- Treacher Collins syndrome facts*
- What is Treacher Collins syndrome?
- How common is Treacher Collins syndrome?
- What are the signs and symptoms of Treacher Collins syndrome?
- What are the characteristics of Treacher Collins syndrome?
- How do people inherit Treacher Collins syndrome?
- What genes are related to Treacher Collins syndrome?
- Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of Treacher Collins syndrome?
- What other names do people use for Treacher Collins syndrome?
How do people inherit Treacher Collins syndrome?
When Treacher Collins syndrome results from mutations in the TCOF1 or POLR1D gene, it is considered an autosomal dominant condition, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. About 60 percent of these cases result from new mutations in the gene and occur in people with no history of the disorder in their family. In the remaining autosomal dominant cases, a person with Treacher Collins syndrome inherits the altered gene from an affected parent.
When Treacher Collins syndrome is caused by mutations in the POLR1C gene, the condition has an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. Autosomal recessive inheritance means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.
What genes are related to Treacher Collins syndrome?
Mutations in the TCOF1, POLR1C, or POLR1D gene can cause Treacher Collins syndrome. TCOF1 gene mutations are the most common cause of the disorder, accounting for 81 to 93 percent of all cases. POLR1C and POLR1D gene mutations cause an additional 2 percent of cases. In individuals without an identified mutation in one of these genes, the genetic cause of the condition is unknown.
The proteins produced from the TCOF1, POLR1C, and POLR1D genes all appear to play important roles in the early development of bones and other tissues of the face. These proteins are involved in the production of a molecule called ribosomal RNA (rRNA), a chemical cousin of DNA. Ribosomal RNA helps assemble protein building blocks (amino acids) into new proteins, which is essential for the normal functioning and survival of cells. Mutations in the TCOF1, POLR1C, or POLR1D gene reduce the production of rRNA. Researchers speculate that a decrease in the amount of rRNA may trigger the self-destruction (apoptosis) of certain cells involved in the development of facial bones and tissues. The abnormal cell death could lead to the specific problems with facial development found in Treacher Collins syndrome. However, it is unclear why the effects of a reduction in rRNA are limited to facial development.
Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of Treacher Collins syndrome?
These resources address the diagnosis or management of Treacher Collins syndrome and may include treatment providers.
- Gene Review: Treacher Collins Syndrome
- Gene Tests: POLR1C-Related Treacher Collins Syndrome
- Gene Tests: POLR1D-Related Treacher Collins Syndrome
- Gene Tests: TCOF1-Related Treacher Collins Syndrome