- Tips to Fast Stress Relief
- Take the Panic Attacks Quiz!
- Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Slideshow
- What is Xanax, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What are the uses for Xanax?
- What are the side effects of Xanax?
- What is the dosage for Xanax, and how do I take it?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with medication?
- Is alprazolam safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about this medication?
What is Xanax, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Alprazolam (Xanax XR, Niravam), is an anti-anxiety medication in the benzodiazepine family, the same family that includes diazepam (Valium), clonazepam (Klonopin), lorazepam (Ativan), flurazepam (Dalmane), and others. Alprazolam and other benzodiazepines act by enhancing the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain. GABA is a neurotransmitter (a chemical that nerve cells use to communicate with each other) that inhibits activity in the brain. It is believed that excessive activity in the brain may cause anxiety or other psychiatric disorders. The FDA approved alprazolam in October 1981.
What are the uses for Xanax?
Xanax is used for the treatment of anxiety disorders and panic attacks. Anxiety disorders are characterized by:
- Unrealistic worry and apprehension
- Symptoms of restlessness
- Shortness of breath
- Smothering sensation
- Cold clammy hands
- Exaggerated startle responses
- Problems concentrating
Panic attacks occur either unexpectedly or in certain situations (for example, driving), and can require higher dosages of Xanax.
What are the side effects of Xanax?
The most common side effects of Xanax taken at lower doses are:
Other side effects include:
Addiction is more likely to occur at high doses given over prolonged periods of time. Abrupt discontinuation of alprazolam after prolonged use can lead to symptoms of withdrawal such as:
Seizures can occur in more severe cases of withdrawal. Consequently, patients on alprazolam for extended periods of time should slowly taper the medication under a doctor's supervision rather than abruptly stopping the medication.
What is the dosage for Xanax, and how do I take it?
- The starting dose for treating anxiety is 0.25-0.5 mg 3 to 4 times daily using immediate release tablets. The dose may be increased every 3-4 days to a maximum dose of 4 mg daily.
- The starting dose for treating panic attacks is 0.5 mg 3 times daily. Doses can be increased every 3-4 days but by no more than 1 mg daily.
- The effective dose for preventing panic attacks may be as high as 10 mg daily for some patients. The starting dose when using extended release tablets to treat panic disorder is 0.5 mg once daily and the average dose is 3-6 mg once daily.
- Alprazolam may be taken with or without food.
Which drugs or supplements interact with medication?
- Ketoconazole (Nizoral), itraconazole (Sporanox), nefazodone (Serzone), cimetidine (Tagamet), and fluvoxamine (Luvox) increase concentrations in the blood of alprazolam and therefore may increase the side effects of alprazolam.
- Alprazolam interacts with alcohol and medications (for example, barbiturates, and narcotics) that suppress activity in the brain by suppressing activity more and causing sedation.
- Carbamazepine and rifampin reduce the effect of alprazolam by increasing metabolism and elimination of alprazolam in the liver.
Is alprazolam safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
What else should I know about this medication?
Alprazolam is available as:
- Tablets: 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg.
- Tablets ER (extended release): 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mg.
- Tablets (Orally disintegrating): 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg. Solution: 1 mg/ml
Keep alprazolam should be stored at room temperature, 15 C to 30 C (59 F to 86 F).
Alprazolam is available in generic form, and you need a prescription from your doctor or other health-care professional to obtain this drug.
Brand names for alprazolam are Xanax, Xanax XR, and Niravam.
Alprazolam is a member of the benzodiazepine family, which are sedatives that cause dose-related depression of the central nervous system. Alprazolam is used for the treatment of anxiety disorders and panic attacks, which cause:
- unrealistic worry and apprehension,
- shortness of breath,
- smothering sensation,
- cold clammy hands,
- exaggerated startle responses,
- problems concentrating, and
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Medications & Supplements
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AnxietyAnxiety is a feeling of apprehension and fear characterized by symptoms such as trouble concentrating, headaches, sleep problems, and irritability. Anxiety disorders are serious medical illnesses that affect approximately 19 million American adults. Treatment for anxiety may incorporate medications and psychotherapy.
Clonazepam (Klonopin) is an prescription medication used to treat panic disorder, certain types of seizures, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, and the short-term relief of anxiety. Side effects include
Drug interactions, dosage, pregnancy and breastfeeding safety information should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
Diazepam (Valium, Diastat Acudial, Diastat, Diazepam Intensol) is a drug prescribed for the treatment of anxiety disorders; and agitation, tremors, delirium, seizures and hallucinations that result from alcohol withdrawal. Side effects include:
Multiple drug interactions, dosage, and pregnancy and breastfeeding safety should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
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Klonopin clonazepam vs Xanax alprazolam
Klonopin (clonazepam) and Xanax (alprazolam) are prescription drugs that belong to the drug class of benzodiazepines. Other benzodiazepines include:
- diazepam (Valium)
- alprazolam (Xanax)
- lorazepam (Ativan)
- flurazepam (Dalmane)
Even though both of these drugs are benzodiazepines they are prescribed slightly differently. Klonopin and Xanax are both prescribed to treat anxiety disorders; however, Klonopin also is prescribed to treat certain types of seizures and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Side effects of both drugs are similar because they belong to the same drug class. Side effects of benzodiazepines include:
- Dry mouth
- Reduced libido
- Memory impairment
Both Klonopin and Xanax may cause physical dependence (addiction) so abrupt withdrawal is not recommended. Drug interaction and pregnancy and breastfeeding safety of these two drugs should be reviewed prior to taking the medication.
Ativan (lorazepam) is a prescription drug used for the management of anxiety disorders, short-term relief of anxiety, or anxiety associated with depression. Ativan is effective for insomnia, panic attacks, and is used for prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal. Side effects include:
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StressStress occurs when forces from the outside world impinge on the individual. Stress is a normal part of life. However, over-stress, can be harmful. There is now speculation, as well as some evidence, that points to the abnormal stress responses as being involved in causing various diseases or conditions.
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temazepamTemazepam (Restoril) is a drug prescribed for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precautions, and pregnancy efficacy should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
triazolamTriazolam (Halcion) is a prescription medication used to treat short-term insomnia. Side effects, drug interactions, dosing and storage, and pregnancy safety should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.