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- West Nile virus facts
- What is the history of West Nile virus?
- Where did the West Nile virus come from?
- How do people get West Nile virus?
- How do mosquitoes get infected with the West Nile virus?
- Is the West Nile virus contagious?
- Besides mosquitoes, can other insects transmit the West Nile virus?
- Are there other viruses like the West Nile virus?
- What are West Nile virus infection symptoms and signs?
- When is there an increased risk for West Nile virus infection?
- Who is at risk for getting a West Nile virus infection?
- What is the treatment for West Nile virus? Is it possible to prevent West Nile virus infection with a vaccine?
- Is a woman's pregnancy at risk if she gets infected with the West Nile virus?
- What can a community do to reduce the risk of an outbreak of the West Nile virus?
- What can a person do to reduce the risk of becoming infected with the West Nile virus?
Quick GuideWest Nile Virus: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment
Is the West Nile virus contagious?
The West Nile virus is not contagious. It cannot be transmitted from person to person. A person cannot get the virus, for example, from touching or kissing a person who has the disease or from a health-care worker who has treated someone with the disease.
Humans are called a "dead-end" host for the virus, meaning one that can be infected but whose immune system usually prevents the virus from multiplying enough to be passed back to mosquitoes and then spread to other hosts.
There also is no evidence that a person can get the virus from handling live or dead infected birds. However, avoiding skin contact when handling dead animals, including dead birds, is recommended. Gloves or double plastic bags should be used to remove and dispose of carcasses.
Besides mosquitoes, can other insects transmit the West Nile virus?
Infected mosquitoes are the primary method of transmission of the West Nile virus and were the source of the 1999 New York outbreak.
Ticks infected with the West Nile virus have been found in Asia and Africa. Their role in the transmission and maintenance of the virus is uncertain. However, ticks have not been associated in the transmission of the West Nile virus in the New York outbreak.
Are there other viruses like the West Nile virus?
The West Nile virus is closely related to the Japanese encephalitis virus and the St. Louis encephalitis virus, which are found in the southeastern and midwestern United States. These viruses are also mosquito-borne and have a similar life cycle in birds and mosquitoes and occasionally strike people.
A major difference is that St. Louis encephalitis is "silent" in birds, generally not killing them, so there is usually no warning before a human case occurs. With the West Nile virus (at least the American strain), birds, particularly crows, become ill or die and therefore offer an early warning system.