Acid Reflux (Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease or GERD): Symptoms & Signs

Medically Reviewed on 9/10/2019

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), or acid reflux, has a number of different causes. Heartburn is the pain characteristically associated with acid reflux and results from irritation of the lining of the esophagus. Some cases of heartburn can produce sharp chest pains in the mid-chest that can be mistaken for the pain of angina. Heartburn is typically worse when an individual lies down after eating and occurs most commonly after mealtimes.

Other symptoms that can occur as a result of GERD include

  • nausea,
  • regurgitation (the presence of regurgitated stomach contents in the mouth), and
  • acid-induced erosions of the teeth.

The nausea may be severe and lead to vomiting. Certain foods, including peppermint, tomatoes, spicy foods, citrus fruits, alcohol, or caffeinated drinks, may worsen the symptoms.

In some cases, acid reflux can cause atypical symptoms, including

Causes of acid reflux (GERD)

The symptoms of acid reflux are caused by the regurgitation of acidic sour liquid stomach contents back up into the esophagus. Factors that may contribute to GERD include slow emptying of the stomach, lower esophageal sphincter abnormalities, hiatal hernia, and abnormal esophageal contractions.

Related Symptoms & Signs

Other acid reflux (gerd) symptoms and signs

Next Article


Super Tips to Boost Digestive Health: Bloating, Constipation, and More See Slideshow

Subscribe to MedicineNet's General Health Newsletter

By clicking Submit, I agree to the MedicineNet's Terms & Conditions & Privacy Policy and understand that I may opt out of MedicineNet's subscriptions at any time.

Patti, Marco G. "Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease." Medscape. May 2, 2016. <>.