Mary D. Nettleman, MD, MS, MACP is the Chair of the Department of Medicine at Michigan State University. She is a graduate of Vanderbilt Medical School, and completed her residency in Internal Medicine and a fellowship in Infectious Diseases at Indiana University.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Travelers should see a physician before leaving for a trip if
they are going to developing countries,
they are visiting sites that are not on the usual tourist routes or traveling to high altitudes,
they have chronic diseases that could be affected by travel,
they are visiting countries that require vaccinations before they allow travelers to enter the country.
The goal of a pre-travel medical evaluation is to help travelers protect themselves against (1) common diseases that may be mild but that will disrupt their trip, and (2) less common diseases that may be serious or even fatal. All travelers need to be up to date on routine vaccines they would normally get if they were not traveling. For example, an annual influenza vaccination (flu shot) is recommended if traveling during influenza season. Travelers should also be up to date on tetanus vaccines. If a tetanus booster is needed, your physician may elect to use the Tdap vaccine that also provides continuing protect against adult pertussis. No vaccinations are required for re-entry into the United States after travel.
What diseases occur in travelers, and how can disease be prevented?
Travelers can pick up infections from contaminated food or water, from insect bites, animal bites, or from other people. Vaccinations, medications, and simple precautions can reduce or eliminate the risk of many of these travel-related infections. While infections are the most common problem for travelers, it is important to remember that the most common cause of death in travelers is motor vehicle accidents. Be sure to look both ways before crossing the street
(especially in the United Kingdom, where oncoming traffic comes from the right), don't get in the car if the driver is drunk, and use seat belts if available both at home and when traveling.
This review will cover diseases commonly encountered by travelers or those for which vaccinations are recommended. For a more complete discussion, please refer to the CDC travel medicine web site (http://www.cdc.gov).
Medical Author: Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Medical Editor: William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
The imposition of stricter security measures for commercial airline passengers following the Aug. 10, 2006, arrests of individuals engaged in a terrorist plot to bomb U.S.-bound planes from Britain has left many travelers wondering how to manage their health conditions while traveling. The following tips may help those who are concerned about health issues when traveling by air:
Remember that prescription medications are allowed in carry-on bags,
with some restrictions. Prescriptions must be in their original pharmacy
container labeled with the name of the passenger. Be sure that the name is
the same as on your ticket. Don't combine your medications into one bottle;
take each type of medication in its own labeled bottle. Place all
medications in a plastic bag for ease during security screening.
Nonprescription medications are also allowed, but remember to take these in their original containers, too. Take small packages containing the amount of medication you might reasonably expect to need while traveling—family-size bottles containing 500 tablets may be even considered suspicious.