Dr. Nabili received his undergraduate degree from the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), majoring in chemistry and biochemistry. He then completed his graduate degree at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). His graduate training included a specialized fellowship in public health where his research focused on environmental health and health-care delivery and management.
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
A urinalysis is simply an analysis of the urine. It is a very common test that can be performed in many healthcare settings including doctors' offices, urgent care facilities, laboratories, and hospitals.
It is performed by collecting a urine sample from the patient in a specimen cup. Usually only small amounts (30-60 ml's) may be required for urinalysis testing. The sample can be either analyzed in the medical clinic or sent to a laboratory to perform the tests. Urinalysis is abbreviated UA.
Urine can be evaluated by its physical appearance (color, cloudiness, odor, clarity), or macroscopic analysis. It can be also analyzed based on its chemical and molecular properties or microscopic assessment.
Urinalysis is ordered by doctors for a number of reasons, as follows:
Routine medical evaluation: general yearly screening, assessment before surgery (pre-operative assessment), admission to hospital, screening for kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension (high blood pressure), liver disease, etc.
Assessing particular symptoms: abdominal pain, painful urination, flank pain, fever, blood in the urine, or other urinary symptoms.
Monitoring disease progression and response to therapy: diabetes related kidney disease, kidney impairment, lupus related kidney disease, blood pressure related kidney disease, kidney infection, protein in urine, blood in urine.
Urinalysis can disclose evidence of diseases, even some that have not caused significant signs or symptoms. Therefore, a urinalysis is commonly a part of routine health screening.
Urinalysis is commonly used to diagnose a urinary tract or kidney infection, to evaluate causes of kidney failure, to screen for progression of some chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus and high blood pressure (hypertension).
It also may be used in combination with other tests to diagnose some diseases. Additional tests and clinical assessment are often required to further investigate findings of urinalysis and ultimately diagnose the causes or specific features of underlying problems. For example, urine infection is generally diagnosed based on results of urinalysis. However, urine culture is often ordered as a follow-up test to identify the bacteria that may be causing the infection. Other examples include kidney stones, inflammation or the kidneys (glomerulonephritis), or muscle breakdown (rhabdomyolysis).
Other commonly performed urine tests are drug tests, pregnancy tests,
specific chemicals and proteins in the body, which are not a part of routine
Urine drug screen is done routinely to check for drugs or their byproducts in
the urine. There are many purposes for these tests including athletic screening,
emergency rooms settings, drug detoxification programs, school and employment
screening. This test detects the presence of commonly used drugs such as:
Urine pregnancy test is very common and it measures a hormone in the urine
associated with pregnancy (beta-HCG or beta- human chorionic gonadotropin). This
test can be done in medical settings, but numerous kits are available for home
Other urine tests can also be used in evaluation of many medical conditions.
urine culture (in determining the bacterial cause of urine infection)
urine creatinine (in assessing kidney disease)....
Bladder infection is an infection of the bladder. Bladder infection is also called cystitis and is a type of urinary tract infection (UTI). The urinary tract is naturally sterile and when microbes invade it,"...