tramadol (Ultram, Ultram ER, Conzip)

  • Pharmacy Author:
    Omudhome Ogbru, PharmD

    Dr. Ogbru received his Doctorate in Pharmacy from the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy in 1995. He completed a Pharmacy Practice Residency at the University of Arizona/University Medical Center in 1996. He was a Professor of Pharmacy Practice and a Regional Clerkship Coordinator for the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy from 1996-99.

  • Medical and Pharmacy Editor: Jay W. Marks, MD
    Jay W. Marks, MD

    Jay W. Marks, MD

    Jay W. Marks, MD, is a board-certified internist and gastroenterologist. He graduated from Yale University School of Medicine and trained in internal medicine and gastroenterology at UCLA/Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles.

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What is tramadol? How does it work (mechanism of action)?

Tramadol is a man-made (synthetic) analgesic (pain reliever). Its exact mechanism of action is unknown, but it is similar to morphine. Like morphine, tramadol binds to receptors in the brain (narcotic or opioid receptors) that are important for transmitting the sensation of pain from throughout the body to the brain. Tramadol, like other narcotics used for the treatment of pain, may be abused. Tramadol is not a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). However, it does not have the increased risk of stomach ulcers and internal bleeding that can occur with NSAIDs.

The FDA approved tramadol in March 1995.

What are the uses for tramadol?

  • Tramadol is used in the management of moderate to moderately severe pain.
  • Extended release tablets are used for moderate to moderately severe chronic pain in adults who require continuous treatment for an extended period.

What are the side effects of tramadol?

Tramadol is generally well tolerated, and side effects are usually transient.

Commonly reported side effects include

Less commonly reported side effects include

Some patients who received tramadol have reported seizures. It may cause serotonin syndrome when combined with other drugs that also increase serotonin (see drug interactions section).

What is the dosage for tramadol? How should I take it?

  • The recommended dose of tramadol is 50-100 mg (immediate release tablets) every 4-6 hours as needed for pain.
  • The maximum dose is 400 mg/day.
  • To improve tolerance patients should be started at 25 mg/day, and doses may be increased by 25-50 mg every 3 days to reach 50-100 mg/day every 4 to 6 hours.
  • Tramadol may be taken with or without food.
  • The recommended dose for extended release tablets is 100 mg daily, which may be increased by 100 mg every 5 days, but not to exceed 300 mg /day. To convert from immediate release to extended release, the total daily dose should be rounded down to the nearest 100 mg. Extended release tablets should be swallowed whole and not crushed or chewed.

Is tramadol available as a generic drug? Do you need a prescription for it?

Tramadol is available in generic form, and you need a prescription for it from your doctor or other health care professional.

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Which drugs or supplements interact with tramadol?

  • Carbamazepine (Tegretol, Tegretol XR, Equetro, Carbatrol) reduces the effect of tramadol by increasing its inactivation in the body.
  • Quinidine (Quinaglute, Quinidex) reduces the inactivation of tramadol, thereby increasing the concentration of tramadol by 50% to 60%.
  • Combining tramadol with monoamine oxidase inhibitors or MAOIs (for example, tranylcypromine [Parnate]) or selective serotonin inhibitors (SSRIs), for example, fluoxetine (Prozac), may result in severe side effects such as seizures or a condition called serotonin syndrome.
  • Tramadol may increase central nervous system and respiratory depression when combined with alcohol, anesthetics, narcotics, tranquilizers, or sedative hypnotics. This can reduce the level of consciousness or lead to respiratory insufficiency.

Is tramadol safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?

  • The safety of tramadol during pregnancy has not been established.
  • The safety of tramadol in nursing mothers has not been established.

What brand names are available for tramadol?

Ultram, Ultram ER, and Conzip are the current brand names available for tramadol in the US. Discontinued brands include Rebix OTD, and Ryzolt.

What else should I know about this drug?

What preparations of tramadol are available?
  • Tablets (immediate release): 50 mg.
  • Tablets (extended release): 100, 200, and 300 mg.
  • Capsule (extended release): 100, 200, 300 mg.

How should I keep tramadol stored?

Tramadol should be store at room temperature, 15 C to 30 C (59 F to 86 F). It should be stored in a sealed container.

Reference: FDA Prescribing Information

Last Editorial Review: 9/28/2016

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See more info: tramadol on RxList
Reviewed on 9/28/2016
References
Reference: FDA Prescribing Information

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