- What is Diamox, Diamox Sequels (acetazolamide)?
- Why is Diamox, Diamox Sequels (acetazolamide) prescribed to patients?
- What brand names are available for acetazolamide?
- Do I need a prescription for Diamox, Diamox Sequels (acetazolamide)?
- Is Diamox, Diamox Sequels (acetazolamide) available as a generic drug?
- What are the side effects of Diamox, Diamox Sequels (acetazolamide)?
- What is the dosage for Diamox, Diamox Sequels (acetazolamide)?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with Diamox, Diamox Sequels (acetazolamide)?
- Is Diamox, Diamox Sequels (acetazolamide) safe to use during pregnancy or while breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about Diamox, Diamox Sequels (acetazolamide)?
What is Diamox, Diamox Sequels (acetazolamide)?
Acetazolamide is a strong carbonic anhydrase inhibitor.
Why is Diamox, Diamox Sequels (acetazolamide) prescribed to patients?
Acetazolamide a prescription medicine used for the following conditions:
What brand names are available for acetazolamide?
Diamox and Diamox Sequels are the brand names available for acetazolamide in the US.
What are the side effects of Diamox, Diamox Sequels (acetazolamide)?
Common side effects include:
- Paresthesias (tingling, numbness, burning, prickling)
- Ringing in the ears
- Hearing problems
- Loss of appetite
- Changes in taste
- Frequent urination
Other less common side effects include:
- Transient myopia
- Sensitivity to light
- Glucose in the urine
- Blood in urine
- Pain at injection site
Possible serious side effects of Diamox:
Possible serious side effects include:
What is the dosage for Diamox, Diamox Sequels (acetazolamide)?
For the treatment of glaucoma: acetazolamide should be used as an adjunct to the usual therapy.
- The usual recommended dose for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma ranges from 250 mg to 1 gram of acetazolamide per day. Treatment with doses >1gram did not offer any additional benefits.
- The usual recommended dose for the treatment of secondary glaucoma and for the preoperative treatment of some cases of closed-angle glaucoma is 250 mg every 4 hours. In more urgent cases, an initial dose of 500 mg followed by 125 mg or 250 mg every 4 hours as be used.
For the treatment of seizures:
- The manufacturer's suggested total daily dose is 8-30 mg per kg in divided doses.
- The optimum range appears to be from 375 to 1000 mg, however, some patients may respond to lower doses.
- When used with other anti-seizure medication, the starting dose of acetazolamide should be 250 mg, and it should then gradually be increased as necessary.
For congestive heart failure:
- To remove excess fluid in patients (diuresis) with congestive heart failure, the starting dose is usually 250 to 375 mg administered once a day in the morning.
- As tolerance may develop with use, this medication should be skipped for a day to allow the kidneys to recover in patients who stop responding to treatment. For best diuresis, acetazolamide should be given on alternate days, or for two days followed by one day off and then repeat.
For the treatment of excess water retention caused by medication:
- The usual recommended dose is 250 to 375 mg once a day for one or two days, alternating with a day of rest.
For acute mountain sickness:
- The usual recommended dose is 500 mg to 1000 mg per day in divided doses.
- 1000 mg is recommended in cases of rapid ascent.
- Preferably, treatment should be started 24-48 hours before ascent and continued for 48 hours while at high altitude, or longer as necessary to control symptoms.
Latest Heart News
Daily Health News
Which drugs or supplements interact with Diamox, Diamox Sequels (acetazolamide)?
Is Diamox, Diamox Sequels (acetazolamide) safe to use during pregnancy or while breastfeeding?
- There are no adequate studies evaluating the use of acetazolamide during pregnancy. Evidence of birth defects was observed with administration of oral and injectable acetazolamide in mice, rats, hamsters, and rabbits. Therefore, acetazolamide should only be used during pregnancy if the potential benefit of treatment outweighs the potential risk to the unborn baby. Acetazolamide is classified as FDA pregnancy risk category C.
- It is not known whether acetazolamide is excreted into human milk. Because many drugs are excreted into human milk and can cause side effects in the nursing infant, the manufacturer recommends that patients should discontinue nursing or discontinue acetazolamide, taking into account the importance of treatment to the mother. However, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics, acetazolamide is usually considered to be compatible with breast-feeding.
What else should I know about Diamox, Diamox Sequels (acetazolamide)?
What preparations of Diamox, Diamox Sequels (acetazolamide) are available?
- Oral tablets: 125 and 250 mg
- Oral capsules extended release (12hr): 500 mg
- Powder for injection: 500 mg
How should I keep Diamox, Diamox Sequels (acetazolamide) stored?
- All oral preparations of acetazolamide should be stored at room temperature.
- Before mixing, injection acetazolamide should be stored at room temperature, between 20 C and 25 C (68 F and 77) F.
- After mixing, acetazolamide injection should be stored in the refrigerator, between 2.2 C and 7.7 C (36 F and 46 F) and used within 12 hours of mixing.
How does Diamox, Diamox Sequels (acetazolamide) work?
- Carbonic anhydrase is an enzyme found within the red blood cells and helps to regulate the acidity and fluid balance in various organs throughout the body. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes a reversible reaction that converts carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid, which can then breakdown into protons and bicarbonate ions.
- In the kidneys and the eyes, carbonic anhydrase promotes the reaction that produces bicarbonate ions and acid to regulate the amount of fluid within these organs. When the delicate balance of this reaction is disturbed, medical problems such as glaucoma and excess fluid retention (edema) may occur. Beneficial effects observed in the treatment of glaucoma include decreases in the secretion of aqueous humor in the eye and intraocular pressure.
- When used as a diuretic (water-pill) in patients who have abnormal fluid retention (for example, heart failure), acetazolamide works in the kidney to promote a reversible reaction that results in the loss of bicarbonate, which carries with it sodium, water, and potassium. In-addition to causing diuresis (water loss), the urine becomes more alkaline or basic (pH increases). Alkalization of the urine causes an increase in the reabsorption of ammonia by the renal tubules.
- Acetazolamide is also used to treat and prevent symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) such as headache, nausea, shortness of breath, dizziness, drowsiness, and fatigue. Compared to placebo, 250 mg acetazolamide every 8-12 hours or 500 mg controlled-release capsule once daily was effective in preventing symptoms of acute mountain sickness before and during rapid ascent to altitude. Compared to placebo, acetazolamide treated patients experienced fewer and/or less severe symptoms, had better lung function, and experienced less difficulty in sleeping.
- Acetazolamide is also used with other medications to treat certain forms of seizures.
Subscribe to MedicineNet's General Health Newsletter
Diamox and Diamox Sequels (acetazolamide acetazolamide tablets and extended release tablets) is a man-made drug prescribed for the treatment of glaucoma. Side effects include:
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
Am I Having a Heart Attack? Symptoms of Heart Disease
Heart attacks symptoms vary greatly for men and women, from anxiety and fatigue to nausea and sweating. Learn the warning signs...
Heart Disease: Symptoms, Signs, and Causes
What is heart disease (coronary artery disease)? Learn about the causes of heart disease. Symptoms of heart disease include chest...
Heart Healthy Diet: 25 Foods You Should Eat
What foods are heart healthy? Learn what foods help protect your cardiovascular system from heart attack, coronary heart disease,...
Sugar Quiz: Facts on Diet & Sugar
Sugar lurks in surprising places. Take the Sugar Quiz to learn of the many ways sugar sneaks into your diet and see what you know...
Epilepsy & Seizures Quiz: What Causes Seizures?
Do you know the difference between seizures and epilepsy? What are the types of seizures? Take the Epilepsy & Seizures Quiz to...
Salt Quiz: Test Your Diet IQ
Do you love salt? Take the online Salt Quiz to get the facts about dietary salts and sodium in fruits, vegetables, processed...
Diet and Nutrition Quiz: Plans & Facts
Even if you think you're getting enough fruits and vegetables per day, how can you be sure? Take the Diet & Nutrition Quiz to...
Heart Disease Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
Take our Heart Disease Quiz to get answers and facts about high cholesterol, atherosclerosis prevention, and the causes,...
Picture of Glaucoma
Glaucoma (the sneak thief of sight) refers to certain eye diseases that affect the optic nerve and cause vision loss. See a...
Picture of Heart Detail
The heart is composed of specialized cardiac muscle, and it is four-chambered, with a right atrium and ventricle, and an...
Food Swaps for Meals and Snacks for Heart Health in Pictures
Explore 10 food swaps for heart-wise dining. Learn what food to buy and how to cook in order to make a big difference for your...
Picture of Heart
The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. See a picture of the Heart and learn more...
Long Life in Pictures: Tips on Sleep, Diet, and More
Did you know making friends can help you live longer? Our experts explore ways to increase your longevity such as making friends,...
High-Fiber Super Foods: Whole Grains, Fruits, & More
Learn about high-fiber foods. From fresh fruits to whole grains, these fiber-rich foods can lower cholesterol, prevent...
12 Reasons to Love the Mediterranean Diet in Pictures
The Mediterranean diet is a delicious way to eat healthy. We show you how to get the most from this diet with foods like olive...
Vegetarian Diet: Tasty, Basic Choices in Pictures
Thinking about becoming a vegetarian? Compared to the general population, the typical vegetarian has a lower body mass index...
Healthy Seeds: 11 Edible Super Seeds for Better Nutrition
Are pumpkin seeds good for your health? What's the nutritional value of chia seeds? Find out how to easily incorporate more...
Fast-Food Sandwiches: Good and Bad Choices For Your Diet
Want to know what the good and bad fast-food sandwiches choices are? Our experts explore the nutrition facts of major restaurant...
Related Disease Conditions
12 Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) Symptoms, Stages, Causes, and Life Expectancy
Congestive heart failure (CHF) refers to a condition in which the heart loses the ability to function properly. Heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, myocarditis, and cardiomyopathies are just a few potential causes of congestive heart failure. Signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure may include fatigue, breathlessness, palpitations, angina, and edema. Physical examination, patient history, blood tests, and imaging tests are used to diagnose congestive heart failure. Treatment of heart failure consists of lifestyle modification and taking medications to decrease fluid in the body and ease the strain on the heart. The prognosis of a patient with congestive heart failure depends on the stage of the heart failure and the overall condition of the individual.
Edema is the swelling of tissues as a result of excess water accumulation. Peripheral edema occurs in the feet and legs. There are two types of edema, non-pitting edema and pitting edema. Causes of pitting edema is caused by systemic diseases (most commonly involving the heart, liver, and kidneys), and medications. Local conditions that cause edema are thrombophlebitis and varicose veins. Edema or swelling of the legs, feet, ankles, and face are common during pregnancy. Idiopathic edema is edema in which the cause is not known. Pitting edema is scored on pitting edema measurement scales. Edema is generally treated with medication.
Seizures Symptoms and Types
Seizures are divided into two categories: generalized and partial. Generalized seizures are produced by electrical impulses from throughout the brain, while partial seizures are produced by electrical impulses in a small part of the brain. Seizure symptoms include unconsciousness, convulsions, and muscle rigidity.
Motion sickness is a feeling of unwellness caused by the inner ear and balance systems. Motion sickness can include sea sickness, car sickness, and train or plane sickness. Symptoms include, headache, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, dizziness, cold sweats, and pale skin. Treatment for motion sickness include home remedies such as ginger, not eating large or fatty meals prior to traveling, and OTC and prescription medications.
Glaucoma is a common eye condition in which the fluid pressure inside the eye rises because of slowed fluid drainage from the eye. If untreated, glaucoma may damage the optic nerve and other parts of the eye, causing the loss of vision or even blindness.
Heart failure (congestive) is caused by many conditions including coronary artery disease, heart attack, cardiomyopathy, and conditions that overwork the heart. Symptoms of heart failure include congested lungs, fluid and water retention, dizziness, fatigue and weakness, and rapid or irregular heartbeats. There are two types of congestive heart failure, systolic or left-sided heart failure; and diastolic or right-sided heart failure. Treatment, prognosis, and life-expectancy for a person with congestive heart failure depends upon the stage of the disease.
Epilepsy is a brain disorder in which the person has seizures. There are two kinds of seizures, focal and generalized. There are many causes of epilepsy. Treatment of epilepsy (seizures) depends upon the cause and type of seizures experienced.
Sleep apnea is defined as a reduction or cessation of breathing during sleep. The three types of sleep apnea are central apnea, obstructive apnea (OSA), and a mixture of central and obstructive apnea. Central sleep apnea is caused by a failure of the brain to activate the muscles of breathing during sleep. OSA is caused by the collapse of the airway during sleep. OSA is diagnosed and evaluated through patient history, physical examination and polysomnography. There are many complications related to obstructive sleep apnea. Treatments are surgical and non-surgical.
Eye Care and Eye Disorder
Many common eye disorders resolve without treatment and some may be managed with over-the-counter (OTC) products. It's important to visit a physician or ophthalmologist is the problem involves the eyeball itself or the condition hasn't improved after 72 hours of use of an eye-care OTC product.
Periodic Paralysis Syndrome (Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Diet)
Periodic paralysis syndrome comprises several types of rare muscle diseases in which a person experiences temporary muscle paralysis of one area of the body, or the entire body for a few minutes or days. The person regains normal muscle strength between periods of muscle weakness. You inherit the syndrome from your biological mother or father, or from a mutation in your genes. This gene mutation determines the type of periodic paralysis you have. The other symptoms depend upon the type of periodic paralysis you have. For example: Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis is usually seen in children under the age of 10. An early symptom may be a lagging eyelid. Normokalemic periodic paralysis causes weakness. Hypokalemia periodic paralysis 1 or hypoPP1L usually begins in childhood with symptoms of episodic muscle weakness in addition to irregular heartbeats. The symptoms may last through age 20-40. Hypokalemia periodic paralysis 2 or hypoPP2 has the same signs and symptoms as hypoPP1. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis or TPP causes symptoms of weakness that involves the muscles that help you breathe. Paramyotonia Congenita or PCM produces symptoms like a weakness response to cold or increased activity and muscle weakness and rigidity. Potassium aggravated myotonias, when triggered by exercise can an attack of muscle stiffness. Andersen-Tawil syndrome or ATS cause symptoms of irregular heart rhythms. Familial periodic paralysis is a term used by doctors to describe four of the periodic paralysis syndromes. Treatment of periodic paralysis syndrome depends upon the kind of syndrome you have. Your doctor may make changes to your diet and prescribe prescription medication. REFERENCE: Stripathi, N., MD. "Periodic paralyses." Medscape. Updated: May 18, 2017.< http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1171678-overview>
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Diet & Nutrition FAQs
- Sugar FAQs
- Epilepsy and Seizures FAQs
- Heart Disease FAQs
- Salt FAQs
- Dangers of Mixing Medications
- Medication Disposal
- Prescriptions: Complying with the Doctor's Orders
- Drugs: Buying Prescription Drugs Online Safely
- Drugs: The Most Common Medication Errors
- Generic Drugs, Are They as Good as Brand-Names?
Medications & Supplements
Eye Health Resources
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
FDA Prescribing Information.