Vitamins, Minerals & Nutritional Supplements Related Diseases & Conditions

You are reading this article to get healthier and help prevent disease. Our doctors have compiled a list of ailments related to Vitamins, Minerals & Nutritional Supplements. The conditions and diseases listed below may be helped by the healthy lifestyle interventions outlined in the article.

  • Vitamin D Deficiency Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with rickets, cancer, cardiovascular disease, severe asthma in children and cognitive...learn more »
  • Pregnancy (Week By Week, Trimesters) There are many symptoms involved in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy. The first early pregnancy symptom is typically...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pregnancy (Week By Week, Trimesters) Article
    • Pregnancy facts*
    • Introduction
    • What is the first trimester (week 1-week 12)?
    • What is the second trimester (week 13-week 28)?
    • What is the third trimester (week 29-week 40)?
    • How will my baby develop week by week?
    • What are the changes that happen to a woman's body during her 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy?
    • Body aches
    • Breast changes
    • Constipation
    • Dizziness
    • Fatigue, sleep problems
    • Heartburn and indigestion
    • Hemorrhoids during pregnancy
    • Itching
    • Leg cramps
    • Morning sickness
    • Nasal problems
    • Numb or tingling hands
    • Stretch marks, skin changes
    • Swelling
    • Urinary frequency and leaking
    • Varicose veins
  • Canker Sores Canker sore is a small ulcer crater in the lining of the mouth. Canker sores are one of the most common problems that occur in...learn more »
    In This Article
    Canker Sores Article
    • Canker sores facts
    • What are canker sores?
    • What are symptoms and signs of canker sores?
    • What are the causes of canker sores?
    • Are canker sores the same as fever blisters?
    • What is the treatment for canker sores?
    • What kind of topical medications (gels or ointments) are available for canker sores?
    • Can mouthwash solutions be used with canker sores?
    • What oral medications are available to help canker sores?
    • What should I do if I get canker sores frequently?
  • Hair Loss There are many causes of scalp hair loss. This featured article covers the common ones such as patchy hair loss (alopecia areata,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hair Loss Article
    • Hair loss facts
    • What are causes of hair loss?
    • How do physicians classify hair loss?
    • What is alopecia areata?
    • What is traction alopecia?
    • What is trichotillomania?
    • What is tinea capitis?
    • What is generalized (diffuse) hair loss?
    • What is telogen effluvium?
    • What is androgenetic or androgenic alopecia ("male-pattern baldness," "female-pattern baldness")?
    • What treatment is there for hair loss in men?
    • What other options do people have for hair loss?
    • Is hair loss in women different than men?
    • What about pregnancy hair loss?
    • What specific treatments are there for hair loss in women?
    • What vitamins are good for hair loss?
    • Can itchy scalp cause hair loss?
    • How do people prevent hair loss?
  • Iron Deficiency Iron is a mineral our bodies need. Iron deficiency is a condition resulting from not enough iron in the body. It is the most...learn more »
    In This Article
    Iron Deficiency Article
    • Iron and iron deficiency facts*
    • What is iron and why do we need it?
    • What is iron deficiency and why is it a concern?
    • What causes iron deficiency?
    • Who is most at risk for iron deficiency?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of iron deficiency?
    • How is iron deficiency diagnosed?
    • How is iron deficiency treated?
    • Can iron deficiency be prevented?
    • Babies
    • Young children (aged 1-5 years)
    • Adolescent girls and women of childbearing age
    • Pregnant women
    • How much iron do I need?
    • What are dietary sources of iron?
    • Dietary sources of Vitamin C
    • Iron overload and hemochromatosis
  • Indigestion (Dyspepsia, Upset Stomach) Dyspepsia (indigestion) is a functional disease in which the gastrointestinal organs, primarily the stomach and first part of the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Indigestion (Dyspepsia, Upset Stomach) Article
    • Dyspepsia (indigestion) facts
    • What is dyspepsia (indigestion)?
