Women's Health Related Diseases & Conditions

Medical conditions are often related to other diseases and conditions. Our doctors have compiled a list of ailments related to the topic of Women's Health. These conditions may be a cause or symptom of Women's Health or be a condition for which you may be at increased risk.

  • Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection of the bladder, kidneys, ureters, or urethra. E. coli, a type of bacteria that...learn more »
    In This Article
    Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) Article
    • What is a urinary tract infection (UTI)?
    • What causes a urinary tract infection?
    • What are urinary tract infection symptoms and signs?
    • When should people seek medical care for a UTI?
    • How do physicians diagnose a urinary tract infection?
    • Are there home remedies for a urinary tract infection?
    • What is the treatment for a urinary tract infection?
    • What follow-up is needed for a urinary tract infection?
    • Is it possible to prevent a urinary tract infection?
    • What is the prognosis of a urinary tract infection?
  • Ovarian Cysts Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled, sac-like structures within an ovary. Causes of ovarian cysts are numerous. Symptoms of an ovarian...learn more »
    In This Article
    Ovarian Cysts Article
    • Ovarian cysts facts
    • What is the ovary and what are ovarian cysts?
    • What causes ovarian cysts?
    • What symptoms are caused by ovarian cysts?
    • How are ovarian cysts diagnosed?
    • How can the physician decide if an ovarian cyst is dangerous?
    • How are ovarian cysts treated?
    • What are the risks of ovarian cysts during pregnancy?
  • Menopause Menopause is the time in a woman's life when menstrual periods permanently stop, also called the "change of life." Menopause...learn more »
    In This Article
    Menopause Article
    • Menopause facts
    • What is menopause?
    • At what age does a woman typically reach menopause?
    • What conditions can affect the timing of menopause?
    • What are the symptoms of menopause?
    • What are the complications and effects of menopause on chronic medical conditions?
    • Are hormone levels or other blood tests helpful in detecting menopause?
    • What are the treatment options for the symptoms of menopause?
    • Hormone therapy for menopause
    • Other medical therapies for menopause
    • Alternative therapies for menopause
    • Non-hormone therapies for menopause
    • Lifestyle factors in managing menopause symptoms
  • Endometriosis Endometriosis is the growth of cells similar to those that form the inside of the uterus, but in a location outside of the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Endometriosis Article
    • Endometriosis facts
    • What is endometriosis?
    • Who is affected by endometriosis?
    • What causes endometriosis?
    • What are endometriosis symptoms?
    • Endometriosis and cancer risk
    • How is endometriosis diagnosed?
    • How is endometriosis treated?
    • Medical treatment of endometriosis
    • Surgical treatment of endometriosis
    • Treatment of infertility associated with endometriosis
  • Vaginal Bleeding Normal vaginal bleeding (menorrhea) occurs through the process of menstruation. Abnormal vaginal bleeding in women who are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Vaginal Bleeding Article
    • Vaginal bleeding facts
    • What is normal vaginal bleeding?
    • What is abnormal vaginal bleeding?
    • What conditions cause abnormal vaginal bleeding in women who are ovulating regularly?
    • What conditions cause vaginal bleeding after menopause or abnormal vaginal bleeding in women who are not ovulating regularly?
    • What causes abnormal vaginal bleeding during or after sexual intercourse?
    • What causes abnormal vaginal bleeding during pregnancy?
    • What tests are used to evaluate abnormal vaginal bleeding?
    • How is irregular or abnormal vaginal bleeding treated?
  • Ovarian Cancer There are many types of ovarian cancer, epithelial carcinoma is the most common. Women with a family history of ovarian cancer...learn more »
    In This Article
    Ovarian Cancer Article
    • What is ovarian cancer?
    • Epithelial ovarian cancer
    • Borderline ovarian tumors
    • Germ cell ovarian cancers
    • Stromal ovarian cancers
    • The statistics for ovarian cancer
    • What are the risk factors for ovarian cancer?
    • What are ovarian cancer symptoms and signs?
    • How is ovarian cancer diagnosed?
    • How is ovarian cancer staging determined?
    • What is the treatment for ovarian cancer?
    • What is the prognosis of ovarian cancer?
    • Can ovarian cancer be prevented?
  • Uterine Fibroids (Benign Tumors of the Uterus) Uterine fibroids are benign tumors that originate in the uterus and are usually round or semi-round in shape. The most common...learn more »
    In This Article
    Uterine Fibroids (Benign Tumors of the Uterus) Article
    • Uterine fibroids facts
    • What are uterine fibroids?
    • What causes uterine fibroids and how common are they?
    • What are the symptoms of uterine fibroids?
    • Do untreated uterine fibroids pose a risk?
    • What are the usual ways of diagnosing uterine fibroids?
    • What is the treatment of uterine fibroids?
    • Surgery for fibroids
    • Medical treatment for fibroids
    • What are the risks of uterine fibroids during pregnancy?
  • Cervical Cancer Cervical cancer is cancer of the entrance to the womb (uterus). Regular pelvic exams and Pap testing can detect precancerous...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cervical Cancer Article
    • Cervical cancer facts*
    • What is the cervix?
    • What is cancer?
    • What are the risk factors and causes of cervical cancer?
    • What are the symptoms of cervical cancer?
    • How is cervical cancer diagnosed?
    • How is staging of cervical cancer determined?
    • What is the treatment for cervical cancer?
    • What are methods of treatment for cervical cancer?
    • How do I go about getting a second opinion?
    • What follow-up care is involved after cervical cancer treatment?
    • What support, research, and clinical trials information is available for cervical cancer patients?
  • Uterine Cancer Though uterine cancer's cause is unknown, there are many factors that will put a woman at risk, including: over age 50,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Uterine Cancer Article
    • Uterine cancer facts
    • What is the uterus?
    • What is uterine cancer (endometrial cancer)?
    • What causes uterine cancer? Who is at risk for uterine cancer?
    • What are uterine cancer symptoms and signs?
    • How is a diagnosis of uterine cancer determined?
    • How is the stage determined for uterine cancer?
    • What are treatment options for uterine cancer?
    • What about surgery for the treatment of endometrial cancer?
    • What about radiation therapy for the treatment of uterine cancer?
    • What about chemotherapy for the treatment of endometrial cancer?
    • What about hormone therapy for the treatment of uterine cancer?
    • How does a person go about getting a second opinion after a uterine cancer diagnosis?
    • What sort of follow-up treatment is needed during and after uterine cancer treatment?
    • What support is available for patients with uterine cancer?
    • What research is being done on uterine cancer?
  • Ectopic Pregnancy An ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy located outside the inner lining of the uterus. The majority of ectopic pregnancies occur in...learn more »
    In This Article
    Ectopic Pregnancy Article
    • Ectopic pregnancy facts
    • What is an ectopic pregnancy?
    • What are the risk factors for ectopic pregnancy?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy?
    • How is ectopic pregnancy diagnosed?
    • What is the health risk of an ectopic pregnancy?
    • What treatment options are available for ectopic pregnancy?
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Women (STDs) Sexually transmitted diseases, or STDs, are infections that are transmitted during any type of sexual exposure, including...learn more »
    In This Article
    Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Women (STDs) Article
    • What are sexually transmitted diseases (STDs, formerly referred to as sexually transmitted infections or STIs)?
    • Gonorrhea
    • Chlamydia
    • Syphilis
    • Genital Herpes
    • Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) and Genital Warts
    • Chancroid
    • Ectoparasitic Infections
    • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
    • Hepatitis B
    • Hepatitis C
    • Conclusions
  • Menstrual Cramps Menstrual cramps (pain in the belly and pelvic area) are experienced by women as a result of menses. Menstrual cramps are not the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Menstrual Cramps Article
    • Menstrual cramps facts
    • What are menstrual cramps?
    • How common are menstrual cramps?
    • What is dysmenorrhea?
    • What causes menstrual cramps?
    • Why are some cramps so painful?
    • Can menstrual cramps be measured?
    • What other factors influence menstrual cramps?
    • What are the symptoms of menstrual cramps?
    • How are menstrual cramps diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for common menstrual cramps (primary dysmenorrhea)?
    • What if the cramps are very severe?
    • Are there surgical solutions?
    • What is the treatment of secondary dysmenorrhea?
    • What is the long-term outlook (prognosis) for menstrual cramps?
  • Night Sweats Night sweats are severe hot flashes that occur at night and result in a drenching sweat. In order to distinguish night sweats...learn more »
    In This Article
    Night Sweats Article
    • Introduction to night sweats
    • What are the causes of night sweats in women, men, and children?
    • What are the symptoms of night sweats?
    • Menopause
    • Idiopathic hyperhidrosis
    • Infections
    • Cancer
    • Medications
    • Hypoglycemia
    • Hormone disorders
    • Neurologic conditions
    • Night sweats treatment
  • Colon Cancer Colon cancer is a malignancy that arises from the inner lining of the colon. Most, if not all, of these cancers develop from...learn more »
    In This Article
    Colon Cancer Article
    • Colon cancer facts
    • What is cancer?
    • What is cancer of the colon and rectum?
    • What are the causes of colon cancer?
    • What are the symptoms of colon cancer?
    • What tests can be done to detect colon cancer?
    • How can colon cancer be prevented?
    • What are the treatments and survival for colon cancer?
    • What is the follow-up care for colon cancer?
    • What does the future hold for patients with colorectal cancer?
  • Yeast Infection (in Women and Men) Vaginal yeast infections in women are caused by an organism called Candida albicans. Symptoms of a vaginal yeast infection...learn more »
    In This Article
    Yeast Infection (in Women and Men) Article
    • Vaginal yeast infection facts
    • What is a vaginal yeast infection?
    • What causes a vaginal yeast infection?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of a vaginal yeast infection?
    • How is a vaginal yeast infection diagnosed?
    • Are there home remedies to treat a vaginal yeast infection?
    • What over-the-counter medications are available to treat a vaginal yeast infection?
    • When are oral prescription medications used to treat a vaginal yeast infection?
    • Can a man get a yeast infection from his sexual partner?
    • What are the symptoms of a yeast infection in men?
    • What is the treatment for yeast infection in men?
    • How can vaginal yeast infections be prevented?
    • How can a man protect himself from contracting a yeast infection from his partner?
  • Genital Herpes in Women Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). Symptoms of genital herpes...learn more »
    In This Article
    Genital Herpes in Women Article
    • Genital herpes in women facts
    • What is genital herpes?
    • What causes genital herpes?
    • How is genital herpes transmitted?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of genital herpes?
    • How is genital herpes diagnosed?
    • Can genital herpes be cured?
    • What is the treatment for genital herpes?
    • Are home remedies or natural treatments effective for genital herpes?
    • How is genital herpes managed in pregnancy?
    • What is the prognosis for genital herpes?
    • Can genital herpes be prevented?
  • Bladder Infection (Cystitis) Bladder infection is an infection of the bladder, usually caused by bacteria or, rarely, by Candida. Certain people, including...learn more »
    In This Article
    Bladder Infection (Cystitis) Article
    • What is a bladder infection?
    • What causes bladder infections?
    • What are some risk factors for bladder infection?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of a bladder infection in women?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of a bladder infection in men?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of a bladder infection in children?
    • How is a bladder infection diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for a bladder infection?
    • Are home remedies effective for a bladder infection?
    • How is a bladder infection during pregnancy treated?
    • What are potential complications of a bladder infection?
    • Can bladder infections be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for a bladder infection?
  • Fibrocystic Breast Condition Fibrocystic breast condition (sometimes called fibrocystic breast disease) is characterized by lumpiness and usually discomfort...learn more »
    In This Article
    Fibrocystic Breast Condition Article
    • Fibrocystic breast condition facts
    • What are fibrocystic breasts?
    • Is there a difference between fibrocystic breast condition and fibrocystic breast disease?
    • What causes fibrocystic breasts?
    • What are the symptoms of fibrocystic breast condition?
    • Which women are more likely to develop fibrocystic breast condition?
    • Can fibrocystic breast condition affect just one breast?
    • Why is it important to diagnosis fibrocystic breasts?
    • How is fibrocystic breast condition diagnosed?
    • Is there more than one type of fibrocystic breast condition?
    • Why can fibrocystic breast condition be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer?
    • Why don't all women with fibrocystic breast condition have breast biopsies?
    • What is the recommended follow-up for women with fibrocystic breast condition?
    • How is the risk of breast cancer in fibrocystic breast condition patients calculated?
    • What are the treatments for fibrocystic breast condition?
    • Are there any dietary or life style factors associated with fibrocystic breast condition?
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is the most common and serious complication of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), aside from...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Article
    • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) facts*
    • What is pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?
    • What causes pelvic inflammatory disease?
    • How common is pelvic inflammatory disease?
    • Are some women more likely to get pelvic inflammatory disease?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of pelvic inflammatory disease?
    • How is pelvic inflammatory disease diagnosed?
    • How is pelvic inflammatory disease treated?
    • What if my partner is infected with pelvic inflammatory disease?
    • My friend was told she can't get pregnant because she has PID. Is this true?
    • How can I keep myself from getting PID?
    • What should I do if I think I have an STI (sexually transmitted disease)?
  • Genital Warts (HPV) Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the U.S. HPV is primarily transmitted...learn more »
    In This Article
    Genital Warts (HPV) Article
    • Genital warts (HPV) facts
    • What are human papillomaviruses (HPVs)?
    • How common is HPV infection?
    • What are the symptoms of genital warts?
    • How is HPV infection diagnosed?
    • Is there a DNA test for types of HPV infection?
    • How are genital warts diagnosed?
    • External genital warts
    • Precancerous changes (dysplasia) of the uterine cervix
    • Can HPV infection be prevented?
    • What should one do if exposed to a person with genital warts?
  • Breast Lumps (In Women) Breast lumps in women can have a variety of causes such as breast inflammation, infection, injuries, cancer, and non-cancerous...learn more »
    In This Article
    Breast Lumps (In Women) Article
    • Breast lumps facts
    • What are causes of breast lumps?
    • Infections that cause breast lumps
    • Injuries that cause breast lumps
    • Non-cancerous growths that cause breast lumps
    • Symptoms of breast cancer
    • What determines breast cancer risk?
    • How are breast lumps evaluated?
    • How can a woman be certain that a lump is not cancer?
    • How are breast lumps treated?
  • Sleep Apnea Sleep apnea is defined as a reduction or cessation of breathing during sleep. The three types of sleep apnea are central apnea,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Sleep Apnea Article
    • Sleep apnea facts
    • What is sleep apnea?
    • What are the types of sleep apnea?
    • What is central sleep apnea and what causes it?
    • What is obstructive sleep apnea and what causes it?
    • How common is obstructive sleep apnea?
    • What are obstructive sleep apnea symptoms?
    • What are some of the complications of sleep apnea?
    • How is obstructive sleep apnea diagnosed and evaluated?
    • What are the nonsurgical treatments for obstructive sleep apnea?
    • What are the surgical treatments for obstructive sleep apnea?
    • Why is it important to treat obstructive sleep apnea?
  • Interstitial Cystitis Interstitial cystitis (IC) is an inflammatory disease of the bladder that can cause ulceration and bleeding of the bladder's...learn more »
    In This Article
    Interstitial Cystitis Article
    • Interstitial cystitis facts
    • Overview of urinary function
    • What is interstitial cystitis (IC)?
    • What is the cause of interstitial cystitis?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of interstitial cystitis?
    • How is interstitial cystitis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment of interstitial cystitis?
    • Are lifestyle modifications of value in managing interstitial cystitis?
    • Are there any special concerns about interstitial cystitis?
    • What is the prognosis (outcome) of interstitial cystitis?
  • Vaginitis Vaginitis refers to inflammation of the vagina. Vaginitis can be caused by infections, menopause, or poor hygiene. Symptoms of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Vaginitis Article
    • Vaginitis facts
    • What is vaginitis?
    • What causes vaginitis?
    • What are the risk factors for vaginitis?
    • What are the symptoms of vaginitis?
    • How is vaginitis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for vaginitis?
    • Medications to treat vaginitis
    • Can vaginitis be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for vaginitis?
  • Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), also known by the name Stein-Leventhal syndrome, is a hormonal problem that causes women to...learn more »
    In This Article
    Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) Article
    • Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) facts
    • What is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)?
    • What are the symptoms of PCOS?
    • What causes PCOS?
    • How is PCOS diagnosed?
    • What conditions or complications can be associated with PCOS?
    • What treatments are available for PCOS?
  • Hypothyroidism During Pregnancy Hypothyroidism during pregnancy can be treated with synthetic thyroid hormones to maintain the proper thyroid hormone balance....learn more »
    In This Article
    Hypothyroidism During Pregnancy Article
    • Hypothyroidism during pregnancy facts
    • Introduction
    • What is the thyroid gland?
    • What happens with thyroid disease?
    • How is hypothyroidism treated during pregnancy?
    • What are the consequences of hypothyroidism during pregnancy?
    • How early does the mother's thyroid hormone affect the unborn baby?
    • What can be done to avoid the consequences of hypothyroidism in pregnancy?
  • Gonorrhea In Women Gonorrhea is a bacterial infection transmitted during sexual contact. In women, symptoms include a yellow vaginal discharge,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Gonorrhea In Women Article
    • Gonorrhea facts
    • What are sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)?
    • What is gonorrhea?
    • What are the symptoms of gonorrhea?
    • How is gonorrhea diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for gonorrhea?
  • Melasma Melasma is a patchy brown discoloration of the skin on the face. When it occurs in pregnancy, it's called chloasma. Melasma is...learn more »
    In This Article
    Melasma Article
    • Melasma facts
    • What is melasma? What are signs of melasma?
    • What causes melasma?
    • Where is melasma seen on the body?
    • What are the types of melasma?
    • How is melasma diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for melasma?
    • What melasma treatments can I have at my doctor's office?
    • Do lasers work for melasma?
    • How does hydroquinone work in melasma?
    • Are there non-hydroquinone alternative treatments for melasma?
    • What is Tri-Luma?
    • What SPF is recommended for melasma?
    • Can melasma be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for melasma?
  • Date Rape Drugs Date rape drugs such as GHB, rohypnol, and ketamine are sometimes used to assist in a sexual assault. Symptoms and signs of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Date Rape Drugs Article
    • Date rape drugs facts*
    • What are date rape drugs?
