- 4KScore Test Center
- Prostate Cancer Slideshow Pictures
- Medical Illustrations of the Prostate Image Collection
- Men's Screening Tests Slideshow
- Patient Comments: 4KScore Test - Results
- Patient Comments: 4KScore Test - Biopsy
What is the 4K biomarker?
The 4K biomarker is a blood test that measures four different proteins in the blood to assess prostate cancer risk. The blood test that assesses these biomarkers is called the 4KScore Test. It suggests the possible risk that a significant prostate cancer would be found.
What does the 4KScore Test measure?
The 4Kscore Test relies on the measurement of four prostate-specific kallikreins in the blood: Total PSA, Free PSA, Intact PSA, and Human Kallikrein 2 (hK2).
What is the role of the 4KScore Test in prostate cancer screening?
The 4Kscore Test helps clarify the biopsy decision-making process by determining a patient-specific probability for finding aggressive, Gleason score 7 or higher prostate cancer upon biopsy. These are the aggressive prostate cancers that always require medical treatment or intervention. The blood test results are combined in an algorithm with patient age, digital rectal exam findings (nodules vs. no nodules), and prior negative biopsy (yes or no) to give physicians a personalized score for individual patients. The 4Kscore Test predicts the risk percent score from less than 1% to greater than 95% of a man having aggressive cancer in a prospective biopsy.
How does the 4KScore Test minimize unnecessary prostate biopsies?
The 4Kscore Test has undergone extensive clinical research and laboratory test validation. Based on the results of clinical studies, as many as 30% to 58% of biopsies are avoidable using the 4Kscore Test.
Quick GuideProstate Cancer Symptoms, PSA Test, Treatments
Daily Health News
Subscribe to MedicineNet's Cancer Report Newsletter
Punnen, S., et al. "Finding the Wolf in Sheep’s Clothing: The 4Kscore Is a Novel Blood Test That Can Accurately Identify the Risk of Aggressive Prostate Cancer." Reviews in Urology 17.1 (2015): 3-13.
Top 4KScore Test Related Articles
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH or enlarged prostate) is very common in men over 50 years of age. Half of all men over the age of 50 develop symptoms of BPH, but few need medical treatment. This noncancerous enlargement of the prostate can impede urine flow, slow the flow of urine, create the urge to urinate frequently and cause other symptoms like complete blockage of urine and urinary tract infections. More serious symptoms are urinary tract infections (UTIs) and complete blockage of the urethra, which may be a medical emergency.
BPH is not cancer. Not all men with the condition need treatment, and usually is closely monitored if no symptoms are present. Treatment measures usually are reserved for men with significant symptoms, and can include medications, surgery, microwave therapy, and laser procedures. Men can prevent prostate problems by having regular medical checkups that include a prostate exam. Contact your doctor or other medical professional if you have these symptoms:
- Painful urination
- Blood in the urine
- Difficult urinating
- A frequent urge to urinate
- Dribbling of urine
BPH SlideshowBenign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) is a condition cause by an enlarged prostate. Get more information on how an enlarged prostate is diagnosed and available treatment for enlarged prostate glands.
Take the BPH QuizTake the Enlarge Prostate Quiz and challenge your knowledge of prostate problems. Learn causes, symptoms, treatments, and diagnosis as well as little-known facts about the prostate, and what happens to men when the prostate is enlarged.
Mens HealthMen's health is an important component to a happy lifestyle and healthy relationships. Eating healthy, exercise, managing stress, and knowing when to have medical tests for a particular age is key to disease prevention in men.
Prostate CancerProstate cancer is the most common cancer in men after skin cancer. Risk factors include age, family history, ethnicity, and diet. Prostate cancer is diagnosed by digital rectal exam, prostate specific antigen (PSA) test, and prostate biopsy. Symptoms may include frequent need to urinate, incontinence, pain, blood in the urine, fatigue, and more. Prognosis and treatment depend on cancer staging. Watchful waiting, surgery, radiation, cryotherapy, and other management strategies are available. Research and clinical trials strive to find new and better treatments for prostate cancer.
Prostate Cancer SlidesProstate cancer is the most common cancer in men. Learn the signs and symptoms of prostate cancer, along with causes and treatments. Know the stages, survival rates and lower your risk of prostate cancer.
Prostate Cancer ScreeningProstate cancer screening may be able to detect cancer before a person has developed any symptoms. Prostate cancer is the most common nonskin cancer among American men. Tests commonly used to screen for prostate cancer include a digital rectal exam and a prostate-specific antigen test (PSA test).
Prostate Gland PictureA gland within the male reproductive system that is located just below the bladder. See a picture of Prostate Gland and learn more about the health topic.
Prostate Problem Warning SignsProstate problems are common in men over the age of 50. Benign prostatic hyperplasia, acute bacterial prostatis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, and chronic prostatis, and prostate cancer are common prostate problems. There are a variety of ways to diagnose and treat common prostate problems.
Prostate Specific AntigenProstate specific antigen (PSA) is a protein that is found in the semen. PSA levels are used to detect prostate cancer and monitor the progression of the disease. A condition called benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) can also cause elevated PSA levels.
Prostatitis (Inflammation of the Prostate Gland)Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate gland. Signs and symptoms of prostatitis include painful or difficulty urinating, fever, chills, body aches, blood in the urine, pain in the rectum, groin, abdomen, or low back, and painful ejaculation or sexual dysfunction. Causes of prostatitis include STDs, bacteria from urinary tract infections, or e. Coli. Treatment for prostatitis depends on if it is a bacterial infection or chronic inflammation of the prostate gland.