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- What is warfarin, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for warfarin?
- Is warfarin available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for warfarin?
- What are the uses for warfarin?
- What are the side effects of warfarin?
- What is the dosage for warfarin?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with warfarin?
- Is warfarin safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about warfarin?
What is the dosage for warfarin?
- Warfarin may be taken with or without food.
- Since warfarin is metabolized (inactivated) by the liver and then excreted by the kidneys, dosages need to be lowered in patients with liver and kidney dysfunction.
- Frequent blood tests (INR test) are performed to measure the effect of warfarin and to adjust dosing.
- There are published INR ranges for the various uses of warfarin.
- Treatment usually is started at 2 to 5 mg once daily and the dose is adjusted based in INR tests.
- Patients typically require 2 to 10 mg of warfarin daily.
Which drugs or supplements interact with warfarin?
- Many drugs, both prescription and nonprescription (OTC), can affect the anticoagulant action of warfarin or increase the risk of bleeding. Patients on warfarin should regularly consult their doctor before instituting any medications on their own.
- It also is advisable for patients on warfarin to carry identification such as bracelets to alert other health professionals to the presence of anticoagulation.
- A few examples of drugs that interact with warfarin are:
- Drugs that increase the effect of warfarin by reducing the breakdown of warfarin include amiodarone (Cordarone), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim), fluconazole (Diflucan), itraconazole (Sporanox), fluvastatin, fluvoxamine, metronidazole miconazole, voriconazole (Vfend), zafirlukast (Accolate), ciprofloxacin (Cipro), cimetidine, atorvastatin (Lipitor), clarithromycin (Biaxin), fluoxetine (Prozac), indinavir (Crixivan), and ritonavir (Norvir).
- Drugs that may reduce the effect of warfarin by increasing its breakdown include St. John's wort, carbamazepine (Tegretol, Tegretol XR, Equetro, Carbatrol), rifampin, bosentan (Tracleer), and prednisone.
- Bleeding is increased by other anticoagulants such as heparin, argatroban (Acova), dabigatran (Pradaxa), and others; antiplatelet drugs such as aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (for example, ibuprofen [Motrin], naproxen [Alleve]), clopidogrel (Plavix), and prasugrel (Effient); serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine (Prozac) and paroxetine (Paxil). Garlic and ginkgo also increase the risk of bleeding because they cause bleeding when taken alone.
- Foods with high vitamin Ka> content (for example, green leafy vegetables) reduce the effect of warfarin. Maintenance of a consistent intake of vitamin K containing foods is important to avoid fluctuations in the effect of warfarin.
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