Weight Gain, Obesity & Cancer Risk

  • Medical Author:
    Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD

    Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.

  • Medical Editor: William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
    William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR

    William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR

    Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.

Cancer 101: Cancer Explained

Obesity can raise your chances for cancer

Excess weight is a known risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as diabetes and heart disease. Obesity can also be linked an increased risk for developing some cancers. To clarify the effects of weight gain on cancer risk, researchers in 2007 conducted an analysis of many studies reported in medical journals that describe 282,137 cases of cancer. The researchers wanted to see if weight gain had an effect on the risk for certain cancer types.

In particular, the researchers looked at the risk of cancer associated with a weight gain corresponding to an increase of 5 kg/m2 in body mass index (BMI). In terms of actual pounds gained, a man with a normal-range BMI of 23 would need to gain 15 kg (33 lbs.) of weight, while a woman with a BMI of 23 would need to gain 13 kg (28.6 lbs.) to correspond to an increase of 5 in the BMI.

The results, published in the Lancet in February 2008, revealed that weight gain is positively associated with the risk of developing a variety of types of cancer as described below.

Obesity as a Risk Factor for Cancers in Women

For women, a weight gain corresponding to an increase of 5 in the BMI resulted in a significant increase in risk for developing four cancer types:

In women, a weaker but still positive increase in cancer risk with weight gain was demonstrated for the following cancer types:

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Obesity as a Risk Factor for Cancers in Men

Significant increases in cancer risk associated with weight gain in men were observed for the following cancers:

Additionally, weaker but still positive associations between cancer risk and weight gain in men were noted for

While the researchers explain that the exact mechanisms by which weight gain increases cancer risk for each type are not fully understood, the results lend further support for the promotion of optimal nutrition, exercise, and weight control as important preventive health measures.

Medically reviewed by Avrom Simon, MD; Board Certified Preventative Medicine with Subspecialty in Occupational Medicine

REFERENCE:

"The roles of diet, physical activity, and body weight in cancer survivorship"
UpToDate.com

Lancet 2008;1371:536-537, 569-578.


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Reviewed on 2/1/2017

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