Typhoid vaccine live oral Ty21a, Vivotif

  • Pharmacy Author:
    Omudhome Ogbru, PharmD

    Dr. Ogbru received his Doctorate in Pharmacy from the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy in 1995. He completed a Pharmacy Practice Residency at the University of Arizona/University Medical Center in 1996. He was a Professor of Pharmacy Practice and a Regional Clerkship Coordinator for the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy from 1996-99.

  • Medical and Pharmacy Editor: Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD
    Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD

    Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD

    Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.

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GENERIC NAME: Typhoid vaccine live oral Ty21a

BRAND NAME: Vivotif

DRUG CLASS AND MECHANISM: Typhoid vaccine is a live attenuated (weakened) oral typhoid vaccine. Typhoid disease is caused by ingestion of Salmonella typhi strains from contaminated food or water. Active immunity from vaccine is occurs when the body produces antibodies to typhoid in response to the weakened typhoid bacteria in the vaccine. Oral typhoid vaccine produces a local response in the intestines, boosting immunity.

PRESCRIPTION: Yes

GENERIC AVAILABLE: No

PREPARATIONS: Typhoid vaccine is an enteric-coated capsule, containing viable and non-viable strains of Salmonella typhi Ty21a. It is available in a blister package of 4 capsules.

STORAGE: Store typhoid vaccine capsules between 2 C to 8 C (35.6 F to 46.4 F).

PRESCRIBED FOR: Typhoid vaccine is used for protection against typhoid fever in individuals 6 years of age and older who are travelers to areas which have a recognized risk of exposure to Salmonella typhi, or have intimate exposure (for example, household members) to a Salmonella typhi carrier or are microbiology laboratory employees who work frequently with Salmonella typhi.

DOSING: The recommended dosing for adults and children 6 years of age and older is: Take 1 capsule by mouth one hour before a meal for 4 doses, on days 1, 3, 5, and 7. Use cold or lukewarm water and should not exceed body temperature 37 C (98.6 F).

  • Dosing should be completed at least 1 week prior to potential exposure.
  • A booster dose of 4 capsules is needed every 5 years if re-exposure is expected.

DRUG INTERACTIONS: Typhoid vaccine is not recommended for use with belimumab (Benlysta), ceftaroline (Taflaro), certolizumab pegol (Cimzia), hydroxyurea (Droxia), and methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) because they significantly lower the effectiveness of typhoid vaccine.

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