- What is an antidepressant medication?
- How do antidepressants work?
- How do selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) work?
- What are the side effects of SSRIs?
- What are examples of SSRIs?
- How do serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)? work
- What are the side effects and drug interactions for SNRIs?
- What are examples of SNRIs?
- What are examples and side effects of tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) medications?
- What are examples and side effects of monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) medications?
- What other antidepressants are available?
What is an antidepressant medication?
Depression is a serious condition that often can be effectively treated with available therapies. Many antidepressants have been developed over the years. The newer classes of antidepressants are better tolerated and associated with fewer drug interactions than the older class of antidepressants. Side effects and drug interactions are barriers to successful treatment. Some side effects of antidepressants resolve with continued use while other side effects can be managed by dose reduction or adding other therapies. Appropriate management of side effects and avoidance of drugs that may interact with antidepressants may improve the success of antidepressant therapy.
This article discusses side effects and potential drug interactions of the major antidepressant classes.
How do antidepressants work?
Antidepressants are the most prescribed drug for depression. The exact mechanism of action of antidepressants is unknown.
- The prevailing theory is that antidepressants increase the
concentration of one or more brain chemicals (neurotransmitters) that nerves in the brain use to communicate with one
- The neurotransmitters affected by antidepressants are norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine.
- The different classes of antidepressants differ in the neurotransmitters they affect. This determines some of their side effects and potential drug interactions.
- All available antidepressants are effective, and for most cases of depression there is no good evidence that any antidepressant is more effective than another.
- Side effects, potential drug interactions, and therapy compliance are major factors that influence a doctor's selection of antidepressants for a patient.
Quick GuidePhysical Symptoms of Depression in Pictures
How do selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) work?
SSRIs are the most widely used class of antidepressants. They work by increasing the level of serotonin in the brain. Unlike MAOIs and TCAs, SSRIs do not significantly affect norepinephrine levels in the brain. SSRIs also have fewer and milder side effects, fewer drug interactions, and are much less likely to be associated with suicide than TCAs.
What are the side effects of SSRIs?
- Headaches: SSRIs cause headaches and dose-related nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea that improve with continued treatment.
- Insomnia, restlessness, agitation: Insomnia, restlessness, and agitation-which decrease over time-also are associated with SSRIs. Insomnia can be treated with low dose (50-100 mg) trazodone (Desyrel) at bedtime and agitation may be managed by reducing the SSRI dose or treating with anti-anxiety drugs.
- Sexual dysfunction: SSRIs also are associated with sexual dysfunction. Symptoms of sexual dysfunction in men may be treated with sildenafil (Viagra), yohimbine (Pausinystalia yohimbe), amantadine (Symmetrel), cyproheptadine, or neostigmine (Prostigmin).
- Weight gain or loss: Over time, weight loss or weight gain has been associated with SSRIs. Patients may experience weight loss initially but quickly regain weight.
What drugs interact with SSRIs?
- Confusion, high blood pressure, tremor, hyperactivity, coma, and death may occur when SSRIs are combined with other drugs that increase brain serotonin levels, for example, MAOIs, TCAs, sumatriptan (Imitrex), linezolid (Zyvox), St John's Wort, tramadol (Ultram), and meperidine (Demerol).
- The risk of gastrointestinal bleeding may be increased when SSRIs are combined with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
- SSRIs may increase the effect of the blood thinner warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven), leading to excessive bleeding. Therefore, warfarin therapy, and patients taking NSAIDs should be monitored more frequently with PT/INR testing in individuals who also are taking SSRIs.
What are examples of SSRIs?
How do serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)? work
SNRIs are the newest class of antidepressants. SNRIs work by increasing the levels of serotonin and norepinephrine that are active in the brain. Serotonin and norepinephrine are produced by nerves and released into the surrounding tissues where they can attach to nearby receptors on other nerves, thereby stimulating the other nerves. The released serotonin and norepinephrine then are taken up and released again by the nerves that produce them. SNRIs block the uptake ("reuptake") of the serotonin and norepinephrine so that more of the serotonin and norepinephrine are free in the tissues surrounding the nerves.
What are the side effects and drug interactions for SNRIs?
