Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.
Dr. Balentine received his undergraduate degree from McDaniel College in Westminster, Maryland. He attended medical school at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine graduating in1983. He completed his internship at St. Joseph's Hospital in Philadelphia and his Emergency Medicine residency at Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center in the Bronx, where he served as chief resident.
Any adult or child who develops any of the symptoms of a urinary tract infection needs to be evaluated by a medical professional, preferably within 24 hours. Most medical offices can test urine for infection by using a quick urine "dipstick" test.
If you have symptoms of a lower urinary tract infection, call your health-care provider for an appointment, preferably on the very day that symptoms are recognized.
If you have symptoms of an upper urinary tract infection involving the kidneys, call your health-care provider immediately. Depending on the situation, he or she will recommend either a visit to the office or to a hospital emergency department.
If you have symptoms of a lower urinary tract infection and any of the following applies to you, you may have a urinary tract infection that can potentially be serious. Go to a hospital emergency department right away.
Vomiting and inability to keep down clear fluids or medication
Not better after taking antibiotics for two days
Having diabetes or another disease that affects the immune system (for example, AIDS)
Taking medication that suppresses the immune system such as cancer chemotherapy
Infants, children, and elderly people with any of the signs and symptoms of
UTI should go to an emergency department for evaluation.
Fever, lethargy, and poor appetite may indicate a simple lower urinary tract infection in these groups, but they may also be signs of something more serious.
Urinary tract infections have the potential to make these vulnerable people very ill.
Urinary Tract Infection Diagnosis
Diagnosis of a urinary tract infection is based on information you give about your symptoms, medical and surgical history, medications, habits, and lifestyle. A physical examination and lab tests complete the evaluation.
Your doctor may simply perform a urine dipstick test in the office. Only a few minutes are needed to obtain results. Your doctor may also send your urine to the lab for testing. These results take a few days to come back. This tells your doctor the exact bacteria causing your infection and to which antibiotics these bacteria have resistance or sensitivity. The culture is usually sent for special populations, including men, because they are less likely to get UTIs. It is not necessary to send a culture for everyone because the majority of UTIs are caused by the same bacteria.
The single most important lab test is urinalysis. A sample of your urine will be tested for signs of infection, such as the presence of white blood cells and bacteria.
In certain circumstances, your urine also may be "cultured." This means that
a small amount of the urine is brushed on a sterile nutrient substance in a
plastic plate. The plate is allowed to sit for a few days and then examined to
see what kind of bacteria are growing on it. These bacteria are treated with
different antibiotics to see which works best against them. This helps determine
the best treatment for your specific infection.
Blood tests usually are not required unless a complicated condition, such as pyelonephritis or kidney failure, is suspected.
You may be asked to give a clean-catch, midstream urine specimen. This avoids contamination of the urine with bacteria from your skin. You should be instructed in how to do this.
Midstream means you urinate a little into the toilet before collecting a specimen. The idea is that you don't collect the urine that comes out first, as this urine is often contaminated.
Clean-catch refers to a midstream sample that was collected after cleaning the area of the urethral opening.
Adult women and older girls: Cleanse the area around your urethral opening gently (but completely) using a sterile wipe or soap and water. Catch the urine midstream. For some women, catheterization (inserting a tube into the bladder) may be the only way to obtain a sterile, uncontaminated specimen.
Men and boys: A sterile specimen can usually be obtained with a midstream catch. Uncircumcised males should retract the foreskin and cleanse the area before urinating.
Newborns: Urine may be obtained with a procedure in which a needle is introduced through the lower abdominal wall to draw (aspirate) urine from the bladder.
Infants and children: Either catheterization or the needle aspiration method is used.
If you cannot produce a urine specimen or are unable to follow instructions for a clean-catch specimen, your health-care provider
may obtain a urine specimen by catheterizing you.
This means placing a thin tube (catheter) in your urethra to drain urine from your bladder.
The catheter usually is removed after the bladder is emptied.
The catheter may remain in place if you are very ill or if it is necessary to collect all urine or measure urine output.
Depending on their symptoms, young sexually active women could require a pelvic examination because pelvic infections can have similar symptoms as a urinary tract infection.
Men will most likely require a rectal examination so that the prostate can be checked. A prostate infection (prostatitis) requires a longer course of antibiotics than a urinary tract infection.
In some cases, an imaging test may be indicated to detect any underlying problem in the urinary tract that could cause an infection. This is usually only necessary in repeat infections or special circumstances (unusual bacteria, suspected anatomic abnormalities).
An ultrasound examination can evaluate kidney and bladder problems.
A fluoroscopic study can show any physical problems that predispose children to urinary tract infections.
Intravenous pyelogram (IVP) is a special series of
X-rays that uses a contrast dye to highlight abnormalities in the urinary tract.
Cystoscopy involves insertion of a thin, flexible tube with a tiny camera on the end through the urethra into the bladder. This allows detection of abnormalities inside the bladder that might contribute to infections.
A CT scan gives a very detailed three-dimensional picture of the urinary tract.
Imaging tests are most often needed for the following groups:
Children with urinary tract infections, especially boys
Up to 50% of infants and 30% of older children with a urinary tract infection have an anatomic abnormality. The child's pediatrician should investigate this possibility.
Adults with frequent or recurrent urinary tract infections
People who have blood in the urine
Reviewed by Jerry R. Balentine, DO, FACEP on 2/21/2013