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- What are ACE inhibitors, and how do they work (mechanism of action)?
- Why are ACE inhibitors prescribed (uses)?
- What are the side effects and adverse event of ACE inhibitors?
- List of examples of brand and generic drug names for ACE inhibitors
- Are there any differences among the different types of ACE inhibitors?
- What drugs or supplements interact with ACE inhibitor drug class?
What are ACE inhibitors, and how do they work (mechanism of action)?
Angiotensin II is a very potent chemical produced by the body that primarily circulates in the blood. It causes the muscles surrounding blood vessels to contract, thereby narrowing the vessels. The narrowing of the vessels increases the pressure within the vessels causing increases in blood pressure (hypertension). Angiotensin II is formed from angiotensin I in the blood by the enzyme angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). (Angiotensin I in the blood is itself formed from angiotensinogen, a protein produced by the liver and released into the blood.) Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) are medications that slow (inhibit) the activity of the enzyme ACE, which decreases the production of angiotensin II. As a result, blood vessels enlarge or dilate, and blood pressure is reduced. This lower blood pressure makes it easier for the heart to pump blood and can improve the function of a failing heart. In addition, the progression of kidney disease due to high blood pressure or diabetes is slowed.
Why are ACE inhibitors prescribed (uses)?
- ACE inhibitors are used for:
- ACE inhibitors also improve survival after heart attacks. In studies, individuals with hypertension, heart failure, or prior heart attacks who were treated with an ACE inhibitor lived longer than patients who did not take an ACE inhibitor.
- ACE inhibitors are an important group of drugs because they prevent early death resulting from hypertension, heart failure or heart attacks.
- Some individuals with hypertension do not respond sufficiently to ACE inhibitors alone. In these cases, other drugs often are used in combination with ACE inhibitors.
What are the side effects and adverse event of ACE inhibitors?
ACE inhibitors are well-tolerated by most individuals. Nevertheless, they are not free of side effects, and some patients should not use ACE inhibitors. ACE inhibitors usually are not prescribed for pregnant women because they may cause birth defects. Individuals with bilateral renal artery stenosis (narrowing of the arteries that supply the kidneys) may experience worsening of kidney function, and people who have had a severe reaction to ACE inhibitors probably should avoid them.
The most common side effects are:
- Elevated blood potassium levels
- Low blood pressure,
- Abnormal taste (metallic or salty taste)
- Chest pain
- Increased uric acid levels
- Sun sensitivity
- Increased BUN and creatinine levels
The most serious, but rare, side effects of ACE inhibitors are:
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List of examples of brand and generic drug names for ACE inhibitors
The following is a list of the ACE inhibitors that are available in the United States:
- benazepril (Lotensin)
- captopril (Capoten- discontinued brand)
- enalapril (Vasotec, Epaned, [Lexxel- discontinued brand])
- fosinopril (Monopril- Discontinued brand)
- lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril, Qbrelis)
- moexipril (Univasc- Discontinued brand)
- perindopril (Aceon)
- quinapril (Accupril)
- ramipril (Altace)
- trandolapril (Mavik)
Are there any differences among the different types of ACE inhibitors?
ACE inhibitors are very similar. However, they differ in how they are eliminated from the body and their doses. Some ACE inhibitors remain in the body longer than others, and are given once a day. Some ACE inhibitors need to be converted into an active form in the body before they work. In addition, some ACE inhibitors may work more on ACE that is found in tissues than on ACE that is present in the blood. The importance of this difference or whether one ACE inhibitor is better than another has not been determined.
What drugs or supplements interact with ACE inhibitor drug class?
ACE inhibitors have few interactions with other drugs.
- Since ACE inhibitors may increase blood levels of potassium, the use of potassium supplements, salt substitutes (which often contain potassium), or other drugs that increase the body's potassium may result in excessive blood potassium levels.
- ACE inhibitors also may increase the blood concentration of lithium (Eskalith, Lithobid) and lead to an increase in side effects from lithium.
- There have been reports that aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as ibuprofen (Advil, Children's Advil/Motrin, Medipren, Motrin, Nuprin, PediaCare Fever etc.), indomethacin (Indocin, Indocin-SR), and naproxen (Anaprox, Naprelan, Naprosyn, Aleve) may reduce the blood pressure lowering effects of ACE inhibitors.
- Patients receiving diuretics may experience excessive reduction in blood pressure when ACE inhibitors are started. Stopping the diuretic or increasing salt intake prior to taking the ACE inhibitor may prevent excessive blood pressure reduction. Close supervision for at least two hours after the start of ACE inhibitors and until blood pressure is stable is recommended if the diuretic cannot be stopped.
- ACE inhibitors should not be combined with ARBs because such combinations increase the risk of hypotension, hyperkalemia, and renal impairment.