Drug interactions and side effects associated with SNRIs are similar to those seen with SSRIs.
SNRIs may increase blood pressure, especially at high doses. High blood pressure caused by SNRIs may be managed by reducing the dose of the SNRI.
What are examples of SNRIs?
What are examples and side effects of tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) medications?
What are examples and side effects of tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) medications?
- TCAs have been in use since the 1950s when imipramine (Tofranil) was shown to be effective for treating depression.
- TCAs primarily work by increasing the level of norepinephrine in the brain and to a lesser extent serotonin levels.
- Some TCAs also are antihistamines (block the action of histamine) or anticholinergic (block the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter), and these additional actions allow for uses of TCAs other than for treating depression as well as additional side effects.
What are the side effects of tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) medications?
Serious side effects and adverse events of tricyclic antidepressants include:
- TCAs are associated with a number of cardiovascular (heart and blood vessels) effects such as orthostatic hypotension and abnormal heart rates and rhythms. Orthostatic hypotension may lead to dizziness, falls, and fractures. Orthostatic hypotension may be managed by reducing or discontinuing the TCA dose, increasing salt intake, or treatment with steroids.
- If abnormal heart rhythms develop, TCAs should be discontinued. TCAs are not a good choice for patients with cardiovascular conditions.
- TCAs have anticholinergic effects which manifest as dry mouth, constipation, urinary hesitation, sexual dysfunction, increased heart rate, and visual disturbance. Desipramine (Norpramin) and nortriptyline (Pamelor) cause less anticholinergic effects than other TCAs.
- TCAs should be avoided by individuals with prostatic hypertrophy, cognitive impairment, or narrow-angle glaucoma because drugs with anticholinergic side effects can worsen symptoms of these conditions.
Some side effects and treatments of tricyclic antidepressants include:
- Dry mouth relief: Sugarless gum or candy, or pilocarpine (Salagen) oral rinse may alleviate dry mouth.
- Constipation: Constipation may be relieved by bulk laxatives and increased drinking hydrating fluids.
- Urinary retention: Urinary hesitation may be treated with bethanechol (Urecholine).
- Visual disturbances: Visual disturbances may be treated with pilocarpine eye drops.
- Sexual dysfunction: Erectile dysfunction (ED, impotence) may be managed with sidenafil (Viagra), reducing the TCA dose or discontinuing the TCA. Yohimbine, ginkgo, bethanechol, and neostigmine have also been used for managing TCA induced sexual dysfunction in some patients.
More serious side effects include:
- TCAs also cause sedation. Amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep), doxepin (Sinequan), and trimipramine (Surmontil) are more sedating than amoxapine and desipramine (Norpramin). Sedation may improve after a few weeks of treatment. Sedating TCAs may be beneficial for depressed patients who have insomnia.
- Dose dependent and reversible weight gain may occur during TCA treatment. Amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep) causes weight gain more often than desipramine (Norpramin).
What drugs interact with TCAs?
- TCAs may inhibit the antihypertensive effect of clonidine (Catapres). Therefore, combining TCAs with clonidine may lead to dangerous elevations in blood pressure.
- TCAs may affect the heart's electrical conduction system. Combining TCAs with drugs that also affect the heart's conduction system (for example, disopyramide [Norpace], pimozide [Orap], procainamide [Pronestyl, Procan SR, Procanbid]) may increase the frequency and severity of an abnormal heart rate and rhythm.
- Combining TCAs with carbamazepine (Tegretol) may result in lower TCA blood levels because carbamazepine increases the break down of TCAs, potentially reducing their effect.
- TCAs may increase the blood pressure elevating effect of epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, phenylephrine, and dobutamine.
- Cimetidine (Tagamet) may reduce the breakdown of some TCAs, for example, amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep), increasing the level of the TCA in the body and potentially leading to increased side effects. As mentioned previously, TCAs should not be combined with MAOIs.
What are examples of TCAs?
- amitriptyline (Elavil and Endep are discontinued brands in the US)
- clomipramine (Anafranil)
- desipramine (Norpramin)
- doxepin (Sinequan and Adapin are discontinued brands in the US)
- imipramine (Tofranil)
- nortriptyline (Pamelor; Aventyl is a discontinued brand in the US)
- protriptyline (Vivactil)
- trimipramine (Surmontil)
What are examples and side effects of monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) medications?
MAOIs were the first class of antidepressants to be developed. They fell out of favor because of concerns about interactions with certain foods and numerous drug interactions. MAOIs elevate the levels of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine by inhibiting an enzyme called monoamine oxidase. Monoamine oxidase breaks down norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine. When monoamine oxidase is inhibited, norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine are not broken down, increasing the concentration of all three neurotransmitters in the brain.
Monoamine oxidase also breaks down tyramine, a chemical present in aged cheese, wines, and other aged foods. Since MAOIs inhibit monoamine oxidase they decrease the breakdown of tyramine from ingested food, increasing the level of tyramine in the body. Excessive tyramine can elevate blood pressure and cause a hypertensive crisis. Patients treated with MAOIs should adhere to recommended dietary modifications that reduce the intake of tyramine. Interestingly, the 6 mg/24 hour dose of selegiline transdermal system (EMSAM, and MAO inhibitor) does not require dietary restrictions because at this dose EMSAM does not substantially inhibit tyramine. Higher selegiline transdermal system (EMSAM) doses require dietary restrictions.
What are the side effects of MAOIs?
- MAOIs are associated with headache and insomnia which may decrease with continued use. Headaches may require treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (for example, ibuprofen), and insomnia may require treatment with benzodiazepines (for example, diazepam [Valium]) or other drugs for insomnia.
- Because MAOIs stimulate the nervous system, they may be beneficial for depressed patients who over sleep or are fatigued.
- Hypertension may occur during therapy with MAOIs. Therefore, blood pressure should be monitored periodically during MAOI treatment. Hypertensive crisis may occur when MAOIs are combined with tyramine containing foods or drugs that constrict blood vessels.
Symptoms of hypertensive crises include
- heart palpitation,
- chest pain,
- increased or decreased heart rate,
- neck stiffness or soreness,
- sweating, and
- dilated pupils.
Other side effects and adverse events of MAOIs include:
- Bleeding in the brain also may occur. Patients should be aware of signs and symptoms of hypertensive crisis and should seek immediate medical treatment if these signs or symptoms are present. Hypertensive crisis may be managed with nitroprusside (Nitropress), labetalol (Normodyne, Trandate), or phentolamine.
- Orthostatic hypotension (feeling faint upon standing due to decreased blood flow to the brain) also occurs. Patients should rise slowly from a sitting position to reduce the effect of orthostatic hypotension. Orthostatic hypotension may be treated with steroids.
- Some patients may experience peripheral edema (swelling of the lower legs and ankles) which can be improved by wearing support stockings.
- MAOIs also are associated with sexual side effects such as decreased sexual drive, erectile dysfunction, difficulty ejaculating or reaching orgasm. Sexual side effects may diminish with time or a reduction in dose.
What drug interactions may occur with MAOIs?
MAOIs are associated with several significant drug interactions; limiting their usefulness in patients who are treated with multiple drugs. MAOIs interact with drugs that increase serotonin activity in the brain, increase norepinephrine, constrict blood vessels, or inhibit monoamine oxidase.
Drugs that increase serotonin in the brain include:
- selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, for example, fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Paxil, Paxil CR, Pexeva), fluvoxamine (Luvox), and sertraline (Zoloft)
- serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, for example, venlafaxine (Effexor) and desvenlafaxine (Pristiq)
- tricyclic antidepressants, for example, imipramine (Tofranil), desipramine (Norpramin), amitriptyline
- St. John's Wort
- tramadol (Ultram)
- fentanyl (Sublimaze, Duragesic)
- propoxyphene (Darvon)
- other MAOIs, for example, tranylcypromine (Parnate), phenelzine (Nardil), isocarboxazid (Marplan)
Combining MAOIs with drugs that increase serotonin may cause
- coma, and
Combining MAOIs with norepinephrine or drugs that constrict blood vessels (epinephrine, amphetamines, pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, and phenylephrine) may increase blood pressure to dangerous levels.
The antibiotic linezolid (Zyvox) and intravenous methylene blue should not be combined with MAOIs because they also inhibit monoamine oxidase.
