- Related Diseases
- Images & Quizzes
- ADHD Symptoms in Children Slideshow Pictures
- Take the ADHD Quiz
- Parenting a Child with ADHD Slideshow
- What is amphetamine and dextroamphetamine, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for amphetamine and dextroamphetamine?
- Is amphetamine and dextroamphetamine available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for amphetamine and dextroamphetamine?
- What are the side effects of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine?
- What is the dosage for amphetamine and dextroamphetamine?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with amphetamine and dextroamphetamine?
- Is amphetamine and dextroamphetamine safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about amphetamine and dextroamphetamine?
What is amphetamine and dextroamphetamine, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Adderall contains amphetamine salts (amphetamine and dextroamphetamine) and is used for treating attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Amphetamines stimulate the brain by increasing the level of neurotransmitters, dopamine and norepinephrine, in the brain. (Neurotransmitters are chemicals produced by nerves that are released and attach to other nearby nerves as a means of communication among nerves.) The exact mechanism of action in ADHD is unknown. Adderall XR is an extended release form of Adderall. Adderall was approved by the FDA in 1996.
Is amphetamine and dextroamphetamine available as a generic drug?
GENERIC AVAILABLE: Yes (Adderall), No (Adderall XR)
What are the side effects of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine?
Side effects of amphetamines include excessive stimulation of the nervous system leading to:
- hallucinations, and
- convulsions (seizures).
Other important side effects include:
- Sudden death,
- heart attack,
- manic episodes,
- aggressive behavior or hostility,
- growth suppression (long-term use),
- dependence, and
- withdrawal symptoms
Priapism defined as painful and nonpainful penile erection lasting more than 4 hours, have been reported in pediatric and adult patients treated with stimulants. The erection usually resolves when the drug is stopped. Prompt medical attention is required in the event of suspected priapism.
Quick GuideADHD Symptoms in Children
What is the dosage for amphetamine and dextroamphetamine?
Adderall usually is taken once or twice a day. Doses should be separated by at least 4-6 hours. The recommended dose is 2.5 to 60 mg daily depending on the patient's age and the condition being treated. Adderall XR is taken once daily. The recommended dose is 5-40 mg daily administered in the morning. The entire contents of the Adderall XR capsules may be sprinkled into applesauce and consumed immediately. Amphetamines should be administered during waking hours and late evening doses should be avoided in order to avoid insomnia.
Which drugs or supplements interact with amphetamine and dextroamphetamine?
Amphetamines should not be taken with monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor drugs including phenelzine (Nardil), tranylcypromine (Parnate), and Zyvox; use of amphetamine within 14 days of using MAO inhibitor drugs should be avoided. Patients receiving antihypertensive medications may experience loss of blood pressure control with amphetamine. Antacids may increase absorption of amphetamine salts and increase their effectiveness and side effects.
Is amphetamine and dextroamphetamine safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
Amphetamines should not be used during pregnancy. Infants who are born to mothers dependent on amphetamines exhibit symptoms of withdrawal and have an increased risk of low birth weight.
Mothers taking amphetamines should refrain from nursing their infants because these drugs are excreted in human milk and can have undesirable effects on the child.
What else should I know about amphetamine and dextroamphetamine?
What preparations of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine are available?
Adderall tablets: 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 20, and 30 mg. Adderall XR capsules: 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 mg.
How should I keep amphetamine and dextroamphetamine stored?
Tablets should be stored at room temperature, between 15 C and 30 C (59 F and 86 F).
Reference: FDA Prescribing Information
Quick GuideADHD Symptoms in Children
Daily Health News
Subscribe to MedicineNet's Children's Health & Parenting Newsletter
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
- amphetamine and dextroamphetamine, Adderall, Adderall XR Related Diseases
- amphetamine and dextroamphetamine, Adderall, Adderall XR Images & Quizzes
- amphetamine and dextroamphetamine, Adderall, Adderall XR Index
Top amphetamine and dextroamphetamine Related ArticlesComplete List
13 Tips for Parenting a Teen with ADHDParenting a teenager who has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be challenging. Parents can use specific strategies to help their teen cope with school and homework. Special care should be taken to help an ADHD teen drive safely and avoid alcohol and drug use.
Adderall vs. ConcertaAmphetamine and dextroamphetamine (Adderall, Adderall XR) and Concerta (methylphenidate) are drugs prescribed for the treatment of ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) and narcolepsy. Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precautions, and patient safety information should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
Adderall vs. Ritalin Differences and Similarities
Adderall (dextroamphetamine, amphetamine) and Ritalin (methylphenidate) are drugs that stimulate the central nervous system or CNS, and are prescribed to treat ADHD in children and adults.
Common side effects of both drugs include:
- Stomach ache
- Vision problems
- Nausea or vomiting
- Increase in blood pressure
- Loss of appetite
- Weight loss
Side effects unique to Adderall include:
- Hair loss
- Difficulty having an orgasm
Side effects unique to Ritalin include:
- Numbness, tingling, or cold hands and feet
- Growth suppression
- Manic episodes
- Prolonged, painful erections (priapism)
- Peripheral vasculopathy
- Raynaud's phenomenon
Adderall is an amphetamine and therefore has a potential for abuse. Patients with current or previous drug addiction problems should be monitored closely for addiction. Dependence and addiction can occur with Adderall, even at prescribed dosages when taken over long periods. Misuse of Adderall can lead to serious cardiac events and sudden death.
Ritalin has the potential for addiction and abuse so it should be prescribed cautiously in patients with a history of drug abuse. Withdrawal from Ritalin requires close supervision by a doctor or other health care professional.
Adderall is available as tablets of 5 mg, 7.5 mg, 10 mg, 12.5 mg, 15 mg, 20 mg, and 30 mg. Ritalin is available as tablets of 5 mg, 10 mg, and 20 mg. Your doctor or other health care professional will adjust your individual dosage based on your therapeutic needs and response to the medication.
REFERENCES: FDA Prescribing Information for Ritalin and Adderall.
ADHD in ChildrenAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) causes the following symptoms in children: excessive activity, problems concentrating, and difficulty controlling impulses. There are three types of ADHD: the predominately inattentive type, the predominately hyperactive/impulsive type, and the combined (inattentive, hyperactive, and impulsive) type. Stimulant medications are the most common medication used to treat ADHD.
ADHD MedicationsAttention deficity hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 8%-10% of school-age children. ADHD medications are designed to increase the ability of the sufferer to pay attention and manage their impulses. ADHD drugs are available in liquid, pill, and patch form.
Take the Childhood ADHD QuizFind out causes, symptoms, and treatments for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, a widespread behavioral condition commonly seen in children. Take the Childhood ADHD Quiz.
Adult ADHDAbout 2%-6% of adults have ADHD, a common behavioral problem. Symptoms include impulsivity, hyperactivity, and inattention. Treatment may involve ADHD education, attending a support group, skills training, and medication.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in TeensAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in teens is a disruption of neurocognitive functioning. Genetics contribute to ADHD. Symptoms of ADHD in teens include inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, or a combination of these. Treatment may include cognitive behavioral therapy, behavior therapy, medication, or alternative therapies.
Drug AbuseDrug addiction is a chronic disease that causes drug-seeking behavior and drug use despite negative consequences to the user and those around him. Though the initial decision to use drugs is voluntary, changes in the brain caused by repeated drug abuse can affect a person's self-control and ability to make the right decisions and increase the urge to take drugs. Drug abuse and addiction are preventable.
Drug Abuse SlideshowWhat is drug abuse? Learn about prescription drug abuse and over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, including depressants, pain relievers, and stimulants.
Drug InteractionsDrug interactions occur frequently. Get facts about the types of drug interactions, what substances or other things that may interact with drugs such as OTC drug and prescription drugs, vitamins, food(s) (grapefruit), and laboratory tests. Find out how to protect yourself from potential drug interactions.
Drugs: What You Should Know About Your DrugsImportant information about your drugs should be reviewed prior to taking any prescription drug. Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precauctions, dosage, what the drug is used for, what to do if you miss a dose, how the drug is to be stored, and generic vs. brand names.
EncephalopathyEncephalopathy means brain disease, damage, or malfunction. Causes of encephalopathy are varied and numerous. The main symptom of encephalopathy is an altered mental state. Other symptoms include lethargy, dementia, seizures, tremors, and coma. Treatment of encephalopathy depends on the type of encephalopathy (anoxia, diabetic, Hashimoto's, hepatic, hyper - hypotensive, infectious, metabolic, infections, uremic, or Wernicke's) are examples of types of encephalopathy.
methylphenidateMethylphenidate (Ritalin, Ritalin SR, Ritalin LA, Concerta, Methylin, Methylin ER, Daytrana, Quillivant XR, Metadate CD, Metadate ER) is a drug prescribed for the treatment of narcolepsy and children with ADHD. Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precautions, patient safety information, and pregnancy efficacy should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
MisophoniaMisophonia is defined as the hatred of sound. Symptoms of this condition include a negative emotional response to certain trigger sounds, such as slurping, snoring,yawning, orthroat clearing. Other symptoms include distancing oneself from the trigger, and acting out at the sound's source. Treatment may involve medications, cognitive behavioral therapy, or tinnitus retraining therapy.
NarcolepsyCauses of narcolepsy, a chronic disease of the central nervous system, have not been fully determined. Some theories include abnormalities in hypocretin neurons in the brain or an autoimmune disorder. Symptoms of narcolepsy include:
- excessive daytime sleepiness,
- hypnagogic hallucinations,
- sleep paralysis,
- disturbed nocturnal sleep, and
- automatic behavior.
Diagnosis of narcolepsy is based on a clinical evaluation, specific questionnaires, sleep logs or diaries, and the results of sleep laboratory tests. Treatments of narcolepsy symptoms include medication and lifestyle changes.
vyvanse_vs_adderallVyvanse and Adderall are in the same family of drugs. Adderall is prescribed for the treatment of ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) and narcolepsy. Vyvanse is approved to treat ADHD and severe binge eating disorder. Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precautions, and patient safety information should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.