Dr. Nabili received his undergraduate degree from the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), majoring in chemistry and biochemistry. He then completed his graduate degree at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). His graduate training included a specialized fellowship in public health where his research focused on environmental health and health-care delivery and management.
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Upper respiratory infections are one of the most common reasons of
Upper respiratory infections are the most common illness resulting in
missed work or school.
Upper respiratory infections can happen at any time, but are most common in the fall and winter.
Vast majority of upper respiratory infections are caused by viruses and are self limited.
Antibiotics are rarely needed to treat upper respiratory infections and generally should be
avoided, unless the doctor suspects a bacterial infection.
Simple techniques, such as, proper hand washing and covering face while
coughing or sneezing, may reduce the spread of upper respiratory infections.
General outlook for upper respiratory infections is favorable, although, sometimes complication can
What is an upper respiratory infection?
The upper respiratory tract includes the sinuses, nasal passages, pharynx,
and larynx. These structures direct the air we breath from the outside to the
trachea and eventually to the lungs for respiration to take place.
An upper respiratory tract infection, or upper respiratory infection, is an infectious process of any
of the components of the upper airway.
Infection of the specific areas of the upper respiratory tract can be named
specifically. Examples of these may include
rhinitis (inflammation of the nasal
cavity), sinus infection (sinusitis or rhinosinusitis)
- inflammation of the
sinuses located around the nose, common cold
(nasopharyngitis) - inflammation of the nares, pharynx, hypopharynx, uvula, and tonsils,
pharyngitis (inflammation of the pharynx, uvula, and tonsils), epiglottitis
(inflammation of the upper portion of the larynx or the epiglottis),
(inflammation of the larynx), laryngotracheitis (inflammation of the larynx and
the trachea), and tracheitis (inflammation of the trachea).
Upper respiratory infections are one of the most frequent causes of doctors
visits with varying symptoms ranging from runny nose, sore throat,
breathing difficulty, and lethargy. In the United States, upper respiratory
infections are the most
common illness leading to missing school or work.
Although upper respiratory infections can happen at any time, they are most common in the fall and
winter months, from September until March. This may be explained because these
are the usual school months when children and adolescents spend a lot of time in
groups and inside closed doors. Furthermore, many viruses of upper respiratory
infection thrive in the
low humidity of the winter.
Reviewed by William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR on 1/30/2013
Medical Author: Melissa Stöppler, MD
Medical Editor: William C. Shiel, Jr, MD, FACP, FACR
Are you wondering if your sore throat requires
antibiotics? Strep throat, named for
the Streptococcus bacterium that causes the condition,
is a particularly severe form of sore throat that is best treated with
antibiotics. Strep throat can strike people of all ages, but only about
five to ten percent of sore throats are caused by a bacterial infection. Most
sore throats are caused by viral illnesses and are not responsive to treatment with antibiotics.
A true streptococcal infection of the throat often leads
to excruciating throat pain accompanied by difficulty swallowing and even speaking. Fever may be
present, and the tonsils are often covered with a whitish layer of pus.
and runny nose are not commonly related to strep throat, but it is possible to
have a streptococcal infection along with a viral upper respiratory infection
and symptoms of a cold.