Dr. Ben Wedro practices emergency medicine at Gundersen Clinic, a regional trauma center in La Crosse, Wisconsin. His background includes undergraduate and medical studies at the University of Alberta, a Family Practice internship at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario and residency training in Emergency Medicine at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Triglycerides are the main ingredient in vegetable oils and animal fats.
The triglyceride test measures the level of triglycerides in the blood.
Fasting for 9 to 12 hours before the test is required.
Elevated triglyceride levels are a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Highly elevated triglyceride levels may also cause fatty liver disease and pancreatitis.
High triglyceride levels can also be associated with diabetes, kidney disease, and the use of some medications.
Normal triglyceride levels in the blood are less than 150 mg per deciliter (mg/dL).
Triglyceride levels can be controlled to some extent by lifestyle modifications and, when necessary, medications.
Fibrates and niacin are medications that work to lower both triglycerides and cholesterol.
What are triglycerides?
Triglycerides are chemical compounds digested by the body to provide it with the energy for metabolism. Triglycerides are the most common form of fat that we digest, and are the main ingredient in vegetable oils and animal fats.
The triglyceride molecule is a form of the chemical glycerol (tri=three molecules of fatty acid + glyceride=glycerol) that contains three fatty acids. To be absorbed, these parts are broken apart in the small intestine, and afterwards are reassembled with cholesterol to form chylomicrons. This is the source of energy for cells in the body. Fat cells and liver cells are used as storage sites and release chylomicrons when the body needs the energy.
Alcohol consumption can raise triglyceride blood levels by
causing the liver to produce more fatty acids. However, there are some
beneficial aspects of moderate alcohol consumption, defined as one alcoholic
beverage per day (a glass of wine, a bottle of beer, or an ounce of hard liquor), that may balance this
triglyceride rise. Moderate consumption may mildly increase HDL
(the good cholesterol) levels in the bloodstream and red wine, which contains
antioxidants, may decrease the risk of heart disease.
However, it is not recommended that
people start to drink alcohol to obtain these effects.
Triglycerides, which are produced in the liver, are another type of
fat found in the blood and in food. Causes of raised triglycerides
are overweight/obesity, physical inactivity, cigarette smoking,
excess alcohol intake, and a diet very high in carbohydrates
(60 percent of calories or higher). Recent research indicates that
triglyceride levels that are borderline high (150-199 mg/dL) or
high (200-499 mg/dL) may increase your risk for heart disease.
(Levels of 500 mg/dL or more need to be lowered with medication
to prevent the pancreas from becoming inflamed.) A triglyceride
level of 150 mg/dL or higher also is one of the risk factors of the
metabolic syndrome (see pages 70-72).
To reduce blood triglyceride levels: control your weight, be
physically active, don't smoke, limit alcohol intake, and limit simple
sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages.
Sometimes, medication also is needed.
NIH National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute