- Why do people need vaccines? What is immunization? What is immunity?
- How can people become immune (protected)?
- Are there different types of vaccines?
- Can people receive multiple vaccinations during one visit to the doctor?
- Are there any dangers to being immunized?
- Can people with severe egg allergies still get an annual influenza vaccination?
- What reactions are likely after an immunization?
- Who should not receive a vaccine?
- What vaccines can women receive while pregnant?
- What are invalid reasons for postponing vaccination?
- Are side effects associated with vaccines?
- Why do people keep getting vaccines if the numbers of cases of the vaccine preventable diseases are at a record low in the United States?
- What should people do if they experience a reaction to a vaccine?
- Is there any financial help for people who have been seriously injured by vaccines?
- Is there anything different that health-care workers need to do compared with non-health-care workers?
- Do people need any additional vaccinations for foreign travel?
- Where can people find additional information on immunizations?
How can people become immune (protected)?
Immunity (protection) can occur one of two ways:
- The first way to become immune is by actually getting the natural disease. For many organisms, this confers immunity for life. When the person is exposed again to the organism, the immune system quickly reestablishes protection.
- The second way to become immune is through the use of a vaccine. The vaccine interacts with the immune system and creates the same protection as if the person had the natural infections. This is done without being exposed to the risks involved with getting the natural infection.
Are there different types of vaccines?
There are two major categories of vaccines.
- The first category of vaccine is made from live viruses that have been "attenuated" or weakened so that they do not cause the disease (Table 2). Usually, any symptoms caused by the vaccine is milder than the natural disease. The attenuated viruses elicit a strong immune response as the virus is very close to the virus that causes the disease.
- The second category of vaccine, inactivated vaccine, is produced by growing the bacterium or virus in culture and then inactivating it (killing it) by using heat or chemicals (Table 3). These vaccines cannot cause the disease, but allow the body to develop immunity. While these vaccines are safer, they do not produce protection as good as that from the live vaccines.
|Haemophilus influenza type b|