    • What do the drugs look like?
    • What effects do these drugs have on the body?
    • Are these drugs legal in the United States?
    • Is alcohol a date rape drug? What about other drugs?
    • How can I protect myself from being a victim?
    • Are there ways to tell if I might have been drugged and raped?
    • What should I do if I think I've been drugged and raped?
  • Uterine Growths Benign uterine growths are tissue enlargements of the female womb (uterus). Three types of benign uterine growths are uterine...learn more »
    In This Article
    Uterine Growths Article
    • What are uterine growths?
    • What are uterine fibroids?
    • What are the symptoms of uterine fibroids and what do they look like?
    • How are uterine fibroids diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for uterine fibroids?
    • Surgery for uterine fibroids
    • Other medical treatment for uterine fibroids
    • What are the complications of uterine fibroids?
    • What is adenomyosis?
    • What are the symptoms of adenomyosis and what do they look like?
    • How is adenomyosis diagnosed?
    • How is adenomyosis treated?
    • What are uterine polyps?
    • What are the symptoms of uterine polyps and what do they look like?
    • How are uterine polyps diagnosed and treated?
  • Chlamydia in Women Chlamydia is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the U.S. Signs and symptoms of chlamydia, a bacterial infection,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Chlamydia in Women Article
    • What is chlamydia?
    • What causes chlamydia?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of chlamydia?
    • How is chlamydia diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for chlamydia?
    • What is the prognosis for chlamydia?
    • Can chlamydia be prevented?
  • Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a combination of physical and emotional disturbances that occur after a woman ovulates and ends...learn more »
    In This Article
    Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) Article
    • Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) facts
    • What is premenstrual syndrome?
    • How common is PMS?
    • When was PMS discovered?
    • What causes PMS?
    • What are the symptoms of PMS?
    • How is the diagnosis of PMS made?
    • What conditions are like PMS?
    • How is PMS distinguished from other conditions?
    • What treatments are available for PMS?
    • What medications are used to treat PMS?
    • Are there herbal or natural remedies for PMS?
    • Can exercise help relieve some of the symptoms of PMS?
    • Is there a "cure" for PMS?
  • Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis (toxo) is a parasitic infection that causes flulike symptoms, swollen lymph nodes, and muscle aches and pains that...learn more »
    In This Article
    Toxoplasmosis Article
    • Toxoplasmosis facts
    • What is toxoplasmosis?
    • What is the cause of toxoplasmosis?
    • What factors increase the risk of acquiring toxo?
    • What are the usual symptoms of toxoplasmosis?
    • Why do some people develop severe problems from toxo?
    • Can toxoplasmosis develop into a more serious illness in babies?
    • What is meant by a baby developing "a more severe case of toxo"?
    • How is toxo diagnosed in the lab?
    • How can toxoplasmosis be prevented?
    • Am I able to keep my cat?
    • Once infected with toxo, is my cat always able to spread the infection to me?
    • What is the treatment for toxoplasmosis?
    • What is the prognosis for toxoplasmosis?
  • Cavities Learn more about cavities including symptoms, treatment, and prevention. See how tooth decay, plaque, and bacteria contribute to...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cavities Article
    • What are cavities?
    • What are microcavities?
    • How does a cavity form?
    • What risk factors contribute to tooth decay?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of cavities?
    • How are cavities diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for cavities?
    • What is CAMBRA?
    • Treatment of cavities during pregnancy
    • What is the prognosis of a cavity?
  • Alternative Treatments for Hot Flashes of Menopause Hot flashes are experienced by many women, however, not all women undergoing menopause experience hot flashes. A hot flash is a...learn more »
    In This Article
    Alternative Treatments for Hot Flashes of Menopause Article
    • Alternatives for treating hot flashes facts
    • Introduction to menopause and hot flashes
    • What are hot flashes?
    • How are hot flashed usually treated?
    • Which alternative prescription medications are effective in treating hot flash symptoms of menopause?
    • Why are some doctors reluctant to recommend nonprescription therapies for menopause symptoms?
    • What alternative treatments for menopause have been scientifically studied?
  • Menstruation Menstruation (menstrual cycle) is also referred to as a "period." When a woman menstruates, the lining of the uterus is shed....learn more »
    In This Article
    Menstruation Article
    • Menstruation facts*
    • What is menstruation?
    • What is the menstrual cycle?
    • What happens during the menstrual cycle?
    • What is a typical menstrual period like?
    • What kinds of problems do women have with their periods?
    • When does a girl usually get her first period?
    • How long does a woman have periods?
    • When should I see a doctor about my period?
    • How often should I change my pad/tampon?
  • Vaginal Cancer Vaginal cancer is fairly uncommon. There are two types of vaginal cancer: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Risk...learn more »
    In This Article
    Vaginal Cancer Article
    • Vaginal cancer facts*
    • What is vaginal cancer?
    • What are causes and risk factors for vaginal cancer?
    • What are symptoms and signs of vaginal cancer?
    • What tests are used to diagnose vaginal cancer?
    • What is the prognosis for vaginal cancer?
    • How is staging determined for vaginal cancer?
    • What is the treatment for vaginal cancer?
    • Treatment options by stage
    • Treatment options for recurrent vaginal cancer
    • Where can I find more information about vaginal cancer?
  • Paget Disease of the Breast Paget's disease is a rare form of cancer that forms in or around the nipple and frequently coexists with breast cancer. The exact...learn more »
    In This Article
    Paget Disease of the Breast Article
    • Paget disease of the breast key points
    • What is Paget disease of the breast?
    • Who gets Paget disease of the breast?
    • What causes Paget disease of the breast?
    • What are the symptoms of Paget disease of the breast?
    • How is Paget disease of the breast diagnosed?
    • How is Paget disease of the breast treated?
    • What is the prognosis for people with Paget disease of the breast?
    • What research studies are under way on Paget disease of the breast?
  • Syphilis in Women Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a spiral-shaped type of bacteria known as a spirochete. There are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Syphilis in Women Article
    • What is syphilis?
    • What causes syphilis?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of syphilis?
    • What tests are used to diagnose syphilis?
    • What is the treatment for syphilis?
    • What are the potential complications of syphilis?
    • What is the prognosis for syphilis?
    • Can syphilis be prevented?
  • Cystocele A cystocele is also known as a fallen or prolapsed bladder. Heavy lifting and straining may cause a cystocele, which causes urine...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cystocele Article
    • Cystocele facts*
    • What is a cystocele?
    • What causes a cystocele?
    • How is a cystocele diagnosed?
    • How is a cystocele treated?
    • Where can people find more information about prolapsed bladders?
  • Masturbation Just about everybody masturbates. Masturbation itself is the self-stimulation of the male or female genitals to achieve sexual...learn more »
    In This Article
    Masturbation Article
    • Introduction to masturbation
    • Who masturbates?
    • Why do people masturbate?
    • Is masturbation normal?
    • Is masturbation harmful?
  • Healthy Living and Disease Prevention The importance of a healthy lifestyle in disease prevention is widely understood and most people know that lifestyle changes and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Healthy Living and Disease Prevention Article
    • Healthy living facts
    • Eating (diet)
    • Physical activity and exercise
    • Avoid tobacco use
    • Avoid excessive alcohol consumption
    • Avoid high-risk sexual behaviors
    • Avoid other high-risk behaviors
    • Additional tips for healthy living
  • Pregnancy: Trying to Conceive Trying to get conceive, or become pregnant can be challenging, frustrating, and an emotional rollercoaster for some couples....learn more »
    In This Article
    Pregnancy: Trying to Conceive Article
    • Trying to Conceive Facts*
    • Fertility Awareness
    • Charting your fertility pattern
    • Basal body temperature method
    • Calendar method
    • Cervical mucus method
    • Infertility
    • Causes of infertility
    • Age
    • Health Problems
    • Lifestyle factors
    • Options for infertile couples
    • Treating infertility
    • Adoption
    • Foster care
    • Counseling and support groups
  • Breast Cancer Breast cancer is an invasive tumor that develops in the mammary gland. Breast cancer is detected via mammograms, breast...learn more »
    In This Article
    Breast Cancer Article
    • Breast cancer facts
    • What is breast cancer?
    • What are the risk factors for breast cancer?
    • What causes breast cancer?
    • What are the different types of breast cancer?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of breast cancer?
    • How is breast cancer diagnosed?
    • Screening
    • Definitive diagnosis
    • Specialized testing
    • What are the stages of breast cancer?
    • What is the treatment for breast cancer?
    • Surgery
    • Radiation
    • Hormone therapy
    • Chemotherapy
    • Targeted therapy
    • Breast cancer treatment by stage
    • What are the survival rates and prognosis for breast cancer?
    • What research is being performed on breast cancer?
    • Can breast cancer be prevented?
  • Urinary Incontinence in Women Millions of women suffer from urinary incontinence (UI). UI occurs twice as often in women as in men. There are many types of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Urinary Incontinence in Women Article
    • Urinary incontinence (UI) in women facts*
    • What is urinary incontinence?
    • What are the types of urinary incontinence?
    • How is incontinence evaluated?
    • How is incontinence treated?
    • Points to remember
    • Hope through research
    • For more information
  • Breastfeeding and Formula Feeding It's important to know whether you will breastfeed or bottle-feed your baby prior to delivery, as the breasts' ability to produce...learn more »
    In This Article
    Breastfeeding and Formula Feeding Article
    • Breastfeeding facts
    • When should we decide about breastfeeding?
    • Why is the choice so important?
    • What are the advantages and disadvantages of breastfeeding?
    • What are the advantages and disadvantages of formula feeding?
    • Can we use both forms of feedings for our baby?
    • Is there any special preparation required for breastfeeding?
    • When can breastfeeding begin?
    • What is the proper technique for breastfeeding?
    • When should breast pumps be used?
    • Should certain foods be avoided while breastfeeding?
    • How can one manage minor discomforts related to breastfeeding?
    • Clogged milk ducts
    • Sore nipples
    • When should one seek medical care for problems with breastfeeding?
    • Can supplements or medications increase a low milk supply?
    • Is it possible to breastfeed while pregnant?
    • Is smoking harmful when breastfeeding?
    • Do breast implants, surgeries, or reductions affect breastfeeding?
    • How should one wean a baby from breastfeeding?
  • Pregnancy Symptoms (Am I Pregnant?) Pregnancy symptoms can vary from woman to woman, but some common symptoms include mood changes, headaches, lower back pain,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pregnancy Symptoms (Am I Pregnant?) Article
    • 8 fast pregnancy symptoms facts
    • Pregnancy symptoms in general
    • 13 signs and symptoms of early pregnancy
    • 8 signs and symptoms of later pregnancy
    • 8 options for relief of pregnancy symptoms
  • Sexual Problems (Sex) in Women Sexual dysfunction refers to a problem that arises during any phase of the sexual response cycle, preventing an individual or...learn more »
    In This Article
    Sexual Problems (Sex) in Women Article
    • What causes female sexual problems?
    • Who is affected by sexual problems?
    • How do sexual problems affect women?
    • How is a female sexual problem diagnosed?
    • How are female sexual problems treated?
    • Can female sexual problems be cured?
    • How do hormones affect sexual function?
    • What effect does a hysterectomy have on sexual function?
    • How does menopause affect a woman's sexual function?
    • When should I call my doctor about sexual problems?
  • Postpartum Depression Postpartum depression is a form of depression that occurs within a year after delivery. It is thought that rapid hormone changes...learn more »
    In This Article
    Postpartum Depression Article
    • Postpartum depression facts
    • What is postpartum depression? Are there different types of postpartum depression?
    • What are causes and risk factors for postpartum depression?
    • What are postpartum depression symptoms and signs?
    • How is postpartum depression diagnosed?
    • What are the treatments for postpartum depression?
    • What is the prognosis of postpartum depression?
    • Can postpartum depression be prevented?
    • Where can people get more information about postpartum depression?
    • Where can people get support for postpartum depression?
    • What research is being done on postpartum depression?
  • Female Reproductive System The female reproductive system is designed to carry out several functions, including producing the female egg cells, conception,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Female Reproductive System Article
    • Female reproductive system definition
    • Internal reproductive organs
    • External reproductive organs
    • The menstrual cycle
    • Follicular phase
    • Ovulation
    • Luteal phase
    • Menopause
  • Bulimia People with bulimia nervosa, an eating disorder that involves episodes of bingeing and purging, experience symptoms and signs...learn more »
    In This Article
    Bulimia Article
    • Bulimia nervosa facts
    • What is bulimia?
    • What are causes and risk factors for bulimia?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of bulimia?
    • How do physicians diagnose bulimia?
    • What is the treatment for bulimia?
    • What are complications of bulimia?
    • What is the prognosis for bulimia?
    • Is it possible to prevent bulimia?
    • Where can one find more information about bulimia?
    • Are there support groups for people with bulimia?
  • Premature Menopause Premature menopause is when menopause occurs in a woman before the age of 40. Causes of premature menopause include premature...learn more »
    In This Article
    Premature Menopause Article
    • Premature menopause facts
    • What is premature menopause?
    • What causes premature menopause?
    • Who is at risk for premature menopause?
    • What are the symptoms for premature menopause?
    • What tests are used to diagnose premature menopause?
    • Is there any treatment for premature menopause?
    • What are complications of premature menopause?
    • What is the outlook (prognosis) for premature menopause?
  • Menopause and Sex Menopause is often associated with a change in sexual functioning. Loss of estrogen, bladder control issues, anxiety, stress,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Menopause and Sex Article
    • Menopause and sex facts
    • How does menopause affect sexual function?
    • What are some symptoms of menopause that can affect sexual function?
    • What are some treatments for troubling symptoms of menopause?
    • What are some ways to improve sexual function after menopause?
  • Birth Control Methods There are a variety of birth control methods to choose from. It varies from person to person and their preferences to either...learn more »
    In This Article
    Birth Control Methods Article
    • Introduction to birth control methods
    • Hormonal methods (including oral contraceptives)
    • Barrier methods (including condoms)
    • Natural methods
    • Surgical sterilization (tubal ligation or vasectomy)
    • Contraceptives after unprotected sex (morning after pill)
    • IUDs (intrauterine devices)
    • Conclusion
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Pregnancy (STDs) When you are pregnant, many sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can be especially harmful to you and your baby. These STDs...learn more »
    In This Article
    Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Pregnancy (STDs) Article
    • Pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases, commonly called STDs
    • STDs include
    • What are the symptoms of STDs?
    • How can STDs affect my pregnancy?
    • How can I find out if I have an STD?
    • How are STDs treated in pregnancy?
    • How can I protect myself from STDs?
    • How can I prevent spreading a STD?
  • Breast Anatomy The breast, or mammary gland is made up of lobules, milk producing glands, and a system of ducts to transport milk. Both males...learn more »
    In This Article
    Breast Anatomy Article
    • Breast facts
    • What are the breasts (mammary glands)?
    • What are the anatomical features of the breast?
    • What happens to the breasts in pregnancy?
    • How does breast tissue develop?
    • How are human breasts different from other species?
    • What are the most common medical conditions affecting the breasts?
  • Breast Cancer Prevention Lifestyle changes, a healthy antioxidant-rich diet, exercise, and weight reduction can help reduce a woman's risk of developing...learn more »
    In This Article
    Breast Cancer Prevention Article
    • Introduction to breast cancer prevention
    • What are the biological causes of breast cancer?
    • What are the risk factors for developing breast cancer?
    • What is the importance of early breast cancer detection?
    • What are the advantages and limitations of mammography?
    • How frequently should women undergo mammography and breast examinations?
    • What is the risk of radiation with repeated mammography screening over the years?
    • Are there any controversies in the area of breast cancer screening?
    • How helpful are BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic tests in identifying women at risk?
    • What is the link between estrogen and breast cancer?
    • What are breast cancer prevention treatments?
    • Are there other breast cancer prevention measures?
    • Conclusion
  • Holiday Depression and Stress Though the holidays are a fun time for most, for others, they're a sad, lonely and anxiety-filled time. Get tips on how to avoid...learn more »
    In This Article
    Holiday Depression and Stress Article
    • Holiday depression and stress facts
    • What causes the holiday blues?
    • Is the environment and reduced daylight a factor in wintertime sadness?
    • What are symptoms and signs of holiday depression and stress?
    • How is holiday stress and depression diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for holiday depression and stress?
    • Can holiday stress and depression be prevented?
  • Disease Prevention in Women Disease prevention in women includes screening tests that are a basic part of prevention medicine. All screening tests are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Disease Prevention in Women Article
    • Disease prevention in women overview
    • Osteoporosis
    • Breast cancer
    • High blood pressure (hypertension)
    • Cancer of the cervix
    • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
    • Hypercholesterolemia (hyperlipidemia, dyslipidemia)
    • Type II diabetes mellitus
    • Cancer of colon and rectum / polyps of colon and rectum
    • Bladder cancer
    • Glaucoma
    • Melanoma and other skin cancers
  • Estimating Breast Cancer Risk: Questions and Answers As breast cancer is the most diagnosed non-skin cancer in American women, it is important to know your breast cancer risk. Risk...learn more »
    In This Article
    Estimating Breast Cancer Risk: Questions and Answers Article
    • Who develops breast cancer?
    • What is the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool?
    • What are the risk factors used to estimate breast cancer risk in the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool?
    • Why are some other risk factors left out of the Tool?
    • Is the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool useful for all women?
    • What are some of the latest research findings on breast cancer risk?
    • Are there ways to decrease the chance of developing breast cancer?
    • How did BCPT and STAR use the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool to add to our knowledge of breast cancer risk?
    • What else can a woman do about breast cancer?
  • Heart Disease Treatment in Women Heart disease treatment in women should take into account female-specific guidelines that were developed by the American Heart...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Disease Treatment in Women Article
    • What is heart disease in women?
    • What is the treatment for heart disease in women?
    • Diet
    • Exercise
    • Weight management
    • Smoking cessation
    • Stress reduction and depression
    • Medications for heart disease in women
    • Angioplasty and stents
    • Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)
    • What is the prognosis for heart disease in women?
    • Can heart disease in women be prevented?
    • What research is being done on heart disease in women?