- What is aminophylline, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What are the side effects of aminophylline?
- What is the dosage for aminophylline?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with aminophylline?
- Is aminophylline safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about aminophylline?
What is aminophylline, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Aminophylline is a methylxanthine bronchodilator composed of theophylline (Respbid, Slo-Bid, Theo-24, Theolair) and ethylenediamine. The mechanism of action of aminophylline is not completely understood. Theophylline relaxes smooth muscle in the respiratory tract and suppresses airway stimuli. Theophylline also increases contraction of diaphragm muscles by increasing calcium uptake through chemical channels.
What brand names are available for aminophylline?
Norphyl, Phyllocontin, Truphylline.
Is aminophylline available as a generic drug?
Do I need a prescription for aminophylline?
What are the side effects of aminophylline?
: Side effects of aminophylline are:
What is the dosage for aminophylline?
Dosing is based on patient's ideal body weight. In adults a loading dose of 5.7 mg/kg administered intravenously over 30 minutes followed by a continuous maintenance infusion of 0.5 mg/kg/hr for non-smokers 60 years or younger and 0.38 mg/kg/hour for those 60 years and older.
Which drugs or supplements interact with aminophylline?
Aminophylline (or theophylline) should not be used with drugs like cimetidine (Tagamet), erythromycin, interferons, enoxacin, thiabendazole, and tacrine (Cognex) because they slow down theophylline metabolism, leading to significantly increased theophylline levels.
Aminophylline (or theophylline) should not be used with drugs like carbamezapine, phenobarbital, and rifampin because they accelerate theophylline metabolism, leading to significantly decreased theophylline levels.
Smoking increases the breakdown of theophylline reducing theophylline blood levels.
Is aminophylline safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
Theophylline is excreted into breast milk and may cause irritability or other signs of mild toxicity in nursing infants. Therefore, it should not be used in nursing mothers or use with extreme caution under medical supervision.
What else should I know about aminophylline?
What preparations of aminophylline are available?
Aminophylline is available in 25 mg/ml single-use, 10 ml (250 mg) and 20 ml (500 mg) vials and ampules.
How should I keep aminophylline stored?
Store Aminophylline between 20 C to 25 C (68 F to 77 F), protected from light.
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Aminophylline injection (Norphyl, Phyllocontin, Truphylline) is a bronchodilator injection drug used for the management of acute worsening of asthma or COPD. Side effects, drug interactions, dosage, and pregnancy safety information should be reviewed prior to administering this medication.
Related Disease Conditions
Asthma is a condition in which hyperreactive airways constrict and result in symptoms like wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Causes of asthma include genetics, environmental factors, personal history of allergies, and other factors. Asthma is diagnosed by a physician based on a patient's family history and results from lung function tests and other exams. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting bronchodilators (LABAs) are used in the treatment of asthma. Generally, the prognosis for a patient with asthma is good. Exposure to allergens found on farms may protect against asthma symptoms.
COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)
COPD or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a lung condition caused by smoking tobacco, exposure to secondhand smoke, and/or air pollutants. Conditions that accompany COPD include chronic bronchitis, chronic cough, and emphysema. Symptoms of COPD include shortness of breath, wheezing, and chronic cough. Treatment of COPD includes GOLD guidelines, smoking cessation, medications, and surgery. The life expectancy of a person with COPD depends on the stage of the disease.
The lungs are primarily responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air we breathe and the blood. Eliminating carbon dioxide from the blood is important, because as it builds up in the blood, headaches, drowsiness, coma, and eventually death may occur. The air we breathe in (inhalation) is warmed, humidified, and cleaned by the nose and the lungs.
Asthma: Over the Counter Treatment
Patients who have infrequent, mild bouts of asthma attacks may use over-the-counter (OTC) medications to treat their asthma symptoms. OTC asthma medicines are limited to epinephrine and ephedrine. These OTC drugs are best used with the guidance of a physician, as there may be side effects and the drugs may not be very effective.
There are many unusual symptoms of asthma, including sighing, difficulty sleeping, anxiety, chronic cough, recurrent walking pneumonia, and rapid breathing. These symptoms may vary from individual to individual. These asthma complexities make it difficult to accurately diagnose and treat asthma.
Asthma in Children
Asthma in children manifests with symptoms such as coughing and wheezing. Rates of asthma in children are increasing. Asthma in children is usually diagnosed based on the description of symptoms. Lung function tests may also be used. A variety of medications are used for the treatment of childhood asthma.
Emphysema, Chronic Bronchitis, and Colds
If you have a COPD such as emphysema, avoiding chronic bronchitis and colds is important to avoid a more severe respiratory infection such as pneumonia. Avoiding cigarette smoking, practice good hygeine, stay away from crowds, and alerting your healthcare provider if you have a sinus infection or cold or cough that becomes worse. Treatment options depend upon the severity of the emphysema, bronchitis, or cold combination.
Adult-onset asthma is asthma that is diagnosed in people over 20 years of age. Symptoms include wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath and difficulty breathing. Treatment may involve anti-inflammatory medications or bronchodilators.
Exercise-induced asthma is asthma triggered by vigorous exercise. Symptoms include coughing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, wheezing, and fatigue while exercising. Preventing exercise-induced asthma attacks involves using inhaled medicines before exercising, performing warm-up exercises and cooling down afterward, avoiding exercising outdoors when pollen counts are high, restricting exercise when you have a viral infection, and wearing a mask over your nose and mouth when exercising in cold weather.
There are two types of asthma medications: long-term control with anti-inflammatory drugs and quick relief from bronchodilators. Asthma medicines may be inhaled using a metered-dose inhaler or nebulizer or they may be taken orally. People with high blood pressure, diabetes, thyroid disease, or heart disease shouldn't take OTC asthma drugs like Primatene Mist and Bronkaid.
Occupational asthma is a type of asthma caused by exposure to a substance in the workplace. Symptoms and signs include wheezing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. The usual treatment for occupational asthma involves removal from exposure and the use of bronchodilators and inhaled anti-inflammatory medicines.
Treatment & Diagnosis
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