- Amniocentesis Center
- Stages of Pregnancy Slideshow Pictures
- Slideshow of Early Pregnancy Symptoms
- Early Pregnancy Symptoms Quiz
- Find a local Obstetrician-Gynecologist in your town
- Amniocentesis may be performed for chromosome analysis or the detection of genetic defects and conditions in the fetus.
- Pregnant women over the age of 35 years are candidates for amniocentesis to detect chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus.
- Amniocentesis can also be used to determine the maturity of the fetal lungs or the cause of a fever in the mother.
- For genetic testing, chromosome analysis, and the evaluation of an abnormal alpha feto-protein test, amniocentesis is usually performed between the 16th and 21st weeks of pregnancy.
- The risk of fetal loss from the amniocentesis procedure is less than 1%.
What is amniocentesis?
Amniocentesis is a procedure wherein a sample of fluid is removed from the amniotic sac for analysis. The amniotic sac is found within the uterine cavity. The amniotic sac is the fluid-filled structure inside a pregnant woman's uterus within which the baby lives. Fetal cells, proteins, and fetal urine freely move within this sac.
During amniocentesis, fluid is removed by placing a long needle through the abdominal wall into amniotic sac. Sometimes, the woman's skin is injected first with a local anesthetic, but this is not usually necessary. The amniocentesis needle is typically guided into the sac with the help of ultrasound imaging performed either prior to or during the procedure. Once the needle is in the sac, a syringe is used to withdraw the clear amber-colored amniotic fluid, that resembles urine. The volume of fluid withdrawn depends upon the age of the fetus and the reason for the procedure.
The fluid can then be sent for evaluation of fetal lung maturity, genetic evaluation, evidence of spina bifida (a birth defect in spinal cord development) or other neural-tube defects, the presence of infection, or fetal chromosomal analysis. Chromosomes are structures which contain all of the genetic information within our cells. Amniotic fluid contains numerous free-floating fetal cells that can be grown in the laboratory. When these cells multiply and reach a certain number, their chromosomes are extracted and analyzed. It takes approximately two weeks to perform chromosomal analysis. The fluid also contains proteins, minerals and other compounds that can be tested. These additional studies may require 1 to 7 days to perform. Data obtained from amniotic fluid can help women make informed decisions regarding their pregnancies.
For most patients, amniocentesis is a fairly rapid and comfortable procedure. Some women experience uterine cramping after the procedure. They may also feel faint during or following the test.
Quick GuideFetal Development Stages: Month by Month Embryo Pictures
Who is a candidate for amniocentesis?
Women over the age of 35 have an increased chance of having a baby with chromosomal abnormalities. Therefore, the current recommendation is that women who will be age 35 or older at the time of delivery be offered a genetic amniocentesis for the testing of fetal chromosomes. Chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus can lead to intellectual disabilities or other birth defects, as seen with Down's syndrome. The possibility of having a baby with a chromosomal defect increases with the age of the mother.
- At age 35, the chance is about 1 in 178.
- By age 40, the rate increases to 1 in 63.
- By age 48, the ratio is 1 in 8.
- For women younger than 35, the risk of complications as a result of amniocentesis outweighs the possibility that the baby has a chromosomal abnormality (see below, "Is Amniocentesis Safe?").
- After 35, the chance of delivering a baby with a chromosomal abnormality may be more common than experiencing the complications associated with this procedure.
If there is a family history of chromosomal problems or history of prior births in which a chromosomal defect was identified, amniocentesis may be recommended. However, the exact benefit of amniocentesis in these situations is uncertain. Many chromosomal defects may not reappear in subsequent pregnancies, and genetic counseling can help a woman decide whether amniocentesis would be of value in these situations.
What does amniocentesis show?
Amniocentesis is very accurate in detecting chromosomal abnormalities and the gender of the fetus. Occasionally, the fetal cells harvested by amniocentesis do not grow in the culture, and no chromosomal data can be obtained. Additionally, physician may be unable to extract fluid from the uterus during amniocentesis due to a variety of technical reasons. In both instances, a subsequent extraction of fluid may be attempted.