    • What are the symptoms of dyspepsia (indigestion)?
    • What causes dyspepsia (indigestion)?
    • What is the course of dyspepsia (indigestion)?
    • What are the complications of dyspepsia (indigestion)?
    • How is dyspepsia (indigestion) diagnosed?
    • Exclusion of other diseases
    • Specific tests of gastrointestinal function
    • How is dyspepsia (indigestion) treated and relieved?
    • What is a reasonable approach to the diagnosis and treatment of dyspepsia (indigestion)?
    • What is in the future for dyspepsia (indigestion)?
  • Hypercalcemia (Elevated Calcium Levels) Hypercalcemia is a condition in which calcium levels in the blood are elevated. Hypercalcemia is associated with other conditions...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hypercalcemia (Elevated Calcium Levels) Article
    • Hypercalcemia facts
    • Hypercalcemia Introduction
    • What are the causes of hypercalcemia?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia?
    • How is hypercalcemia diagnosed?
    • How is hypercalcemia treated?
    • What is the prognosis for hypercalcemia?
    • Can hypercalcemia be prevented?
  • Hot Flashes Hot flashes (or flushing) is the most common symptom experienced by a woman prior to and during the early stages of menopause....learn more »
    In This Article
    Hot Flashes Article
    • Hot flash facts
    • What are hot flashes?
    • What causes hot flashes?
    • What are the symptoms of hot flashes?
    • How are hot flashes diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for hot flashes?
    • Hormone therapy
    • Bioidentical hormone therapy
    • Other drug treatments
    • Complementary and alternative treatments
    • Phytoestrogens
    • Black cohosh
    • Other alternative therapies
    • Can hot flashes be prevented?
  • Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is considered to be a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). PMDD has also been...learn more »
    In This Article
    Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) Article
    • Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) facts
    • What is premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)?
    • What causes PMDD?
    • What are the symptoms of PMDD?
    • When should I call a doctor about PMDD?
    • How is PMDD diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for PMDD?
    • What are the complications of PMDD?
    • Can PMDD be prevented?
    • What is the outlook for PMDD?
  • Osteopenia Osteopenia is a bone condition characterized by bone loss that is not as severe as in osteoporosis. Bone fracture is the typical...learn more »
    In This Article
    Osteopenia Article
    • Osteopenia facts
    • What is osteopenia?
    • What causes osteopenia?
    • What are osteopenia symptoms and signs?
    • How widespread is osteopenia?
    • Why is osteopenia important?
    • When should I see my doctor for osteopenia?
    • How is osteopenia diagnosed?
    • Who should be tested for osteopenia?
    • What is the treatment for osteopenia?
    • What follow-up is needed after treatment of osteopenia has been initiated?
    • Can osteopenia be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis of osteopenia?
  • Macular Degeneration Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease that gradually destroys the central vision. In people over 60, AMD is a...learn more »
    In This Article
    Macular Degeneration Article
    • Macular degeneration facts
    • What is macular degeneration?
    • What is the retina?
    • What is the macula?
    • What is age-related macular degeneration (AMD)?
    • What is wet age-related macular degeneration?
    • What are retinal drusen?
    • What is dry age-related macular degeneration?
    • What causes macular degeneration?
    • What are risk factors for macular degeneration?
    • What are macular degeneration symptoms?
    • What are signs of macular degeneration?
    • How is macular degeneration diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for wet macular degeneration?
    • What is the treatment for dry macular degeneration?
    • What are complications of macular degeneration?
    • What is the prognosis for macular degeneration?
    • Can macular degeneration be prevented?
    • What research is being done on macular degeneration?
  • Osteoporosis Learn about osteoporosis, a condition characterized by the loss of bone density, which leads to an increased risk of bone...learn more »
    In This Article
    Osteoporosis Article
    • Osteoporosis facts
    • What is osteoporosis?
    • What are osteoporosis symptoms and signs?
    • What are the consequences of osteoporosis?
    • Why is osteoporosis an important public health issue?
    • What factors determine bone strength?
    • What are osteoporosis risk factors and causes?
    • How is osteoporosis diagnosed?
    • Who should have bone density testing?
    • What is the treatment for osteoporosis, and can osteoporosis be prevented?
    • Exercise, quitting cigarettes, and curtailing alcohol
    • Calcium supplements
    • Vitamin D
    • Hormone therapy (hormone replacement therapy, menopausal replacement therapy)
    • Medications that prevent bone loss and breakdown
    • Choosing an osteoporosis medication
    • Prevention of osteoporosis caused by long-term corticosteroids
    • Monitoring osteoporosis therapy medication
    • Prevention of hip fractures in elderly people with osteoporosis
    • What are complications of osteoporosis?
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) for patients with osteoporosis?
  • Obesity Obesity is the state of being well above one's normal weight. A person has traditionally been considered to be obese if they are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Obesity Article
    • Obesity facts
    • What is obesity?
    • How common is obesity?
    • What are the health risks associated with obesity?
    • What causes obesity?
    • What are other factors associated with obesity?
    • How is body fat measured?
    • What about weight-for-height tables?
    • What is the body mass index (BMI)?
    • Does it matter where body fat is located?
    • What can be done about obesity?
    • What is the role of physical activity and exercise in obesity?
    • What is the role of diet in the treatment of obesity?
    • What is the role of medication in the treatment of obesity?
    • What about herbal fen/phen?
    • What about meal substitutes, artificial sweeteners, and OTC products?
    • What is the role of surgery in the treatment of obesity?
    • How can patients choose a safe and successful weight-loss program?
  • Vitamins and Calcium Supplements Vitamins are organic substances that are essential for the proper growth and functioning of the body. Calcium is a mineral...learn more »
    In This Article
    Vitamins and Calcium Supplements Article
    • What are vitamins, and why are they important?
    • Calcium
    • Vitamin D
    • Folic acid
    • Vitamin E
    • Vitamin A
    • Vitamin C
    • Vitamin B12
    • Vitamin B6
    • Thiamin (vitamin B1)
    • Niacin
    • Riboflavin
    • Vitamin K
  • Retinitis Pigmentosa Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetic condition that causes retinal degeneration and eventual vision loss. Symptoms include...learn more »
    In This Article
    Retinitis Pigmentosa Article
    • Retinitis pigmentosa facts
    • What is retinitis pigmentosa?
    • What causes retinitis pigmentosa?
    • What are retinitis pigmentosa symptoms and signs?
    • How is retinitis pigmentosa diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for retinitis pigmentosa?
    • How long does retinitis pigmentosa last?
    • What are complications of retinitis pigmentosa?
    • What is the prognosis for retinitis pigmentosa?
    • What research is being done for retinitis pigmentosa?
    • Where can I find out more information about retinitis pigmentosa?
  • Canker Sores Canker sores (aphthous stomatitis) are among the most common causes of sores in the mouth. Causes of canker sores include...learn more »
    In This Article
    Canker Sores Article
    • Canker Sore Overview
    • Canker Sore Causes
    • Canker Sore Symptoms and Signs
    • When to Seek Medical Care
    • Canker Sore Diagnosis
    • Canker Sore Treatment
    • Canker Sore Self-Care and Home Remedies
    • Canker Sore Medical Treatment
    • Next Steps
    • Canker Sore Prevention
    • Canker Sore Prognosis
    • Canker Sore Pictures
  • Menstrual Cramps and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) Medication Guide Menstrual cramps and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms include abdominal cramping, bloating, a feeling of fullness, abdominal...learn more »
    In This Article
    Menstrual Cramps and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) Medication Guide Article
    • Menstrual cramps and PMS medication facts
    • What are menstrual cramps?
    • What is the treatment for common menstrual cramps (primary dysmenorrhea)?
    • What is premenstrual syndrome (PMS)?
    • What treatments are available for PMS?
    • What medications are used to treat PMS?
    • What are some guidelines for the safe use of OTC products for menstrual cramps and PMS?
  • Heart Attacks in Women Heart disease, particularly coronary artery disease is the leading cause of heart attacks. Women are more likely to die from a...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Attacks in Women Article
    • One woman's heart attack story
    • What is heart disease?
    • Do women need to worry about heart disease?
    • Do women of color need to worry about heart disease?
    • What can I do to prevent heart disease?
    • What does high blood pressure have to do with heart disease?
    • How can I lower my blood pressure?
    • What does high cholesterol have to do with heart disease?
    • What do my cholesterol and triglyceride numbers mean?
    • How can I lower my cholesterol?
    • How do I know if I have heart disease?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of a heart attack?
    • One of my family members had a heart attack. Does that mean I'll have one too?
    • Sometimes my heart beats really fast and other times it feels like my heart skips a beat. Am I having a heart attack?
    • Should I take a daily aspirin to prevent heart attack?
    • Does taking birth control pills increase my risk for heart disease?
    • Does using the birth control patch increase my risk for heart disease?
    • Does menopausal hormone therapy (HT, HRT, ET) increase a woman's risk for heart disease?
    • For more information on heart disease in women
  • Ulcerative Colitis Diet Ulcerative colitis diet can help you avoid the foods that aggravate this bowel condition. Self-management of ulcerative colitis...learn more »
    In This Article
    Ulcerative Colitis Diet Article
    • Ulcerative colitis introduction
    • What is ulcerative colitis?
    • How can an ulcerative colitis diet plan help?
    • What foods are included in an ulcerative colitis diet plan?
    • What foods should I avoid in an ulcerative colitis diet plan?
    • How can I remember the foods that trigger my ulcerative colitis symptoms?
    • What else is important with an ulcerative colitis diet?
    • What does the latest research show about the link between nutrients and inflammation?
  • High Cholesterol: Frequently Asked Questions Cholesterol occurs naturally in the body. High blood cholesterol levels increase a person's risk of developing heart disease,...learn more »
    In This Article
    High Cholesterol: Frequently Asked Questions Article
    • What is cholesterol?
    • Why should I be concerned about cholesterol?
    • What's the difference between "good" and "bad" cholesterol?
    • How much cholesterol is too much?
    • Can I lower my risk for heart disease if I lower my cholesterol?
    • What makes my cholesterol levels go up?
    • What can I do to lower my cholesterol?
    • What medications are used to treat high cholesterol?
    • If a product's package reads "low cholesterol" does that mean that the product is low in fat and safe to eat?
    • At what age should people begin having their cholesterol checked?
  • Colon Cancer Prevention Colo-rectal cancer is both curable and preventable if it is detected early and completely removed before the cancerous cells...learn more »
    In This Article
    Colon Cancer Prevention Article
    • Colon cancer prevention facts
    • Introduction to colon cancer prevention
    • When should colon cancer screening begin?
    • What are the risk factors for colon cancer?
    • What measures to prevent colorectal cancer have proven effectiveness and long-term safety?
    • What measures to prevent colorectal cancer probably are effective but may have long-term adverse side effects?
    • What measures to prevent colorectal cancer probably are effective and safe?
    • What prevention measures have been found to be ineffective?
    • What about genetic testing for colon cancer?
    • Who should consider genetic counseling and testing?
    • Why is genetic counseling and testing important in hereditary colon cancer syndromes?
    • What can be done now to prevent colorectal cancer?
  • Pregnancy: Eating Right When Pregnant The amount of weight you should gain during pregnancy depends on your body mass index (BMI) before you became pregnant. Although...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pregnancy: Eating Right When Pregnant Article
    • Eating right when pregnant introduction
    • Goals for healthy eating when pregnant
    • Foods to avoid when pregnant
    • What to eat when pregnant and don't feel well
    • Can I diet while pregnant?
