicines
- 'Off-Label' Antidepressants Common, But Where's the Evidence?
- Dealing With Diabetes Distress
- Many Seniors Take Multiple Meds That Can Affect the Brain
- Depression Often Untreated in Dialysis Patients
- 1 in 6 U.S. Adults Takes a Psychiatric Drug: Study
- For Heart Attack Survivors, a Risk of Suicide?
- 'Magic Mushroom' Chemical Eases Cancer Patients' Despair
- Depressed Women Less Likely to Get Best Breast Cancer Care: Study
- Self-Harm a Cause of Death During Pregnancy and for New Moms
- Sunday's Time Change Offers a Mixed Bag
- Psychiatric Drugs May Reduce Ex-Prisoners' Violent Crime Rate
- High Rate of Antidepressant Use After Cancer
- Many Take Opioids Reluctantly for Back Pain: Survey
- Mom-to-Be's Antidepressant Use May Be Tied to Speech Issues in Child
- Antidepressant Might Prevent Depression Following Brain Injury
- Many Depressed Adults Not Getting Treatment: Study
- Timing of Autism Diagnosis Tied to Choice of Treatment
- New Guidelines Issued for Cancer Patients' Post-Treatment Pain
- Bipolar Diagnosis May Take Up to 6 Years
- Behavior Changes May Be First Signs of Alzheimer's
- Antidepressant No Help to Heart Failure Patients: Study
- 3 Treatments Seem to Help Combat Binge-Eating Disorder
- Can Drugmakers Buy Doctors' Loyalty With Cheap Meals?
- Opioid Painkillers Raise Deadly Heart Risks for Some: Study
- Strategies That Work to Help Prevent Suicides
- Experimental Drug Acts Fast Against Chronic Migraine
- Study Questions Use of Antidepressants for Children, Teens
- Antidepressants Not Just for Depression Any More
- Scientists Test 'Magic Mushroom' Chemical for Tough-to-Treat Depression
- Could Inducing Brief, Mild 'Fever' Help Ease Depression?
- Got Unused Meds? Here's What to Do
- Mindfulness Therapy May Help Ease Recurrent Depression
- Omega-3 Fish Oil Supplements Might Boost Antidepressants' Effects
- Talk Therapy May Help Depressed Teens Who Shun Antidepressants
- Depression Common for Heart Attack Survivors, And More May Need Help
- Freezing Technique May Ease 'Phantom Limb' Pain for Amputees
- Pediatricians Vary Widely in Diagnosing ADHD, Depression
- Acupuncture May Ease Hot Flashes for Breast Cancer Patients
- Study Finds No Heart Risk From SSRI Antidepressants
- Anxiety, Depression May Reduce Women's Success With IVF: Study
- Many Depressed Teens Don't Get Follow-Up Care
- Did Studies Lack Key Data on Link Between Antidepressants, Youth Suicides?
- Prenatal Antidepressant Use Not Linked to Infant Heart Defects: Study
- No Link Between 'the Pill' and Birth Defects: Study
- Certain Antidepressants May Be Linked to Bipolar Disorder: Study
- Antidepressants in Pregnancy May Raise Autism Risk, Study Suggests
- Talk Therapy, Antidepressants Offer Similar Results for Major Depression
- New Type of Antidepressant Shows Promise in Early Trial
- Safe to Take Antidepressants With Tamoxifen: Study
- Health Tip: These Triggers May be a Nightmare
- Prescription Drug Use on the Rise in U.S.
- 'Placebo Effect' Might Help Predict Response to Depression Treatment
- Antidepressants Top Treatment Choice for Severe PMS: Researchers
- Antidepressant Paxil Isn't Safe for Teens, New Analysis Says
- Impulsive, Agitated Behaviors May Be Warning Signs for Suicide
- Antidepressants During Pregnancy Have Benefits, Risks: Study
- Omega-3s May Protect Against Psychosis
- Taking St. John's Wort for Depression Carries Risks: Study
- Expert Panel Recommends Questionnaire to Help Spot Depression
- Are We Taking Some Medicines for Too Long?