Amniocentesis testing for lung maturity can help the doctor make decisions regarding timing of delivery for women in premature labor, those with diabetes, or other medical conditions requiring possible early delivery. Lung maturity testing is not perfect. In rare instances, a baby with lungs that are predicted to perform normally can still experience difficulty breathing.
The AFP (alpha fetoprotein) blood test is currently available and can be used to screen for neural tube defects such as spina bifida, as well as Down's syndrome. An elevated AFP blood level may indicate the possibility that the fetus has a defect in the brain and/or spinal cord development. A low AFP level may indicate the potential for Down's syndrome. When abnormal blood levels of AFP are found, further evaluation with ultrasound and amniocentesis can be done to look for birth defects and chromosomal abnormalities.
Amniocentesis can also help determine if there are specific genetic problems present in the fetus. Testing for Tay-Sachs disease, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, and other inherited disorders can be performed on samples of amniotic fluid. Checking the cells for specific genes can now be done on the fetal cell cultures. It is also possible to look for a specific protein in the amniotic fluid that can signal a genetic abnormality. Testing for genetic (inherited) diseases is not routinely performed, but is available when necessary.
Another common reason for performing amniocentesis is to determine if the fetal lungs are mature enough so that the baby can be safely delivered before the due date. If the fetal lungs are not mature, an attempt can be made to stop premature labor with medications. If the lung tissues are mature, it may be safe for the premature baby to be born. This test can also help in the timing of delivery when the due date is uncertain.
Occasionally, a pregnant woman may have a fever without an obvious site of infection. In these instances, an amniocentesis may be performed to determine if the cause of the mother's fever is from an intrauterine infection.
The overall possibility of birth defects in any pregnancy is approximately 3%. For defects such as cleft lip, hernia, and extra fingers or toes, amniocentesis will not be diagnostic. Ultrasound may be helpful in detecting these defects in the fetus.
When should amniocentesis be performed?
For genetic testing, chromosome analysis, and evaluation of an abnormal AFP test, amniocentesis is usually performed between the 15th and the 21st weeks of pregnancy. There is a higher rate of miscarriage associated with amniocentesis that is performed earlier than the 15th week. There is no time limit as to how late in the pregnancy amniocentesis can be performed.
If amniocentesis is performed to determine fetal lung maturity, it is often done anywhere between the 32nd and 36th week of pregnancy. In women with diabetes, lung maturity testing may be done as late as the 39th week, because poorly controlled diabetes may delay fetal lung maturity.
Is amniocentesis safe?
Overall, amniocentesis is a safe procedure with the risk of fetal loss generally less than 1%. According to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Practice Bulletin, there is a procedure-related rate of fetal loss ranging from 1/300 to 1/500 procedures.
Because there is still a slight possibility of pregnancy loss from the procedure, amniocentesis should be performed only when clearly indicated and its benefits have been determined to outweigh any associated risks. Many parents ask for the procedure to "reassure" themselves that everything is perfect. It should be emphasized that an amniocentesis with normal results does not guarantee that the baby will not have a birth or genetic defect. Many birth defects cannot be detected by amniocentesis. Besides fetal loss, other risks associated with amniocentesis include bleeding, cramping and leakage of fluid from the amniotic sac. These problems occur in about 1% of women undergoing the procedure, and they generally resolve on their own. If these symptoms arise following the procedure, the woman is often advised to stop work and remain at bed rest until the symptoms cease. Subsequently activity may be restricted by the doctor. Occasionally, the needle enters the fetus during an amniocentesis. This is generally harmless, but the infant should be monitored for a short time following the testing.
Amniocentesis is a relatively safe and painless procedure that can provide helpful information. The procedure can be offered to selected women after reviewing the anticipated risks and benefits involved.
Daily Health News
Pregnancy and Parenting Resources
Subscribe to MedicineNet's Pregnancy & Newborns Newsletter
ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 88, Dec. 2007. Invasive Prenatal Testing for Aneuploidy. Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Dec;110(6):1459-67.
Amniocentesis - Experience
Please describe your experience with amniocentesis.Post
Top Amniocentesis Related Articles
Birth Control Methods
Birth control is available in a variety of methods and types. The method of birth control varies from person to person, and their preferences to either become pregnant or not. Examples of barrier methods include:
- Barrier methods (sponge, spermicides, condoms)
- Hormonal methods (pill, patch)
- Surgical sterilization (tubal ligation, vasectomy)
- Natural methods
- The morning after pill
Side effects and risks of each birth control option should be reviewed prior to using any birth control method.
Diabetes MellitusDiabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue. Treatment of diabetes depends on the type.
Down Syndrome OverviewGet the facts on Down syndrome, a genetic disorder caused by an additional set of chromosomes in a developing fetus. Down syndrome signs and symptoms include:
- distinctive facial features,
- growth retardation, and
- decreased mental function and IQ.
Gestational diabetes is a condition that is first recognized during pregnancy and is characterized by high blood sugar. Approximately 4% of all pregnancies are diagnosed with gestational diabetes. Low blood sugar is prevented by hormones produced by the placenta during a woman's pregnancy. The actions of insulin are stopped by these hormones. Gestational diabetes is the result of the pancreas' inability to produce enough insulin to overcome the effect of the increase hormones during pregnancy.
Risk factors for gestational diabetes include obesity, previous history of gestational diabetes, having a parent or sibling with type 2 diabetes, personal history of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and ethnicity.
There typically are no signs and symptoms of gestational diabetes. Treatment includes diet modifications and if necessary, insulin.
Infertility TreatmentLearn about infertility symptoms and types of treatment such as IVF, acupuncture, and natural methods to get pregnant. Read about infertility in men and women as well as treatment costs and success rates.
Signs and symptoms of pregnancy vary by stage (trimester). The earliest pregnancy symptom is typically a missed period, but others include
breast swelling and tenderness,
- nausea and sometimes vomiting,
- fatigue, and
Second trimester symptoms include
- weight gain,
- itching, and
- possible stretch marks.
Third trimester symptoms are
- additional weight gain,
- swelling of the ankles,
- fingers, and face,
- breast tenderness, and
- trouble sleeping.
Eating a healthy diet, getting a moderate amount of exercise, also are recommended for a healthy pregnancy. Information about the week by week growth of your baby in the womb are provided.
Pregnancy Symptoms Am I PregnantPregnancy symptoms can vary from woman to woman, and not all women experience the same symptoms. When women do experience pregnancy symptoms they may include symptoms include missed menstrual period, mood changes, headaches, lower back pain, fatigue, nausea, breast tenderness, and heartburn. Symptoms in late pregnancy include leg swelling and shortness of breath. Options for relief of pregnancy symptoms include exercise, diet, and other lifestyle changes.
Pregnancy: Prenatal Care and TestsPrenatal care is important for the health of the mother and the baby. Common prenatal tests include ultrasound, amniocentesis, screening for group B strep, and chronic villus sampling. Prenatal care also helps detect health conditions related to pregnancy, such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. Prenatal care costs can be expensive, but services are available to help women get the care they need.
Quad Marker Screen TestThe quad marker screen determines if a woman is at higher or lower risk of carrying a baby with a birth defect. This test may only be administered between 15 and 20 weeks of pregnancy. A quad marker screen tests for the presence of:
- unconjugated estriol,
- human chorionic gonadotropin, and
Sickle CellSickle cell anemia (sickle cell disease), a blood disease which shortens life expectancy, is cause by an inherited abnormal hemoglobin. Symptoms may include:
- bacterial infections,
- painful swelling of the hands and feet,
- leg ulcers,
- eye damage,
- and lung and heart injury.
Stages of PregnancySee pictures on the various stages of pregnancy. See and learn what changes a woman's body goes through and view fetal images of how her baby grows during the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters.
UltrasoundUltrasound (and ultrasonography) is imaging of the body used in the medical diagnosis and screening of diseases and conditions such as:
- heart valve irregularities,
- carotid artery disease,
- heart disease,
- kidney stones,
- liver disease,
- diseases of the female reproductive, and
- diseases of the male reproductive organs.