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- What is abacavir, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for abacavir?
- Is abacavir available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for abacavir?
- What are the side effects of abacavir?
- What is the dosage for abacavir?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with abacavir?
- Is abacavir safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about abacavir?
What is abacavir, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Abacavir is an oral medication that is used for the treatment of infections with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is in a class of drugs called reverse transcriptase inhibitors which also includes zalcitabine (Hivid), zidovudine (Retrovir), didanosine (Videx), lamivudine (Epivir), emtricitabine (Emtriva), and stavudine (Zerit). During infection with HIV, the HIV virus multiplies within the body's cells. The newly-formed viruses then are released from the cells and spread throughout the body where they infect other cells. In this manner, the infection continually spreads to new, uninfected cells that the body is continually producing, and HIV infection is perpetuated. When producing new viruses, the HIV virus must manufacture new DNA for each virus. Reverse transcriptase is the enzyme that the virus uses to form this new DNA. Specifically, abacavir is converted within the body to its active form (carbovir triphosphate). This active form is similar to a compound (deoxyguanosine triphosphate), a chemical that is required by the HIV virus to make new DNA. The reverse transcriptase uses carbovir triphosphate instead of deoxyguanosine triphosphate for making DNA, and it is the carbovir triphosphate that interferes with the reverse transcriptase. Abacavir does not kill existing HIV virus, and it is not a cure for HIV. The FDA approved abacavir in December 1998.
What are the side effects of abacavir?
The most common side effects are:
- allergic reactions,
- loss of appetite,
- difficulty sleeping,
- muscle pain,
- increased triglyceride levels,
- depression, and
The most serious side effects are severe allergic reactions, pancreatitis, liver failure, and metabolic disturbance (lactic acidosis). Symptoms of an allergic reaction include skin rash, fever, weakness, swelling and difficulty breathing. Abacavir must be stopped as soon an allergic reaction is suspected, and it should not be restarted after an allergic reaction.
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What is the dosage for abacavir?
The recommended dose for adults is 300 mg twice daily or 600 mg once daily. Children (3 months and older) should receive 8 mg/kg twice daily of the solution, and the maximum recommended dose is 300 mg twice daily. Pediatric patients weighing 14 kg or more may also be treated with abacavir tablets at doses of 300, 450, or 600 mg daily based on weight. Abacavir may be administered with or without food since food does not affect its absorption.
Which drugs or supplements interact with abacavir?
Alcohol competes with abacavir for elimination from the body. Therefore, alcohol consumption may increase the concentration of abacavir in the body, and this could lead to increased frequency or severity of side effects from abacavir. Abacavir does not affect the elimination of alcohol.
Is abacavir safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
Use of abacavir during pregnancy has not been adequately evaluated.
It is not known whether abacavir is excreted in breast milk. HIV infected mothers should not breast feed because of the potential risk of transmitting HIV to an infant that is not infected.
What else should I know about abacavir?
What preparations of abacavir are available?
Tablets: 300 mg; oral solution: 20 mg/ml
How should I keep abacavir stored?
Capsules and solution should be stored at room temperature, 15C to 30 C (59 F to 86F). The oral solution may be refrigerated but should not be frozen.
Reference: FDA Prescribing Information
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Abacavir (Ziagen) is a drug prescribed when in used in combination of other anti-HIV drugs to treat HIV infection. Side effects, Drug interactions, and dosage information should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
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