- Heart Disease (Coronary Artery Disease) Slideshow Pictures
- Atrial Fibrillation Slideshow: Causes, Tests and Treatment
- Take the Heart Disease Quiz!
What is Aldactone (spironolactone)?
Aldactone (spironolactone) is a potassium-sparing diuretic that removes excess fluid from the body in congestive heart failure, cirrhosis of the liver, and kidney disease. It also can be used in combination with other drugs to treat diuretic-induced low potassium (hypokalemia) and high blood pressure (hypertension). Aldactone also is used to counteract the effects of excessive adrenal aldosterone production (hyperaldosteronism) that can occur from a tumor in the adrenal gland or enlarged adrenal glands (hyperplasia of the adrenal glands). Common side effects of Aldactone include headache, diarrhea, cramps, drowsiness, rash, nausea, vomiting, impotence, irregular menstrual periods, irregular hair growth, and enlargement of male breasts (usually reverses on discontinuation of Aldactone).
Serious side effects of Aldactone include
- liver dysfunction,
- kidney failure,
- severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis),
- abnormal heart rhythm,
- low platelets,
- low white blood cells,
- toxic epidermal necrolysis,
- risk of tumors in animal studies, and
- fluid and electrolyte imbalances.
Drug interactions of Aldactone include potassium supplements, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, indomethacin, other potassium-sparing diuretics, and digoxin. There are no adequate studies in pregnant women. Aldactone may be harmful if used for treating gestational hypertension (high blood pressure during pregnancy). An active metabolite of Aldactone is secreted in breast milk. To avoid adverse effects in the newborn, mothers should avoid breastfeeding while taking Aldactone.
Important side effects of Aldactone (spironolactone)
Common side effects of Aldactone include:
- Irregular menstrual periods
- Irregular hair growth
Enlargement of the male breasts (gynecomastia) may also occur and is related to dose and duration of therapy. It usually reverses upon discontinuation of Aldactone.
Possible serious side effects of Aldactone include:
- Liver dysfunction
- Kidney failure
- Abnormal heart rhythm
- Low platelets
- Low white blood cells
- Toxic epidermal necrolysis
- Risk of tumors in animal studies
Aldactone (spironolactone) side effects list for healthcare professionals
The following adverse reactions have been reported and, within each category (body system), are listed in order of decreasing severity.
Reproductive: Gynecomastia, inability to achieve or maintain erection, irregular menses or amenorrhea, postmenopausal bleeding, breast pain. Carcinoma of the breast has been reported in patients taking ALDACTONE but a cause and effect relationship has not been established.
Hematologic: Leukopenia (including agranulocytosis), thrombocytopenia.
Metabolism: Hyperkalemia, electrolyte disturbances.
Musculoskeletal: Leg cramps.
Liver / biliary: A very few cases of mixed cholestatic/hepatocellular toxicity, with one reported fatality, have been reported with ALDACTONE administration.
Renal: Renal dysfunction (including renal failure).
Skin: Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), alopecia, pruritis.
What drugs interact with Aldactone (spirolactone)?
Concomitant administration of ACE inhibitors with potassium-sparing diuretics has been associated with severe hyperkalemia.
Angiotensin II Antagonists, Aldosterone Blockers, Heparin, Low Molecular Weight Heparin, And Other Drugs Known To Cause Hyperkalemia
Concomitant administration may lead to severe hyperkalemia.
Alcohol, Barbiturates, or Narcotics
Potentiation of orthostatic hypotension may occur.
Intensified electrolyte depletion, particularly hypokalemia, may occur.
Pressor Amines (e.g., norepinephrine)
ALDACTONE reduces the vascular responsiveness to norepinephrine. Therefore, caution should be exercised in the management of patients subjected to regional or general anesthesia while they are being treated with ALDACTONE.
Skeletal Muscle Relaxants, Nondepolarizing (e.g., tubocurarine)
Possible increased responsiveness to the muscle relaxant may result.
