The Digestion Process (Organs and Functions) Related Diseases & Conditions

Medical conditions are often related to other diseases and conditions. Our doctors have compiled a list of ailments related to the topic of The Digestion Process (Organs and Functions). These conditions may be a cause or symptom of The Digestion Process (Organs and Functions) or be a condition for which you may be at increased risk.

  • Anal Fissure An anal fissure is a small tear or cut in the skin lining of the anus. Pain and/or rectal bleeding during bowel movements are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Anal Fissure Article
    • Anal fissures facts
    • What are anal fissures?
    • What causes anal fissures?
    • What are the symptoms of anal fissures?
    • How are anal fissures diagnosed and evaluated?
    • What is the treatment for anal fissures?
    • General treatment and home remedies for anal fissures
    • Prescription medications for anal fissures
    • Surgical treatment for anal fissures
    • Personal observation
  • Appendicitis Appendicitis is an inflammation of the appendix. Appendicitis often causes fever, loss of appetite, and right lower quadrant...learn more »
    In This Article
    Appendicitis Article
    • Appendicitis facts
    • What is the appendix?
    • What is appendicitis and what causes appendicitis?
    • What are the symptoms of appendicitis?
    • How is appendicitis diagnosed?
    • Imaging studies to diagnosis appendicitis
    • Why can it be difficult to diagnose appendicitis?
    • What is stump appendicitis
    • What are the complications of appendicitis?
    • What other conditions can mimic appendicitis?
    • How is appendicitis treated?
    • How is an appendectomy done?
    • What are the complications of appendectomy?
    • Are there long-term consequences of appendectomy?
    • What is new about appendicitis?
  • Clostridium Difficile Colitis (Antibiotic-Associated Colitis, C. difficile colitis) Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a bacterium, and is one of the most common causes of infection of the colon. C. difficile...learn more »
    In This Article
    Clostridium Difficile Colitis (Antibiotic-Associated Colitis, C. difficile colitis) Article
    • Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) facts
    • What is Clostridium difficile (C. difficile?)
    • What Clostridium difficile colitis?
    • How does Clostridium difficile cause colitis?
    • What are the symptoms of Clostridium difficile colitis?
    • Which antibiotics cause Clostridium difficile colitis?
    • How is Clostridium difficile colitis diagnosed?
    • How is Clostridium difficile colitis treated?
    • Why are there relapses of Clostridium difficile colitis?
    • How are relapses of Clostridium difficile colitis treated?
    • What is new in Clostridium difficile?
  • Cirrhosis (Liver) Cirrhosis of the liver refers to a disease in which normal liver cells are replaced by scar tissue caused by alcohol and viral...learn more »
  • Colon Cancer Colon cancer is a malignancy that arises from the inner lining of the colon. Most, if not all, of these cancers develop from...learn more »
    In This Article
    Colon Cancer Article
    • Colon cancer facts
    • What is cancer?
    • What is cancer of the colon and rectum?
    • What are the causes of colon cancer?
    • What are the symptoms of colon cancer?
    • What tests can be done to detect colon cancer?
    • How can colon cancer be prevented?
    • What are the treatments and survival for colon cancer?
    • What is the follow-up care for colon cancer?
    • What does the future hold for patients with colorectal cancer?
  • Constipation Constipation is defined medically as fewer than three stools per week and severe constipation as less than one stool per week....learn more »
  • Crohn's Disease Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease, primarily involving the small and large intestine, but which can affect...learn more »
    In This Article
    Crohn's Disease Article
    • Crohn's disease facts
    • What is Crohn's disease?
    • What causes Crohn's disease?
    • How does Crohn's disease affect the intestines?
    • How is Crohn's disease different from ulcerative colitis?
    • What are the symptoms of Crohn's disease?
    • What are the complications of Crohn's disease?
    • How is Crohn's disease diagnosed?
    • How is Crohn's disease treated?
    • Crohn's Disease Medications
    • Anti-inflammatory medications
    • 5-ASA (mesalamine) oral medications
    • 5-ASA rectal medications (Rowasa, Canasa)
    • Corticosteroids
    • Budesonide (Entocort EC)
    • Antibiotics for Crohn's disease
    • Immuno-modulator medications
    • Azathioprine (Imuran) and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP, Purinethol)
    • Infliximab (Remicade)
    • Adalimumab (Humira)
    • Certolizumab pegol (Cimzia)
    • Natalizumab (Tysabri)
    • Methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall)
    • Surgery in Crohn's disease
    • Are there any recommendations for diet, supplementation, or vaccinations for Crohn's disease?
    • Conclusions
  • Diverticulitis (Diverticulosis, Diverticular Disease) Diverticulitis is a condition in which diverticuli in the colon rupture. The rupture results in infection in the tissues that...learn more »
  • Esophageal Cancer Esophageal cancer is a disease in which malignant cells form in the esophagus. Risk factors of cancer of the esophagus include...learn more »
    In This Article
    Esophageal Cancer Article
    • Esophageal cancer facts*
    • What is the esophagus?
    • What is esophageal cancer?
    • What are the causes or risk factors for esophageal cancer?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of esophageal cancer?
    • How is esophageal cancer diagnosed?
    • How is esophageal cancer staged?
    • What are the stages of esophageal cancer?
    • What are the treatment for esophageal cancer?
    • What kinds of doctors treat esophageal cancer?
    • What are the statistics related to esophageal cancer?
    • What support is available for those with esophageal cancer?
    • What is the prognosis with esophageal cancer?
    • Can esophageal cancer be prevented?
  • Gallstones Gallstones are stones that form when substances in the bile harden. Gallstones (formed in the gallbladder) can be as small as...learn more »
  • Intestinal Gas (Belching, Bloating, Flatulence) Gas or "intestinal gas" means different things to different people. Everyone has gas and eliminates it by belching, burping, or...learn more »
    In This Article
    Intestinal Gas (Belching, Bloating, Flatulence) Article
    • Intestinal gas facts
    • What causes belching (burping)?
    • What causes bloating?
    • What causes flatulence (gas)?
    • What are the causes of intermittent abdominal bloating/distention?
    • How are belching, bloating/distention, and flatulence evaluated?
    • What is the treatment for intestinal gas?
    • What's new in intestinal gas?
  • GERD (Acid Reflux, Heartburn) GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) is a condition in which the acidified liquid contents of the stomach backs up into the...learn more »
    In This Article
    GERD (Acid Reflux, Heartburn) Article
    • GERD (acid reflux) facts
    • What is GERD or acid reflux?
    • What causes GERD (acid reflux)?
    • What are the symptoms of uncomplicated GERD?
    • What are the complications of GERD?
    • How is GERD or acid reflux diagnosed and evaluated?
    • Symptoms and procedures to diagnose GERD
    • GERD (acid reflux) tests
    • How is GERD (acid reflux) treated?
    • Lifestyle changes and GERD (acid reflux) diet
    • GERD (acid reflux) medications
    • GERD surgery
    • What is a reasonable approach to the management of GERD (acid reflux)?
    • What are the unresolved issues in GERD (acid reflux)?
  • Hemochromatosis (Iron Overload) Hereditary hemochromatosis (iron overload) is an inherited disorder in which there is excessive accumulation of iron in the body....learn more »
    In This Article
    Hemochromatosis (Iron Overload) Article
    • What is hereditary hemochromatosis?
    • How is hereditary hemachromatosis inherited?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of hemochromatosis?
    • How is hemochromatosis diagnosed?
    • How is hemochromatosis treated?
    • What about diet recommendations for people with hemochromatosis?
    • What are the recommendations for screening for liver cancer in hemochromatosis?
  • Hemorrhoids Hemorrhoids (piles) are swollen veins in the rectum and anus. Causes include pregnancy, obesity, diarrhea, low-fiber diet, and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hemorrhoids Article
    • What is the definition of a hemorrhoid?
    • What causes hemorrhoids?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of a hemorrhoid?
    • What does a hemorrhoid look like?
    • How is the diagnosis of hemorrhoids made?
    • How are hemorrhoids treated?
    • OTC medications and home remedies for hemorrhoids
    • Non-surgical approaches
    • Hemorrhoid surgery
    • What is the prognosis for hemorrhoids?
  • Helicobacter Pylori (H. pylori) Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a bacteria that causes chronic inflammation (gastritis) of the inner lining of the stomach,...learn more »
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a GI (gastrointestinal) disorder with signs and symptoms of abdominal pain, bloating, increased...learn more »
    In This Article
    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Article
    • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) facts
    • What irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) causes and risk factors?
    • What are irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms and signs?
    • What tests do health-care professionals use to diagnose irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?
    • What are irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) treatments?
    • IBS medications
    • Is there an irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) diet?
    • What lifestyle changes may help IBS symptoms and signs?
    • Is irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) related to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO)?
    • What types of doctors treat IBS?
    • Is it possible to prevent IBS?
    • What are potential complications of IBS?
    • What is the prognosis for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?
  • Pancreatic Cancer Pancreatic cancer is a malignant tumor of the pancreas. Pancreatic cancer has been called a "silent" disease because early...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pancreatic Cancer Article
    • Pancreatic cancer facts
    • What does a pancreas do?
    • What is cancer?
    • What is pancreatic cancer and its types?
    • What are pancreatic cancer causes and risk factors?
    • What are pancreatic cancer symptoms and signs?
    • How is the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer made?
    • How is pancreatic cancer staged?
    • What is the treatment for resectable pancreatic cancer?
    • What is the treatment for locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer?
    • What is the treatment for metastatic pancreatic cancer?
    • What are the side effects of pancreatic cancer treatment?
    • What is the survival rate with pancreatic cancer?
    • What research is being done on pancreatic cancer?
    • Is complimentary or alternative medicine effective in pancreatic cancer treatment?
    • Is it possible to prevent pancreatic cancer?
    • Where can people get support when coping with pancreatic cancer?
    • Where can people find additional information about pancreatic cancer?
  • Pancreatitis Pancreatitis is a rare disease in which the pancreas becomes inflamed. There are two types of pancreatitis, acute and chronic....learn more »
  • Peptic Ulcer A peptic ulcer is an ulcer in the lining of the stomach, duodenum, or esophagus. Ulcer formation is related to Helicobacter...learn more »
    In This Article
    Peptic Ulcer Article
    • Peptic ulcer facts
    • What is a peptic ulcer?
    • What causes peptic ulcers?
    • What are the symptoms of peptic ulcer?
    • How are peptic ulcers diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for peptic ulcers?
    • What are the complications of peptic ulcer?
    • Peptic ulcer summary
  • Celiac Disease Celiac disease is a condition in which a person has inflammation of the small intestinal mucosa when exposed to gluten in the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Celiac Disease Article
    • Celiac disease facts
    • What causes celiac disease?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of celiac disease?
    • Are there other diseases or conditions associated with celiac disease?
    • How is celiac disease diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for celiac disease?
    • What are the complications of celiac disease?
    • What is a gluten-free diet?
  • Stomach Cancer Though the cause of stomach cancer is unknown, risk factors for stomach cancer include diet, H. pylori infection, smoking age,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Stomach Cancer Article
    • Stomach cancer facts*
    • What is the stomach?
    • What is cancer, and how does stomach cancer spread?
    • What are risk factors and causes of stomach cancer?
    • What are symptoms of stomach cancer?
    • How is stomach cancer diagnosed?
    • How is staging determined?
    • What is the treatment for stomach cancer?
    • Surgery
    • Chemotherapy
    • Radiation therapy
    • How do I go about getting a second opinion?
    • What are some of the nutritional concerns of stomach cancer patients?
    • What are treatment options for cancer that blocks the digestive tract?
    • What follow-up care is necessary for stomach cancer patients? What about complementary and alternative medicine?
    • What support is there for cancer patients?
    • How can I take part in clinical trials for stomach cancer?
  • Ulcerative Colitis Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammation of the colon. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding....learn more »
    In This Article
    Ulcerative Colitis Article
    • Ulcerative colitis facts
    • What is ulcerative colitis?
    • What causes ulcerative colitis?
    • What are the symptoms of ulcerative colitis?
    • How is the diagnosis of ulcerative colitis made?
    • What are the complications of ulcerative colitis?
    • What are the treatments for ulcerative colitis?
    • What are ulcerative colitis medications?
    • 5-ASA Compounds
    • Systemic corticosteroids (including side effects)
    • Golimumab (Simponi)
    • What are immunomodulator medications?
    • Summary of medication treatment
    • Surgery for ulcerative colitis
    • Treatment by disease severity and location (based on ACG Practice Guidelines)
    • Are there any special dietary requirements for persons with ulcerative colitis?
    • What research is being done regarding ulcerative colitis?
  • Hepatitis C (HCV, Hep C) Hepatitis C is an inflammation of the liver due to the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is usually spread by blood transfusion,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hepatitis C (HCV, Hep C) Article
    • Hepatitis C infection (HCV) facts
    • What is hepatitis C infection, and how many people are infected?
    • What is the hepatitis C virus?
    • What are the symptoms of hepatitis C infection?
    • What is the contagious period for hepatitis C?
    • What is the incubation period for hepatitis C?
    • How long does it take for symptoms to appear after contracting hepatitis C?
    • How is hepatitis C spread?
    • Can hepatitis C infection affect other organs besides the liver?
    • Who is at high risk and should be tested for hepatitis C infection?
    • What type of doctor treats hepatitis C?
    • How is hepatitis C diagnosed?
    • Liver biopsy and non-invasive tests for hepatitis C
    • What medications cure hepatitis C infection?
    • What are the treatment guidelines for hepatitis C?
    • What is the treatment for people with acute hepatitis C infection?
    • What are the side effects of treatments for hepatitis C infection?
    • What about liver transplantation for a person with hepatitis C?
    • How is monitoring done after treatment for hepatitis C?
    • What home remedies are available for hepatitis C?
    • What are the complications of undiagnosed hepatitis C?
    • Can hepatitis C be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis of hepatitis C?
    • What is the current research and what is in the future for hepatitis C?
  • Giardia Lamblia Giardiasis (Giardia lamblia) is a parasite responsible for a common form of infectious diarrhea. The parasite lives in two...learn more »
    In This Article
    Giardia Lamblia Article
    • What is giardiasis?
    • Who is at risk for giardiasis?
    • What signs and symptoms does giardiasis cause?
    • How is giardiasis diagnosed?
    • How is giardiasis treated?
    • How can giardiasis be prevented?
  • Gilbert Syndrome Gilbert syndrome is a benign genetic condition that causes abnormal breakdown of bilirubin, a compound that is formed when...learn more »
    In This Article
    Gilbert Syndrome Article
    • What is Gilbert syndrome?
    • What causes Gilbert syndrome?
    • What are the symptoms of Gilbert syndrome?
    • What is the treatment for Gilbert syndrome?
  • Jaundice (Adults) Jaundice in adults may be caused by a variety of medical diseases or conditions. