- Cancer 101: Cancer Explained
- Guide to Breast Cancer
- Skin Cancer Risks
- Patient Comments: Urethral Cancer - Signs and Symptoms
- Patient Comments: Urethral Cancer - Diagnosis
- Patient Comments: Urethral Cancer - Treatment
- Find a local Oncologist in your town
- Urethral cancer facts*
- What is urethral cancer?
- What are risk factors for urethral cancer?
- What are symptoms and signs of urethral cancer?
- How is urethral cancer diagnosed?
- What is the prognosis for urethral cancer?
- How is staging of urethral cancer determined?
- What are the treatment options for urethral cancer?
- What is the treatment for anterior urethral cancer?
- What is the treatment for posterior urethral cancer?
- What is the treatment for recurrent urethral cancer?
- Where can people find more information about urethral cancer?
Age and a history of bladder cancer can affect the risk of developing urethral cancer.
Risk factors include the following:
- Having a history of bladder cancer.
- Having conditions that cause chronic inflammation in the urethra, including:
- Being 60 or older.
- Being a white female.
Possible signs of urethral cancer include bleeding or trouble with urination.
These and other symptoms may be caused by urethral cancer. Other conditions may cause the same symptoms. Sometimes early cancer of the urethra does not cause any symptoms at all. A doctor should be consulted if any of the following problems occur:
- Bleeding from the urethra or blood in the urine.
- Weak or interrupted ("stop-and-go") flow of urine.
- Frequent urination.
- A lump or thickness in the perineum or penis.
- Discharge from the urethra.
- Enlarged lymph nodes in the groin area.
Tests that examine the urethra and bladder are used to detect (find) and diagnose urethral cancer.
The following tests and procedures may be used:
- Physical exam and history: An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient's health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.
- Laboratory tests: Medical procedures that test samples of tissue, blood, urine, or other substances in the body. These tests help to diagnose disease, plan and check treatment, or monitor the disease over time.
- Urine cytology: Examination of urine under a microscope to check for abnormal cells.
- Urinalysis: A test to check the color of urine and its contents, such as sugar, protein, blood, and white blood cells. If white blood cells (a sign of infection) are found, a urine culture is usually done to find out what type of infection it is.
- Digital rectal exam: An exam of the rectum. The doctor or nurse inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the lower part of the rectum to feel for lumps or anything else that seems unusual. This procedure may be done while the patient is under anesthesia.
- Pelvic exam: An exam of the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and rectum. The doctor or nurse inserts one or two lubricated, gloved fingers of one hand into the vagina and places the other hand over the lower abdomen to feel the size, shape, and position of the uterus and ovaries. A speculum is also inserted into the vagina and the doctor or nurse looks at the vagina and cervix for signs of disease. This may be done while the patient is under anesthesia.
- Cystoscopy: A procedure to look inside the urethra and bladder to check for abnormal areas. A cystoscope (a thin, lighted tube) is inserted through the urethra into the bladder. Tissue samples may be taken for biopsy.
- Biopsy: The removal of cells or tissues from the urethra, bladder, and, sometimes, the prostate gland, so they can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to check for signs of cancer.