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- Typhus facts
- What is typhus? Are there different types of typhus?
- What is the history of typhus?
- What causes typhus? How is typhus transmitted?
- What are typhus risk factors?
- What are typhus symptoms and signs?
- How is typhus diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for typhus?
- What is the prognosis of typhus?
- Can typhus be prevented?
- Where can people get more information about typhus?
Quick GuideTravel Health: Vaccines & Preventing Diseases Abroad
What are typhus risk factors?
Typhus risk factors include living in or visiting areas where the disease is endemic. These include many port cities where rat populations are high, and areas where trash accumulates and hygiene may be low. Disaster zones, homeless camps, poverty-stricken areas, and other similar situations that allow rodents to come into close contact with people represent the greatest threats. These are the same type of conditions that lead to outbreaks of cholera, tuberculosis, and viral diseases like influenza. Spring and summer months are when fleas (and ticks) are most active, but infections can occur any time of the year.
What are typhus symptoms and signs?
Symptoms of endemic typhus develop within about one to two weeks after initial infection and may include a high fever (about 105 F), headache, malaise, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. A rash on the chest and abdomen typically begins about four to seven days after the initial symptoms above develop, and the rash often spreads. Some patients may also have a cough and abdominal, joint, andback pain. Symptoms may last for about two weeks and, barring complications or death (less than 2% die), symptoms abate.
However, epidemic typhus symptoms, although initially similar to endemic typhus, become more severe. The rash may cover the entire body except the palms of the hands and the bottoms of the feet. Patients may develop additional symptoms of bleeding into the skin (petechiae), delirium, stupor, hypotension, and shock, which can cause their death.