    • Can I eat a "low carb" diet when pregnant?
    • Can I maintain my vegetarian diet when pregnant?
    • Why do I need more calcium when pregnant?
    • How can I get enough calcium if I'm lactose intolerant?
    • Should I take a calcium supplement during pregnancy?
    • Why do I need more iron during pregnancy?
    • What are good sources of iron?
    • Should I take an iron supplement during pregnancy?
    • Food cravings during pregnancy
  • Oral Health and Bone Disease Osteoporosis may be linked to bone loss in the jaw, which in turn, leads to tooth loss. Low bone density may result in...learn more »
    In This Article
    Oral Health and Bone Disease Article
    • Oral health and bone disease facts*
    • Introduction to oral health and bone disease
    • Skeletal bone density and dental concerns
    • Periodontal disease and bone health
    • The role of the dentist and dental X-rays
    • The effects of osteoporosis treatments on oral health
    • Taking steps for healthy bones
  • Heart Attack Prevention Overview Heart attacks are the major causes of unexpected, sudden death among men and women. A heart attack is also a significant cause of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Attack Prevention Overview Article
    • Introduction
    • What is atherosclerosis?
    • What are coronary heart diseases (CHD)?
    • What is angina pectoris?
    • What is a heart attack?
    • Ventricular fibrillation
    • Heart failure
    • What is cerebral vascular disease?
    • Ischemic stroke
    • Hemorrhagic stroke
    • Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
    • When does the coronary atherosclerosis process begin?
    • Have most people done enough to prevent atherosclerosis and heart attacks?
    • What are the risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis and heart disease?
    • How can coronary atherosclerosis and heart attacks be prevented?
  • Cancer Prevention Certain behavioral, lifestyle, and environmental factors contribute to cancer. Cancer prevention involves modifying these factors...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cancer Prevention Article
    • What is cancer prevention?
    • Carcinogenesis
    • Cancer Risk factors
    • Factors That are Known to Increase the Risk of Cancer
    • Factors That May Affect the Risk of Cancer
    • Interventions that are known to lower cancer risk
    • Interventions that are not known to lower cancer risk
  • Vitamins & Exercise: Heart Attack Prevention Series Vitamins and exercise can lower your risk for heart attack and heart disease. Folic acid, vitamins, and homocysteine levels are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Vitamins & Exercise: Heart Attack Prevention Series Article
    • Homocysteine, folic acid, and B vitamins
    • What about antioxidants for heart attack prevention?
    • How about exercise for heart attack prevention?
    • What about smoking cessation for heart attack prevention?
    • Recommendations to prevent heart attacks
  • Juvenile Bone Health Setting a good example for your children when it comes to diet and exercise will help them to make healthy decisions about...learn more »
    In This Article
    Juvenile Bone Health Article
    • Why is childhood such an important time for bone development?
    • What is osteoporosis? Isn't it something old people get?
    • How can I help keep my kids' bones healthy?
    • How can I persuade my daughter to drink milk instead of diet soda? She thinks milk will make her fat.
    • But my kids don't like milk.
    • My teenage son loves milk, but it seems to upset his stomach. Could he have lactose intolerance?
    • My daughter is constantly dieting. Should I be concerned?
    • Should I give my kids calcium supplements?
    • How does physical activity help my kids' bones?
    • Is it possible to get too much exercise?
    • What else can my kids do besides eating calcium-rich foods and getting plenty of weight-bearing exercise to keep their bones healthy?
    • My son has asthma and takes a steroid medication to control it. His doctor said this might affect his bones. Is there anything we can do about this?
    • My 8-year-old son is a daredevil and has already broken several bones. could he have a problem like osteoporosis at this young age?
    • How can I get through to my kids? They sure don't think about their bones.
    • Where can I go for more information?

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