Lithium generally should not be given with diuretics. Diuretic agents reduce the renal clearance of lithium and add a high risk of lithium toxicity.
Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)
In some patients, the administration of an NSAID can reduce the diuretic, natriuretic, and antihypertensive effect of loop, potassium-sparing, and thiazide diuretics. Combination of NSAIDs, e.g., indomethacin, with potassium-sparing diuretics has been associated with severe hyperkalemia. Therefore, when ALDACTONE and NSAIDs are used concomitantly, the patient should be observed closely to determine if the desired effect of the diuretic is obtained.
ALDACTONE has been shown to increase the half-life of digoxin. This may result in increased serum digoxin levels and subsequent digitalis toxicity. It may be necessary to reduce the maintenance and digitalization doses when ALDACTONE is administered, and the patient should be carefully monitored to avoid over- or under-digitalization.
Hyperkalemic metabolic acidosis has been reported in patients given ALDACTONE concurrently with cholestyramine.
Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions
Several reports of possible interference with digoxin radioimmunoassay by ALDACTONE, or its metabolites, have appeared in the literature. Neither the extent nor the potential clinical significance of its interference (which may be assay-specific) has been fully established.
Aldactone (spironolactone) is classified as a potassium-sparing diuretic. It is prescribed for the treatment of congestive heart failure, cirrhosis of the liver, and kidney disease. Side effects include headache, drowsiness, cramps, nausea, and more.
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
Heart Failure Quiz
What is heart failure? Learn about this dangerous condition, as well as who is at risk, and what to do about it.
Kidney Disease Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
Kidney disease is common. Take this kidney disease quiz to test your knowledge and learn the symptoms, causes and types of kidney...
Related Disease Conditions
12 Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) Symptoms, Stages, Causes, and Life Expectancy
Congestive heart failure (CHF) refers to a condition in which the heart loses the ability to function properly. Heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, myocarditis, and cardiomyopathies are just a few potential causes of congestive heart failure. Signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure may include fatigue, breathlessness, palpitations, angina, and edema. Physical examination, patient history, blood tests, and imaging tests are used to diagnose congestive heart failure. Treatment of heart failure consists of lifestyle modification and taking medications to decrease fluid in the body and ease the strain on the heart. The prognosis of a patient with congestive heart failure depends on the stage of the heart failure and the overall condition of the individual.
Heart failure (congestive) is caused by many conditions including coronary artery disease, heart attack, cardiomyopathy, and conditions that overwork the heart. Symptoms of heart failure include congested lungs, fluid and water retention, dizziness, fatigue and weakness, and rapid or irregular heartbeats. There are two types of congestive heart failure, systolic or left-sided heart failure; and diastolic or right-sided heart failure. Treatment, prognosis, and life-expectancy for a person with congestive heart failure depends upon the stage of the disease.
Hypertension-Related Kidney Disease
Second Source WebMD Medical Reference
Second Source article from Government
Diabetes and Kidney Disease
In the United States diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure. High blood pressure and high levels of blood glucose increase the risk that a person with diabetes will eventually progress to kidney failure. Kidney disease in people with diabetes develops over the course of many years. albumin and eGFR are two key markers for kidney disease in people with diabetes. Controlling high blood pressure, blood pressure medications, a moderate protein diet, and compliant management of blood glucose can slow the progression of kidney disease. For those patients who's kidneys eventually fail, dialysis or kidney transplantation is the only option.
Hypertensive Kidney Disease
High blood pressure can damage the kidneys and is one of the leading causes of kidney failure (end-stage renal kidney disease). Kidney damage, like hypertension, can be unnoticeable and detected only through medical tests. If you have kidney disease, you should control your blood pressure. Other treatment options include prescription medications.
Treatment & Diagnosis
Medications & Supplements
Prevention & Wellness
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Side effects list for professionals and drug interactions sections courtesy of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration