Viral Hemorrhagic Fever(s)
What are viral hemorrhagic fevers?
Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) refer to a group of illnesses that are caused by several distinct families of viruses. In general, the term "viral hemorrhagic fever" is used to describe a severe multisystem syndrome (multisystem in that multiple organ systems in the body are affected). Characteristically, the overall vascular system is damaged, and the body's ability to regulate itself is impaired. These symptoms are often accompanied by hemorrhage (bleeding); however, the bleeding is itself rarely life-threatening. While some types of hemorrhagic fever viruses can cause relatively mild illnesses, many of these viruses cause severe, life-threatening disease.
The Special Pathogens Branch (SPB) primarily works with hemorrhagic fever viruses that are classified as biosafety level four (BSL-4) pathogens. A
list of these viruses appears in the
SPB disease information index. The Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, also in the National Center for Infectious Diseases, works with the non-BSL-4 viruses that cause two other hemorrhagic
fevers, dengue hemorrhagic fever and
How are hemorrhagic fever viruses grouped?
VHFs are caused by viruses of four distinct families: arenaviruses, filoviruses, bunyaviruses, and flaviviruses. Each of these families share a number of features:
- They are all RNA viruses, and all are covered, or enveloped, in a fatty (lipid) coating.
- Their survival is dependent on an animal or insect host, called the natural reservoir.
- The viruses are geographically restricted to the areas where their host species live.
- Humans are not the natural reservoir for any of these viruses. Humans are infected when they come into contact with infected hosts. However, with some viruses, after the accidental transmission from the host, humans can transmit the virus to one another.
- Human cases or outbreaks of hemorrhagic fevers caused by these viruses occur sporadically and irregularly. The occurrence of outbreaks cannot be easily predicted.
- With a few noteworthy exceptions, there is no cure or established drug treatment for VHFs.
In rare cases, other viral and bacterial infections can cause a hemorrhagic fever; scrub typhus is a good example.
Viewers share their comments
Viral Hemorrhagic Fever - Experience
Question: Please describe your experience with viral hemorrhagic fevers.
Viral Hemorrhagic Fever - Treatment
Question: What was the treatment for your viral hemorrhagic fever?
Viral Hemorrhagic Fever - Symptoms
Question: What were the symptoms of your viral hemorrhagic fever?
Viral Hemorrhagic Fever - Causes
Question: What caused your viral hemorrhagic fevers?