- What is human albumin?
- What brand names are available for human albumin?
- Is human albumin available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for human albumin?
- Why is human albumin prescribed to patients?
- What are the side effects of human albumin?
- What is the dosage for human albumin?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with human albumin?
- Is human albumin safe to use during pregnancy or while breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about human albumin?
What is human albumin?
Why is human albumin prescribed to patients?
Albumin is used for hypovolemia (low blood volume), hypoalbuminemia (low albumin), burns, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), nephrosis, renal dialysis, cardiopulmonary bypass surgery, acute liver failure, and hemolytic disease of the newborn.
What are the side effects of human albumin?
Side effects of albumin are
Allergic reactions may occur. Albumin is a blood product and therefore has a small risk of transmission of viral diseases.
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What is the dosage for human albumin?
- Hypovolemia: Administer albumin 25% 100 to 200 ml; repeat in 15 to 20 minutes if necessary for patients' primarily needing protein/oncotic pressure. For patients with significant plasma or volume deficits (hypovolemic shock), use albumin 5%.
- Hypoalbuminemia: Initially administer 12.5 to 25 g of albumin IV, based on total albumin deficit. Maximum 2 g of albumin per kg of weight per day.
- Burns: After the first 24 hours, administer albumin 5% or 25% IV to achieve plasma albumin level of approximately 2.5 g / 100 ml or a total plasma protein concentration 5.2 g / 100 ml. Initial dose of 25 g of albumin is recommended.
- Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): Administer 25 g of albumin IV over 30 minutes, every 8 hours for 3 days, if necessary.
- Hypovolemia: Administer albumin 25% 2.5 to 5 ml per kg of weight; repeat in 15 – 20 minutes if necessary. For patients with significant plasma deficits, use albumin 5%.
- Hypoalbuminemia: For ages 12 to 16, administer 50 to 75 g IV as initial dose.
- Burns: For ages 12 to 16, dose should be individualized based on plasma oncotic pressure or protein content or by direct observations of vital signs; patients must be adequately hydrated.
- Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): For ages 12 to 16, administer 25 g of albumin IV over 30 minutes, every 8 hours for 3 days, if necessary.
- Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn: May administer albumin 25% prior to or during exchange transfusion in a dose of 1 g per kg of bodyweight.
Safe and effective use of albumin 5% and 25% is not established in children less than 12 years of age.
Which drugs or supplements interact with human albumin?
Albumin should not be diluted with sterile water because this can cause hemolysis.
Do not mix with protein hydrolysates or solutions containing alcohol since these combinations can cause the proteins to precipitate.
Do not mix with other medicinal products including blood and blood components. Albumin is compatible with whole blood, plasma, saline, glucose or sodium lactate.
Is human albumin safe to use during pregnancy or while breastfeeding?
There are no adequate studies done on albumin to determine safe and effective use in pregnant women.
Albumin is present in breast milk. It is compatible with breastfeeding.
What else should I know about human albumin?
What preparations of human albumin are available?
Albumin intravenous solution is available in 5% and 25% concentrations. Albumin 5% is available in 50 ml (2.5 grams of albumin), 250 ml (12.5 grams of albumin), and 500 ml (25 grams of albumin) bottles or vials. Albumin 25% is available in 20 ml (5 grams of albumin), 50 ml (12.5 grams of albumin), and 100 ml (25 grams of albumin) bottles or vials.
How should I keep human albumin stored?
Albumin is stored at room temperature not exceeding 30 C (86 F). Do not freeze the solution.
How does human albumin work?
Albumin is a naturally occurring transport protein found in the body. Albumin binds to many substances including bilirubin, fatty acids, hormones, enzymes, drugs, dyes, and trace elements. Albumin is responsible for 70% to 80% of the osmotic pressure of normal plasma, regulating the volume of circulating blood. Albumin temporarily increases blood volume. Commercially available albumin is fractionated from blood or plasma from donors.
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Human albumin occurs naturally in the body. The administration of albumin medically is used to treat some liver and blood volume problems, among other condition
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Kidney (Renal) Failure
Kidney failure can occur from an acute event or a chronic condition or disease. Prerenal kidney failure is caused by blood loss, dehydration, or medication. Some of the renal causes of kidney failure include sepsis, medications, rhabdomyolysis, multiple myeloma, and acute glomerulonephritis. Post renal causes of kidney failure include bladder obstruction, prostate problems, tumors, or kidney stones.Treatment options included diet, medications, or dialysis.
Liver (Anatomy and Function)
The liver is the largest gland and organ in the body. There are a variety of liver diseases caused by liver inflammation, scarring of the liver, infection of the liver, gallstones, cancer, toxins, genetic diseases, and blood flow problems. Symptoms of liver disease generally do not occur until the liver disease is advanced. Some symptoms of liver disease include jaundice, nausea and vomiting, easy bruising, bleeding excessively, fatigue, weakness, weight loss, shortness of breath, leg swelling, impotence, and confusion. Treatment of diseases of the liver depends on the cause.
Burns (First Aid)
Burn types are based on their severity: first-degree burns, second-degree burns, and third-degree burns. First-degree burns are similar to a painful sunburn. The damage is more severe with second-degree burns, leading to blistering and more intense pain. The skin turns white and loses sensation with third degree burns. Burn treatment depends upon the burn location, total burn area, and intensity of the burn.
ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome)
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a lung condition in which trauma to the lungs leads to inflammation of the lungs, accumulation of fluid in the alveolar air sacs, low blood oxygen, and respiratory distress. ARDS can be life-threatening. Signs and symptoms of are shortness of breath and low levels of oxygen in the blood, which can cause your organs to fail. Causes of ARDS include: Pneumonia Aspiration into the lungs Severe blow to the chest Sepsis Severe injury with shock Drug overdose Inflamed pancreas Other lung conditions and infections Burns Sepsis Near drowning Fractures There have been genetic factors linked to ARDS. Treatment for includes supplemental oxygen, and/or medication. According to some studies, survival rates for ARDS depend upon the cause associated with it, but can vary from 48% to 68%.REFERENCES: Harman, EM, MD. "Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Clinical Presentation." Medscape. Updated: Aug 11, 2016. Harman, EM, MD. "Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome." Medscape. Updated: Aug 11, 2016. PubMed Health. "ARDS." Updated: Jun 11, 2014. Reynolds, HN. et al. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: estimated incidence and mortality rate in a 5 million-person population base. Crit Care. 1998; 2(1): 29–34. Published online 1998 Mar 12. doi: 10.1186/cc121
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