- Slideshow: Top Problems in Your Mouth
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- Dental (Oral) Health Quiz
- Patient Comments: Tongue Problems - Describe Your Problems
- Patient Comments: Tongue Problems - Treatments
- Patient Comments: Tongue Problems - Infants and Children
- Patient Comments: Tongue Problems - Hairy Tongue
- Patient Comments: Tongue Problems - Oral Cancer
- Patient Comments: Tongue Problems - Leukoplakia
- Find a local Doctor in your town
- Tongue facts
- What are common tongue problems?
- What causes tongue problems?
- What are the risk factors for tongue problems?
- White tongue
- Red tongue
- Black tongue
- Increased size or tongue swelling
- Growths on the tongue
- Abnormalities of the tongue surface
- Tongue pain
- Altered sensation of the tongue
- Taste problems
- Problems with tongue movement
- What are tongue problems in infants and children?
- What are tongue problems in pregnancy?
- How do health-care professionals diagnose tongue problems?
- Are there home remedies for tongue problems?
- What are the treatments for tongue problems?
- Is it possible to prevent tongue problems?
- What is the prognosis for tongue problems?
Quick GuideDental Health: Top Problems in Your Mouth
Increased size or tongue swelling
Swelling or enlargement of the tongue, referred to as macroglossia, can be caused by allergies, medications, injuries, or an underlying medical condition such as amyloidosis. Addressing the underlying condition is the usual treatment for macroglossia.
Allergic reaction to medications, food, or even a bee sting can cause swelling of the tongue. In the case of sudden and rapid onset of swelling of the tongue, one should seek emergency care as breathing can become compromised.
Tongue swelling can also be a side effect of medication. Some medications that have this side effect are ACE inhibitors (to treat high blood pressure) and NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) such as Aleve, Advil, and aspirin.
An injury from hot food or liquid that burns the tongue or simply biting the tongue can irritate the tongue to cause swelling.
Conditions such as oral thrush or oral herpes viruses can cause the tongue to swell due to inflammation. Other medical conditions include tumorous cancer, acromegaly (giantism), amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, hypothyroidism, and Kawasaki disease. Tongue swelling can also be found in individuals with Down syndrome.
Growths on the tongue
Traumatic fibroma is commonly found on the tongue and appears as a raised, thickened nodule that is dome-shaped, pink, and smooth. It is the result of chronic irritation of one area of the tongue, particularly along the bite line of the tongue. It is considered benign. An excisional biopsy is usually performed to definitively diagnose the lesion and completely excise it from the tongue.
Previously mentioned colored lesions, leukoplakia (white), erythroplakia (red), and erythroleukoplakia (red-white), are also classified as growths of the tongue. In most instances, biopsy is recommended for these lesions to rule out premalignancy.
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common cancer related to the oral cavity, making up 90% of all oral cancers. Oral cancer makes up approximately 2% of all cancers in the U.S. It commonly involves the lateral surface of the tongue. Risk factors for SCC are older age (age 40 and up), tobacco use, and alcohol use. In younger individuals, cases of SCC are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). In recent years, HPV has been found to contribute more to the incidence rate of oral cancers. SCC clinically presents as a thickened rough surface over a red or white base. Nodules and ulcerations may follow as the growth progresses. In some cases, the tumor will be present at the base of the tongue and will be difficult to detect until it reaches its late stage of development. Treatment for SCC involves a mix of surgical removal, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy. Immunotherapy and gene therapy are examples of newer treatments being investigated. Clinical trials of new treatment may be a possible option for advanced cancers. Each individual should understand the nature of the cancer and options available for treatment in order to make the best decisions.