What other names is Wine known by?
Alcohol, Alcool, Ethanol, Éthanol, Extrait de Vin, Red Wine, Vin, Vin Rouge, Vino, Vitis vinifera, Wine Extract.
What is Wine?
Wine is an alcoholic beverage prepared by fermenting grapes.
Wine is used for preventing diseases of the heart and circulatory system, including coronary heart disease
, "hardening of the arteries
), heart failure
, heart attack
, and stroke
. Wine is also used for preventing decline of thinking skills in later life, Alzheimer's disease
and type 2 diabetes
Some people use wine to reduce anxiety
, stimulate the appetite, and improve digestion
by increasing stomach acids.
Wine is sometimes applied directly to the skin to improve wound
healing and resolve the small nodules near joints that sometimes occur with rheumatoid arthritis
Likely Effective for...
- Preventing diseases of the heart and circulatory system, such as heart attack, stroke, "hardening of the arteries" (atherosclerosis), and chest pain (angina). There is some evidence that drinking alcohol can benefit the heart. Drinking one alcoholic beverage per day or drinking alcohol on at least 3 to 4 days per week is a good rule of thumb for people who drink alcohol. But don't drink more than 2 drinks per day. More than two drinks daily can increase the risk of over-all death as well as dying from heart disease. Here is what researchers have found:
- Drinking alcoholic beverages, including wine, by healthy people seems to reduce the risk of developing heart disease. Moderate alcohol use (one to two drinks per day) reduces the risk of coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, and heart attack by approximately 30% to 50% when compared with nondrinkers.
- Light to moderate alcohol (one to two drinks per day) use reduces the risk of having the type of stroke that is caused by a clot in the blood vessel (ischemic stroke), but increases the risk of having the type of stroke caused by a broken blood vessel (hemorrhagic stroke).
- Light to moderate alcohol consumption (one to two drinks per day) in the year before a first heart attack is associated with a reduced cardiovascular and all-cause mortality risk compared with non-drinkers.
- In men with established coronary heart disease, consumption of 1-14 alcoholic drinks per week, including wine, doesn't seem to have any effect on heart disease or all-cause mortality compared with men who drink less than one drink per week. Drinking three or more drinks per day is associated with increased likelihood of death in men with a history of heart attacks.
- Reducing the risk of dying from heart disease and stroke and other causes. There is some evidence that light to moderate consumption of alcoholic drinks can reduce the risk of all-cause death in people who are middle-aged and older.
Possibly Effective for...
- Maintaining thinking skills with aging. Elderly men who have a history of drinking one alcoholic drink per day seem to maintain better general thinking ability during their late 70s and 80s compared to non-drinkers. However, drinking more than four alcoholic drinks per day during middle age seems to be linked with significantly poorer thinking ability later in life.
- Preventing congestive heart failure (CHF). There is some evidence that consuming one to four alcoholic drinks per day reduces the risk of heart failure in people aged 65 years or older.
- Preventing diabetes (type 2) and heart disease in people with diabetes. People who drink alcohol, including wine, in moderate amounts seem to have a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes. People with diabetes who consume alcohol in moderate amounts seem to have a reduced risk of coronary heart disease compared with non-drinkers with type 2 diabetes. The risk reduction is similar to that found in healthy people who consume light to moderate amounts of alcohol.
- Preventing ulcers caused by a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori. There is some evidence that moderate to high consumption of alcohol (more than 75 grams) per week from beverages such as beer and wine can reduce the risk of H. pylori infection.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Preventing Alzheimer's disease. There is some evidence that 1 to 2 drinks per day can reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease in both men and women compared with non-drinkers.
- Weak bones (osteoporosis). There is some developing evidence that suggests moderate alcohol consumption in women who have passed menopause is linked with stronger bones. Alcohol intake of one-half to one drink per day seems to have the greatest effect on bone strength compared with non-drinkers and heavy drinkers of alcohol.
- Reducing the risk of cancer. There is some developing evidence that drinking up to 21 alcoholic drinks per week, including wine, might slightly reduce the risk of cancer-related mortality.
- Anxiety. The effect of alcohol on anxiety is complicated and may be affected by the psychological state of the user. Alcohol sometimes reduces anxiety, sometimes increases it, and sometimes has no effect.
- Treating wounds.
- Treating ulcers.
- Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of wine for these uses.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).