- Ace inhibitors should not be combined with aliskiren (Tekturna), another class of drugs that is used to treat high blood pressure because such combinations increase the risk of kidney failure, excessive low blood pressure, and hyperkalemia.
- Nitritoid reactions (symptoms include facial flushing, nausea, vomiting and low blood pressure) may occur when injectable (gold sodium aurothiomalate [Myochrysine]), used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, is combined with ACE inhibitors.
ACE inhibitors, or angiotensin (generic name) converting enzyme
inhibitors, is a class of drugs that interact with blood enzymes to enlarge or
dilate blood vessels and reduce blood pressure. These drugs are used to control
high blood pressure (hypertension), treat heart problems, kidney disease in
people with diabetes high blood pressure. These
drugs also improve the survival rate of people who have survived heart attacks
and they prevent early death of people from heart attacks, high blood pressure,
and heart failure. Sometimes ACE inhibitors are combined with other drugs for
treating a condition.
Examples of ACE inhibitors include benazepril (Lotensin), captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), fosinopril (Monopril), and ramipril (Altace). Examples of the most common side effects of this class of drugs are dizziness, headache, cough, rash, chest pain, and rash. There are serious side effects of this drug like kidney failure, severe allergic reactions, and liver dysfunction, or failure. ACE inhibitors all are similar in the way they work; however, they differ in how the body eliminates doses of the drug. Drug interactions, dosage, and pregnancy and safety information should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
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Kidney (Renal) Failure
Kidney failure can occur from an acute event or a chronic condition or disease. Prerenal kidney failure is caused by blood loss, dehydration, or medication. Some of the renal causes of kidney failure include sepsis, medications, rhabdomyolysis, multiple myeloma, and acute glomerulonephritis. Post renal causes of kidney failure include bladder obstruction, prostate problems, tumors, or kidney stones.Treatment options included diet, medications, or dialysis.
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
Congestive heart failure (CHF) refers to a condition in which the heart loses the ability to function properly. Heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, myocarditis, and cardiomyopathies are just a few potential causes of congestive heart failure. Signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure may include fatigue, breathlessness, palpitations, angina, and edema. Physical examination, patient history, blood tests, and imaging tests are used to diagnose congestive heart failure. Treatment of heart failure consists of lifestyle modification and taking medications to decrease fluid in the body and ease the strain on the heart. The prognosis of a patient with congestive heart failure depends on the stage of the heart failure and the overall condition of the individual.
How the Heart Works: Sides, Chambers, and Function
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Kidney Pain: Symptoms, Treatment, and Causes
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High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)
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Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2)
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Heart Attack Symptoms and Early Warning Signs
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Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction)
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Hyperkalemia (High Blood Potassium)
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High Blood Pressure Treatment (Natural Home Remedies, Diet, Medications)
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Diabetes Treatment: Medication, Diet, and Insulin
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Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA, Mini-Stroke)
When a portion of the brain loses blood supply, through a blood clot or embolus, a transient ischemic attack (TIA, mini-stroke) may occur. If the symptoms do not resolve, a stroke most likely has occurred. Symptoms of TIA include: confusion, weakness, lethargy, and loss of function to one side of the body. Risk factors for TIA include vascular disease, smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes. Treatment depends upon the severity of the TIA, and whether it resolves.
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Omega-3 Fatty Acids
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Hypertension-Related Kidney Disease
Second Source WebMD Medical Reference
Hypertensive Kidney Disease
High blood pressure can damage the kidneys and is one of the leading causes of kidney failure (end-stage renal kidney disease). Kidney damage, like hypertension, can be unnoticeable and detected only through medical tests. If you have kidney disease, you should control your blood pressure. Other treatment options include prescription medications.
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Renal Artery Stenosis
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Heart Attack Treatment
A heart attack involves damage or death of part of the heart muscle due to a blood clot. The aim of heart attack treatment is to prevent or stop this damage to the heart muscle. Heart attack treatments included medications, procedures, and surgeries to protect the heart muscle against injury.
Fitness: Exercises for a Healthy Heart
Regular exercise can help reduce the risk of heart disease. To achieve maximum benefits, do a mix of stretching exercises, aerobic activity, and strengthening exercise. Aim to get 20 to 30 minutes of aerobic exercise at least three to four times a week. Consult a doctor before exercising for the first time, especially if you have health problems.
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Heart Attack Pathology: Photo Essay
A heart attack is a layperson's term for a sudden blockage of a coronary artery. This photo essay includes graphics, pictures, and illustrations of diseased heart tissue and the mechanisms that lead to coronary artery disease, and possible heart attack. A coronary artery occlusion may be fatal, but most patients survive it. Death can occur when the occlusion leads to an abnormal heartbeat (severe arrhythmia) or death of heart muscle (extensive myocardial infarction).
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Diabetes and Kidney Disease
In the United States diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure. High blood pressure and high levels of blood glucose increase the risk that a person with diabetes will eventually progress to kidney failure. Kidney disease in people with diabetes develops over the course of many years. albumin and eGFR are two key markers for kidney disease in people with diabetes. Controlling high blood pressure, blood pressure medications, a moderate protein diet, and compliant management of blood glucose can slow the progression of kidney disease. For those patients who's kidneys eventually fail, dialysis or kidney transplantation is the only option.
Heart Disease in Women
Heart disease in women has somewhat different symptoms, risk factors, and treatment compared to heart disease in men. Many women and health professionals are not aware of the risk factors for heart disease in women and may delay diagnosis and treatment. Lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise, tobacco use, overweight/obesity, stress, alcohol consumption, and depression influence heart disease risk in women. High blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes also increase women's risk of heart disease. Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG), stress-ECG, endothelial testing, ankle-brachial index (ABI), echocardiogram, nuclear imaging, electron beam CT, and lab tests to assess blood lipids and biomarkers of inflammation are used to diagnose heart disease. Early diagnosis and treatment of heart disease in women saves lives. Heart disease can be prevented and reversed with lifestyle changes.
Kidney Dysplasia: In Infants and Children
Kidney dysplasia is a condition in which one or both of a baby's kidneys do not develop normally. In kidney dysplasia, cysts replace normal kidney tissue. Signs of kidney dysplasia include enlarged kidneys and, rarely, high blood pressure. A child with kidney dysplasia may not have any symptoms. Genes and maternal exposure to certain drugs may cause kidney dysplasia. Regular checkups should include blood pressure measurements, kidney function tests, and urine testing for protein.
Heart Attack Prevention
Heart disease and heart attacks can be prevented by leading a healthy lifestyle with diet, exercise, and stress management. Symptoms of heart attack in men and women include chest discomfort and pain in the shoulder, neck, jaw, stomach, or back.
Heart Disease Treatment in Women
Heart disease treatment in women should take into account female-specific guidelines that were developed by the American Heart Association. Risk factors and symptoms of heart disease in women differ from those in men. Treatment may include lifestyle modification (diet, exercise, weight management, smoking cessation, stress reduction), medications, percutaneous intervention procedure (PCI), and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Heart disease is reversible with treatment.
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Heart Attack Prevention Overview
Heart attacks are the major causes of unexpected, sudden death among men and women. A heart attack also is a significant cause of heart failure. The process of developing atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) begins early in life. Heart attack prevention should begin in childhood because the atherosclerosis process can not be reversed. The risk of having a heart attack increases if you have diseases or conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and other heart conditions.
Stroke is the third leading killer in the United States. Some of the warning signs of stroke include sudden confusion, trouble seeing with one or both eyes, dizziness, loss of balance, and more. Stroke prevention and reatable risk factors for stroke include lowering high blood pressure, quit smoking, heart disease, diabetes control and prevention.
Treatment & Diagnosis
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Medications & Supplements
- Vasodilators (Drug Class Side Effects, List of Names)
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- lisinopril (Zestril, Prinivil, Qbrelis) ACE Inhibitor
- Calcium Channel Blockers (CCBs)
- Drug Interactions
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- hydralazine (Apresoline)
- captopril (Capoten)
- ramipril (Altace)
- enalapril (Vasotec, Epaned)
- benazepril (Lotensin HTC)
- trandolapril (Mavik)
- perindopril - oral, Aceon
- fosinopril sodium, Monopril
- quinapril (Accupril)
- lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide (Zestoretic, Prinzide)
- enalapril and hydrochlorothiazide (Vaseretic)
- captopril and hydrochlorothiazide (Capozide)
Prevention & Wellness
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- Common Blood Pressure Drugs Tied to Lower Risk of Alzheimer's: Study
- Common Blood Pressure Drugs May Help Slow Dementia
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- Heart Failure Drug May Only Help Heart's Function, Not Symptoms
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- Drug May Make Walking Easier for People With Artery Disease
- Heart Failure Drugs Put to the Test
- Fainting Spells Often Tied to Too Many Meds at Once: Study
- Many Older Heart Attack Survivors Don't Stick With Meds
- More Pregnant Women on Blood Pressure Drugs: Study
- In Diabetes, Any Protein in Urine May Signal Heart Risk
- Fish Oil Doesn't Lower Heart Risk in Diabetics
- New Guidelines for Kidney Disease Due to Lupus
- Role of Screening, Monitoring in Early Kidney Disease Unclear
- Heart Failure Death Risk Lower for Women
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- Is High Blood Pressure Linked to Birth Defects?
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