MAOIs should be discontinued at least two weeks before administration of drugs that interact with MAOIs. Drugs that interact with MAOIs should be discontinued at least 1-2 weeks before administration of MAOIs. Because the effect of fluoxetine lasts for several weeks after discontinuation, MAOIs should not be initiated for at least five weeks after stopping fluoxetine.
What are examples of MAOIs?
- phenelzine (Nardil)
- tranylcypromine (Parnate)
- isocarboxazid (Marplan)
- selegiline transdermal system (EMSAM)
Quick GuidePhysical Symptoms of Depression in Pictures
What other antidepressants are available?
- tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs),
- selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs),
- serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and
- monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs).
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Treatment & Diagnosis
Medications & Supplements
- Lexapro (escitalopram)
- Anticholinergic and Antispasmodic Drugs
- bupropion (Wellbutrin, Wellbutrin SR, Wellbutrin XL, Zyban, Aplenzin, Fortivo XL, Zyban)
- Zoloft (sertraline)
- citalopram, Celexa
- duloxetine, Cymbalta
- amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep)
- fluoxetine, Prozac, Sarafem, Prozac Weekly
- venlafaxine, Effexor XR (Effexor has been discontinued in the US)
- Anxiolytics (for Anxiety) Drug Class Side Effects
- montelukast, Singulair
- paroxetine, Paxil, Paxil CR, Pexeva
- ADD or ADHD Medications
- doxepin (Sinequan and Adapin are discontinued brand in the US; Silenor)
- fluvoxamine (Luvox and Luvox CR have been discontinued)
- nortriptyline, Pamelor, Aventyl - has been discontinued in the U.S.
- Cymbalta (duloxetine) vs. Effexor (XR, venlafaxine) Differences in Uses, Dose, and Withdrawal
- desipramine, Norpramin
- desvenlafaxine (Pristiq, Khedezla)
- Buspar vs. Zoloft (Differences between Side Effects and Uses)
- clomipramine (Anafranil)
- St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum)
- imipramine, Tofranil, Tofranil-PM
- nefazodone, Serzone
- trimipramine (Surmontil)
- dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera)
- teriflunomide (Aubagio)
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- 'Placebo Effect' Might Help Predict Response to Depression Treatment
- Antidepressants Top Treatment Choice for Severe PMS: Researchers
- Antidepressant Paxil Isn't Safe for Teens, New Analysis Says
- Impulsive, Agitated Behaviors May Be Warning Signs for Suicide
- Antidepressants During Pregnancy Have Benefits, Risks: Study
- Omega-3s May Protect Against Psychosis
- Taking St. John's Wort for Depression Carries Risks: Study
- Expert Panel Recommends Questionnaire to Help Spot Depression
- Are We Taking Some Medicines for Too Long?
- Antidepressant, Painkiller Combo May Raise Risk of Brain Bleed
- Rexulti Approved for Schizophrenia, Depression
- Another Study Sees Link Between Antidepressants and Birth Defects
- Common Antidepressants Linked to Higher Fracture Odds in Menopausal Women
- FDA Seizes Counterfeit Drugs, Devices Sold Online
- Can You Take Antidepressants While Pregnant?
- Risk to Baby From Antidepressant Use in Pregnancy Is Small, Study Says
- Chantix Study Finds Little Evidence to Support Suicidal, Criminal Warnings
- Do Certain Medicines Raise Murder Risk?