- Antidepressant, Painkiller Combo May Raise Risk of Brain Bleed
- Rexulti Approved for Schizophrenia, Depression
- Another Study Sees Link Between Antidepressants and Birth Defects
- Common Antidepressants Linked to Higher Fracture Odds in Menopausal Women
- FDA Seizes Counterfeit Drugs, Devices Sold Online
- Can You Take Antidepressants While Pregnant?
- Risk to Baby From Antidepressant Use in Pregnancy Is Small, Study Says
- Chantix Study Finds Little Evidence to Support Suicidal, Criminal Warnings
- Do Certain Medicines Raise Murder Risk?
- Health Tip: Factors That May Lead to Weight Gain
- New Meds OK'd for Hard-to-Treat IBS With Diarrhea
- Depression Linked to Death of Many Heart Failure Patients
- More U.S. Kids Getting Mental Health Treatment
- Antidepressants Ease Postpartum Depression, Study Finds
- 'Medical Marijuana' Pill Falls Short in Dementia Study
- Teens With History of Self-Poisoning Face Greater Suicide Risk
- More U.S. Newborns Enduring Drug Withdrawal: Study
- Mindfulness-Based Therapy as Good as Meds for Depression, Study Says
- Narcotic Painkillers in Pregnancy Common, Harmful to Baby: Study
- Antidepressants Linked to First-Time Seizures
- Antipsychotics May Be Deadlier Than Thought for Dementia Patients
- Yoga May Help Ease Depression in Pregnant Women
- Depression During Pregnancy Linked to Child's Asthma Risk
- Easing Depression May Boost Heart Health, Study Finds
- Ways to Treat Depression That Aren't Antidepressants
- Epilepsy Surgery Gets High Marks From Patients in Survey
- More Than Half of Women Have Hot Flashes for at Least 7 Years
- New Binge-Eating Disorder Drug Vyvanse: FAQ
- Certain Allergy, Depression Meds Tied to Higher Odds for Dementia
- After Breast Cancer, Depression Risk Lingers
- Even Depression May Not Dim Thoughts of Bright Future
- 'Exposure Therapy' May Relieve Prolonged Grief Disorder
- Depression After Heart Attack May Be More Common for Women
- Why Aren't There Sex Drugs for Women?
- Obesity and Depression Often Twin Ills, Study Finds
- Behavioral Therapy Deemed Best for Social Phobia
- Ketamine: The Future of Depression Treatment?
- One Dose of Antidepressant Changes Brain Connections, Study Says
- Research Shows Possible Neurological Patterns for PTSD Symptoms
- Sunny Skies Tied to Suicide Rates
- Contrave, Newest Weight Loss Option: FAQ
- Study Questions Link Between Antidepressants, Miscarriage
- Do Antidepressants in Pregnancy Raise Risks for Mental Woes in Kids?
- 'Sleep Drunkenness' Is Common and Linked to Other Behavior Issues
- Talk Therapy Plus Meds May Be Best for Severe Depression
- When Depression Becomes Deadly
- U.S. Hospitals See Big Rise in Drug-Related Suicide Attempts
- Antidepressants in Pregnancy Won't Harm Baby's Heart, Study Suggests
- As Antidepressant Warnings Toughened, Teen Suicide Attempts Rose: Study
- Recession Linked to More Than 10,000 Suicides in North America, Europe
- Weight Gain From Antidepressants Is Minimal, Study Suggests
- Could Certain Antidepressants Slow Alzheimer's?
- Prescription Drug Use Continues to Climb in U.S.
- Higher Doses of Antidepressants Linked to Suicidal Behavior in Young Patients: Study
- New Drugs May Help Prevent Migraines
- Pelvic Exercises May Help His Sex Life
- Study Ties Antidepressant Use in Pregnancy to Autism Risk in Boys
- Pfizer Recalls Some Antidepressants After Drug Mixup
- Pfizer Recalls Effexor Antidepressant
- Antidepressant Celexa May Help Ease Alzheimer's-Linked Agitation
- Primary Care Providers May Balk at Giving Teens Antidepressants
- Antidepressants in Pregnancy Tied to Slight Risk of Lung Disorder in Babies
- Meditation May Reduce Mild Depression, Anxiety
- Kids' Suicide Risk Similar for All Newer Antidepressants: Study
- Experts Lay Out Options for Menopause Symptoms
- Acupuncture No Better Than 'Sham' Version in Breast-Cancer Drug Study
- Antidepressant Use During Pregnancy Not Linked to Autism
- Exercise Might Lift Libido in Women on Antidepressants
- Generic Cymbalta Approved
- Taking Antidepressants During Pregnancy May Not Raise Autism Risk
- Magnetic Brain Stimulation Shows Promise Against Eating Disorders
- Suicide a Risk for Young Cancer Patients, Study Finds
- Lyrica May Ease Pain for Depressed Fibromyalgia Patients
- Many Kids With Autism on Multiple Medications, Study Finds
- Variant of Club Drug 'K' Might Have New Life as Antidepressant
- Depression May Sometimes Foreshadow Parkinson's Diagnosis
- Brintellix Approved for Major Depressive Disorder
- Preschoolers' Use of Psychiatric Drugs Levels Off, Study Shows
- Could Antidepressant Combat Lethal Lung Cancer?
- 'Exposure Therapy' Along With Antidepressants May Help With OCD
- Winter Depression May Be Less Common Than Believed
- Psychotherapy a Powerful Tool to Fight Depression, Studies Show
- Antipsychotic Drugs May Triple Kids' Diabetes Risk, Study Suggests
- 7 out of 10 Americans Take a Prescription Drug: Study
- Depression, Antidepressants Tied to Heart Disease, Diabetes Risk in Older Women
- Canine Research Sheds Light on OCD in Humans
- Pace of New Drug Advances May Be Slowing, Study Finds
- Antidepressants May Be Helpful for Some Heart Patients: Study
- Some Antidepressants May Raise Risk for Gastro Infection
- Antidepressants May Hasten Bypass Recovery, Study Finds
- Some Antidepressants Linked to Bleeding Risk With Surgery
- Bipolar Disorder Drugs May 'Tweak' Genes Affecting Brain
- Prescription Drug Abuse Up Among U.S. Teens: Survey
- Poor 'Health Literacy' Keeps Patients From Taking Meds
- Antipsychotic Meds Not That Helpful for Depression: Study
- Survey Tallies Menopause Symptoms' Toll
- For Alzheimer's Caregivers, Patience and Compassion Are Key
- Untreated Depression May Cut Shingles Vaccine Effectiveness
- Electrical Brain Stimulation Plus Drug Fights Depression: Study
- Psychiatric Drugs More Often Prescribed in the South
- Antidepressants Celexa, Lexapro Tied to Irregular Heartbeat: Study
- No Proof Drugs Ease Kids' Migraines: Study
- Multiple Concussions Could Up Depression Risk in Former NFL Players
- Antidepressants During Pregnancy: Safe?
- Blood Protein Linked to Depression, Study Finds
- Workplace Bullying Takes Toll on Witnesses Too, Study Finds
- Experimental Antidepressant Appears Quick-Acting, Safe
- When Antidepressants Don't Work, Give Counseling a Try
- Antidepressants May Lead to Fewer Seizures in People With Epilepsy
- Schizophrenia Patients Who Take Antipsychotics Live Longer, Study Says
- Common Antidepressants Tied to Higher Bleeding Risk in Warfarin Users: Study
- ADHD Drugs Didn't Raise Heart Risks for Kids, Study Finds
- Common Antidepressants Too Risky During Pregnancy, Researchers Say
- Hypnosis Halts Hot Flashes for Some Women
- Some Antidepressants May Raise Stroke Risk
- Teva's High-Dose Generic Wellbutrin XL Withdrawn
- Psych, Sleep Meds May Affect Driving
- Scientists ID 'Happy' Gene in Women
- Partner Depression Common After Heart Attack
- Could Food Flavors Act Like Mood-Stabilizing Drugs?
- Patients Often Kept in Dark About 'Off-Label' Drug Use: Study
- Grateful Teens May Have Less Risk for Depression, Other Problems
- Brain Changes Seen in Postpartum Depression
- Medicare Coverage Gap May Cause Seniors to Forgo Antidepressants
- Vitamin D Deficiency Linked to Depression
- More Mental Health Woes in College Kids Who Abuse Prescription Drugs
- Scientists Spot More Migraine Genes
- Fear of the Dark May Trigger Insomnia
- Exercise Appears to Ease Nerve-Damage Pain in Rat Study
- More Mental Health Care Urged for Kids Who Self-Harm
- Most Children With Autism Diagnosed at 5 or Older
- Sleepwalking May Be More Common Than You Think
- Bedwetting Misunderstood but Often Treatable
- Benefits of Antidepressants in Autism Overstated?
- After Hospitalization, Men More Likely to Show Up in ER
- Antidepressants Aid Depressed Parkinson's Patients
- Minorities, Medicare Recipients Less Likely to Get Antidepressants
- Planning Pregnancy May Cut Birth Defects
- Prenatal Antipsychotic Drugs Linked to Motor Delays: Study
- Sleep Apnea Linked to Depression
- Depression After Stroke Too Often Goes Untreated
- FDA Adds More Warnings to Antidepressant's Label
- Antidepressants May Raise Risk for Pregnancy Complication
- Study Explains How Shock Therapy Might Ease Severe Depression
- Medication Leading Cause of Child Poisoning in U.S.
- Generic Lexapro Antidepressant Approved by FDA
- Mothers on Antidepressants Less Likely to Breast-Feed: Study
- Severe PMS May Last Longer Than Thought
- Moms' Antidepressants May Affect Babies' Head Size: Study
- Prescription Meds Can Put on Unwanted Pounds
- Could a Statin Lower Your Risk for Depression?
- New Guidelines to Help Breast Cancer Survivors
- Is Grief an Illness? The Debate Heats Up
- Antidepressants May Not Raise Suicide Risk in Youth: Study
- U.S. Soldiers Face Host of Mental Health Issues
- Antidepressants Might Raise Fall Risk in Nursing Homes
- Certain Antidepressants May Raise Lung Risk in Newborns
- Widowers Who Stay Single Might Face More Mental Health Woes
- Medicaid Spending for Depression Rose in Past Decade
- Newer Antidepressants Work Equally Well, Study Finds
- Treatment Shows Promise for Premature Ejaculation
- Prozac May Lessen Autism Symptom in Adults
- Use of Antidepressants on the Rise in the U.S.
- Depression Raises Women's Stroke Risk
- Study: Antipsychotic Drug Does Not Help Veterans With PTSD
- Talk Therapy Plus Self-Help May Fight Pain
- Americans Are Flocking to Alternative Therapies
- Antidepressant Use in Pregnancy: Autism Risk?
- ER Visits for Drug-Related Suicide Attempts Up in Men
- Lists of Prescription Meds' Side Effects Keep Growing: Study
- Recall of Generic Citalopram, Finasteride
- Drug-Related Poisonings Land Many in ER
- Depression Rising, but Psychotherapy Declines
- Older Antidepressants Linked to Heart Risk
- Seizure and Pain Drug May Treat Hot Flashes
- SAM-e May Boost Effects of Antidepressants
- Stop-Smoking Aid Chantix Sparks Safety Concerns
- Survey: Talk Therapy as Good as Antidepressants
- Drug Tests Often Trigger False Positives
- Cataracts From Antidepressants?
- Acupuncture Eases Depression in Pregnancy
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.