- Health Tip: Factors That May Lead to Weight Gain
- New Meds OK'd for Hard-to-Treat IBS With Diarrhea
- Depression Linked to Death of Many Heart Failure Patients
- More U.S. Kids Getting Mental Health Treatment
- Antidepressants Ease Postpartum Depression, Study Finds
- 'Medical Marijuana' Pill Falls Short in Dementia Study
- Teens With History of Self-Poisoning Face Greater Suicide Risk
- More U.S. Newborns Enduring Drug Withdrawal: Study
- Mindfulness-Based Therapy as Good as Meds for Depression, Study Says
- Narcotic Painkillers in Pregnancy Common, Harmful to Baby: Study
- Antidepressants Linked to First-Time Seizures
- Antipsychotics May Be Deadlier Than Thought for Dementia Patients
- Yoga May Help Ease Depression in Pregnant Women
- Depression During Pregnancy Linked to Child's Asthma Risk
- Easing Depression May Boost Heart Health, Study Finds
- Ways to Treat Depression That Aren't Antidepressants
- Epilepsy Surgery Gets High Marks From Patients in Survey
- More Than Half of Women Have Hot Flashes for at Least 7 Years
- New Binge-Eating Disorder Drug Vyvanse: FAQ
- Certain Allergy, Depression Meds Tied to Higher Odds for Dementia
- After Breast Cancer, Depression Risk Lingers
- Even Depression May Not Dim Thoughts of Bright Future
- 'Exposure Therapy' May Relieve Prolonged Grief Disorder
- Depression After Heart Attack May Be More Common for Women
- Why Aren't There Sex Drugs for Women?
- Obesity and Depression Often Twin Ills, Study Finds
- Behavioral Therapy Deemed Best for Social Phobia
- Ketamine: The Future of Depression Treatment?
- One Dose of Antidepressant Changes Brain Connections, Study Says
- Research Shows Possible Neurological Patterns for PTSD Symptoms
- Sunny Skies Tied to Suicide Rates
- Contrave, Newest Weight Loss Option: FAQ
- Study Questions Link Between Antidepressants, Miscarriage
- Do Antidepressants in Pregnancy Raise Risks for Mental Woes in Kids?
- 'Sleep Drunkenness' Is Common and Linked to Other Behavior Issues
- Talk Therapy Plus Meds May Be Best for Severe Depression
- When Depression Becomes Deadly
- U.S. Hospitals See Big Rise in Drug-Related Suicide Attempts
- Antidepressants in Pregnancy Won't Harm Baby's Heart, Study Suggests
- As Antidepressant Warnings Toughened, Teen Suicide Attempts Rose: Study
- Recession Linked to More Than 10,000 Suicides in North America, Europe
- Weight Gain From Antidepressants Is Minimal, Study Suggests
- Could Certain Antidepressants Slow Alzheimer's?
- Prescription Drug Use Continues to Climb in U.S.
- Higher Doses of Antidepressants Linked to Suicidal Behavior in Young Patients: Study
- New Drugs May Help Prevent Migraines
- Pelvic Exercises May Help His Sex Life
- Study Ties Antidepressant Use in Pregnancy to Autism Risk in Boys
- Pfizer Recalls Some Antidepressants After Drug Mixup
- Pfizer Recalls Effexor Antidepressant
- Antidepressant Celexa May Help Ease Alzheimer's-Linked Agitation
- Primary Care Providers May Balk at Giving Teens Antidepressants
- Antidepressants in Pregnancy Tied to Slight Risk of Lung Disorder in Babies
- Meditation May Reduce Mild Depression, Anxiety
- Kids' Suicide Risk Similar for All Newer Antidepressants: Study
- Experts Lay Out Options for Menopause Symptoms
- Acupuncture No Better Than 'Sham' Version in Breast-Cancer Drug Study
- Antidepressant Use During Pregnancy Not Linked to Autism
- Exercise Might Lift Libido in Women on Antidepressants
- Generic Cymbalta Approved
- Taking Antidepressants During Pregnancy May Not Raise Autism Risk
- Magnetic Brain Stimulation Shows Promise Against Eating Disorders
- Suicide a Risk for Young Cancer Patients, Study Finds
- Lyrica May Ease Pain for Depressed Fibromyalgia Patients
- Many Kids With Autism on Multiple Medications, Study Finds
- Variant of Club Drug 'K' Might Have New Life as Antidepressant
- Depression May Sometimes Foreshadow Parkinson's Diagnosis
- Brintellix Approved for Major Depressive Disorder
- Preschoolers' Use of Psychiatric Drugs Levels Off, Study Shows
- Could Antidepressant Combat Lethal Lung Cancer?
- 'Exposure Therapy' Along With Antidepressants May Help With OCD
- Winter Depression May Be Less Common Than Believed
- Psychotherapy a Powerful Tool to Fight Depression, Studies Show
- Antipsychotic Drugs May Triple Kids' Diabetes Risk, Study Suggests
- 7 out of 10 Americans Take a Prescription Drug: Study
- Depression, Antidepressants Tied to Heart Disease, Diabetes Risk in Older Women
- Canine Research Sheds Light on OCD in Humans
- Pace of New Drug Advances May Be Slowing, Study Finds
- Antidepressants May Be Helpful for Some Heart Patients: Study
- Some Antidepressants May Raise Risk for Gastro Infection
- Antidepressants May Hasten Bypass Recovery, Study Finds
- Some Antidepressants Linked to Bleeding Risk With Surgery
- Bipolar Disorder Drugs May 'Tweak' Genes Affecting Brain
- Prescription Drug Abuse Up Among U.S. Teens: Survey
- Poor 'Health Literacy' Keeps Patients From Taking Meds
- Antipsychotic Meds Not That Helpful for Depression: Study
- Survey Tallies Menopause Symptoms' Toll
- For Alzheimer's Caregivers, Patience and Compassion Are Key
- Untreated Depression May Cut Shingles Vaccine Effectiveness
- Electrical Brain Stimulation Plus Drug Fights Depression: Study
- Psychiatric Drugs More Often Prescribed in the South
- Antidepressants Celexa, Lexapro Tied to Irregular Heartbeat: Study
- No Proof Drugs Ease Kids' Migraines: Study
- Multiple Concussions Could Up Depression Risk in Former NFL Players
- Antidepressants During Pregnancy: Safe?
- Blood Protein Linked to Depression, Study Finds
- Workplace Bullying Takes Toll on Witnesses Too, Study Finds
- Experimental Antidepressant Appears Quick-Acting, Safe
- When Antidepressants Don't Work, Give Counseling a Try
- Antidepressants May Lead to Fewer Seizures in People With Epilepsy
- Schizophrenia Patients Who Take Antipsychotics Live Longer, Study Says
- Common Antidepressants Tied to Higher Bleeding Risk in Warfarin Users: Study
- ADHD Drugs Didn't Raise Heart Risks for Kids, Study Finds
- Common Antidepressants Too Risky During Pregnancy, Researchers Say
- Hypnosis Halts Hot Flashes for Some Women
- Some Antidepressants May Raise Stroke Risk
- Teva's High-Dose Generic Wellbutrin XL Withdrawn
- Psych, Sleep Meds May Affect Driving
- Scientists ID 'Happy' Gene in Women
- Partner Depression Common After Heart Attack
- Could Food Flavors Act Like Mood-Stabilizing Drugs?
- Patients Often Kept in Dark About 'Off-Label' Drug Use: Study
- Grateful Teens May Have Less Risk for Depression, Other Problems
- Brain Changes Seen in Postpartum Depression
- Medicare Coverage Gap May Cause Seniors to Forgo Antidepressants
- Vitamin D Deficiency Linked to Depression
- More Mental Health Woes in College Kids Who Abuse Prescription Drugs
- Scientists Spot More Migraine Genes
- Fear of the Dark May Trigger Insomnia
- Exercise Appears to Ease Nerve-Damage Pain in Rat Study
- More Mental Health Care Urged for Kids Who Self-Harm
- Most Children With Autism Diagnosed at 5 or Older
- Sleepwalking May Be More Common Than You Think
- Bedwetting Misunderstood but Often Treatable
- Benefits of Antidepressants in Autism Overstated?
- After Hospitalization, Men More Likely to Show Up in ER
- Antidepressants Aid Depressed Parkinson's Patients
- Minorities, Medicare Recipients Less Likely to Get Antidepressants
- Planning Pregnancy May Cut Birth Defects
- Prenatal Antipsychotic Drugs Linked to Motor Delays: Study
- Sleep Apnea Linked to Depression
- Depression After Stroke Too Often Goes Untreated
- FDA Adds More Warnings to Antidepressant's Label
- Antidepressants May Raise Risk for Pregnancy Complication
- Study Explains How Shock Therapy Might Ease Severe Depression
- Medication Leading Cause of Child Poisoning in U.S.
- Generic Lexapro Antidepressant Approved by FDA
- Mothers on Antidepressants Less Likely to Breast-Feed: Study
- Severe PMS May Last Longer Than Thought
- Moms' Antidepressants May Affect Babies' Head Size: Study
- Prescription Meds Can Put on Unwanted Pounds
- Could a Statin Lower Your Risk for Depression?
- New Guidelines to Help Breast Cancer Survivors
- Is Grief an Illness? The Debate Heats Up
- Antidepressants May Not Raise Suicide Risk in Youth: Study
- U.S. Soldiers Face Host of Mental Health Issues
- Antidepressants Might Raise Fall Risk in Nursing Homes
- Certain Antidepressants May Raise Lung Risk in Newborns
- Widowers Who Stay Single Might Face More Mental Health Woes
- Medicaid Spending for Depression Rose in Past Decade
- Newer Antidepressants Work Equally Well, Study Finds
- Treatment Shows Promise for Premature Ejaculation
- Prozac May Lessen Autism Symptom in Adults
- Use of Antidepressants on the Rise in the U.S.
- Depression Raises Women's Stroke Risk
- Study: Antipsychotic Drug Does Not Help Veterans With PTSD
- Talk Therapy Plus Self-Help May Fight Pain
- Americans Are Flocking to Alternative Therapies
- Antidepressant Use in Pregnancy: Autism Risk?
- ER Visits for Drug-Related Suicide Attempts Up in Men
- Lists of Prescription Meds' Side Effects Keep Growing: Study
- Recall of Generic Citalopram, Finasteride
- Drug-Related Poisonings Land Many in ER
- Depression Rising, but Psychotherapy Declines
- Older Antidepressants Linked to Heart Risk
- Seizure and Pain Drug May Treat Hot Flashes
- SAM-e May Boost Effects of Antidepressants
- Prescription Drug Use on the Rise in U.S.
- Stop-Smoking Aid Chantix Sparks Safety Concerns
- Survey: Talk Therapy as Good as Antidepressants
- Drug Tests Often Trigger False Positives
- Cataracts From Antidepressants?
- Acupuncture Eases Depression in Pregnancy
Quick GuidePhysical Symptoms of Depression in Pictures
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Bipolar SlideshowBipolar disorder (once called manic depression) causes extreme mood shifts and can be disorienting. Our experts define bipolar disorder, discuss bipolar symptoms, and describe bipolar medications that can help.
Depression SlideshowWhat is depression? Get information on symptoms, signs, tests, and treatments for many types of depression including major depression, chronic depression, teen depression, and postpartum depression.
Depression QuizMany people do not recognize the symptoms and warning signs of depression and depressive disorders in children and adults. With proper diagnosis, treatments and medications are available. Take this quiz to learn more about recovery from depression.
Fatigue can be described in various ways. Sometimes fatigue is described as feeling a lack of energy and motivation (both mental and physical). The causes of fatigue are generally related to a variety of conditions or diseases, for example, anemia, mono, medications, sleep problems, cancer, anxiety, heart disease, and drug abuse.Treatment of fatigue is generally directed toward the condition or disease that is causing the fatigue.
Fibromyalgia QuizFibromyalgia could be the reason for your constant, deep bodily pain. Learn more about this painful condition with the Fibromyalgia Quiz.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a GI (gastrointestinal) disorder with signs and symptoms of:
- Abdominal pain
- Increased gas (flatulence)
- Abdominal cramping
- Food intolerance
Two new tests are now available that may help diagnose irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea and constipation (IBS-M) and irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D). Treatment for IBS includes diet changes, medications, and other lifestyle changes to manage symptoms.
Migraine headaches are severe headaches that are sensitive to light, sounds, and smells. Some people who suffer from migraines also have severe head pain. People also have symptoms of nausea and vomiting. Common migraine triggers may include:
- Certain foods
- Changes in barometric pressure
- Other phenomenon
They are diagnosed by a doctor if the headache pattern fits established migraine headache criteria. Over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications are sometime used to treat acute migraines. To prevent or reduce the frequency and severity of them doctors recommend supplements and prescription medications, for example:
- Blood pressure drugs
- Anti-seizure drugs
Lifestyle modification helps in migraine management. Many people who suffer from migraines get relief from their condition by keeping a headache diary, identifying and avoiding triggers, and taking appropriate medication.
MS (Multiple Sclerosis) Symptoms and Treatments
Multiple sclerosis (MS) symptoms vary from person to person, and can last for days to months without periods of remission. Symptoms of MS include sexual problems and problems with the bowel, bladder, eyes, muscles, speech, swallowing, brain, and nervous system. The early symptoms and signs of multiple sclerosis usually start between age 20 and 40. MS in children, teens, and those over age 40 is rare. Treatment options for multiple sclerosis vary depending on the type and severity of symptoms. Medications may be prescribed to manage MS symptoms.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)Multiple sclerosis or MS is an autoimmune disorder in which brain and spinal cord nerve cells become demyelinated. This damage results in symptoms that may include numbness, weakness, vertigo, paralysis, and involuntary muscle contractions. Different forms of MS can follow variable courses from relatively benign to life-threatening. MS is treated with disease-modifying therapies. Some MS symptoms can be treated with medications.
Occipital neuralgia is a type of headache that involves inflammation or irritation of occipital nerves. Signs and symptoms include a stabbing and throbbing head pain, and an aching pain in the upper back of the head and neck.
Potential causes include infection, irritation, or trauma of the occipital nerves. This type of headache is diagnosed by physical examination findings and imaging tests. Treatment involves a multidisciplinary approach that includes massage, rest, physical therapy, heat, muscle relaxants, and anti-inflammatory drugs. Invasive procedures and even surgery may be considered if first-line treatments fail to bring relief from the chronic pain of this type of headache.
Peripheral NeuropathyPeripheral neuropathy is a problem with the functioning of the nerves outside of the spinal cord. Symptoms may include numbness, weakness, burning pain (especially at night), and loss of reflexes. Possible causes may include carpel tunnel syndrome, shingles, vitamin or nutritional deficiencies, and illnesses like diabetes, syphilis, AIDS, and kidney failure. Peripheral neuropathy is diagnosed with exams and tests. Treatment for the condition depends on the cause. Usually, the prognosis for peripheral neuropathy is good if the cause can be successfully treated or prevented.
Seniors Sex ProblemsIt's never too late to improve your sex life. Learn how to overcome common health conditions affecting those over 50 such as heart disease, diabetes, and arthritis in order to have a healthy sex life.
Sex-Drive KillersNoticing a lack of intimacy with your partner? Here we explore how stress, lack of sleep, weight gain, depression and low T can cause low sex drive in men and women.
Take the Sleep QuizTake our Sleeping Quiz to learn which sleep disorders, causes, and symptoms rule the night. Trouble falling or staying asleep? Find out which medical treatments fight sleep deprivation, apnea, insomnia, and more!
Swollen Ankles and Swollen Feet
Swollen ankles and swollen feet is a symptom of an underlying disease or condition such as edema, medications, pregnancy, injuries, diseases, infections, lymphedema, or blood clots. Symptoms associated with swelling of the ankles and feet include:
- Skin that is easily indented when pressed down with a finger that slowly returns to its more puffy state when the finger pressure is removed.
- Generalized swelling of the feet or ankles.
- Indentations marks in the skin of the feet or ankles left by socks or shoes
- The skin associated with the swelling is slightly pale, and the indentation marks are slightly darker than the surrounding swollen tissue.
Treatment for swollen ankles or feet depends upon the cause, and soothing symptoms.
Urinary RetentionUrinary retention (inability to urinate) may be caused by nerve disease, spinal cord injury, prostate enlargement, infection, surgery, medication, bladder stone, constipation, cystocele, rectocele, or urethral stricture. Symptoms include discomfort and pain. Treatment depends upon the cause of urinary retention.
Vaginal Pain (Vulvodynia)
Vulvodynia or vaginal pain, genital pain is a condition in which women have chronic vulvar pain with no known cause. There are two types of vulvodynia, generalized vulvodynia and vulvar vestibulitis. Researchers are trying to find the causes of vulvodynia, for example, nerve irritation, genetic factors, hypersensitivity to yeast infections, muscle spasms, and hormonal changes.The most common symptoms of vaginal pain (vulvodynia) is burning, rawness, itching, stinging, aching, soreness, and throbbing. There are a variety of treatments that can ease the symptoms of vulvodynia (vaginal pain).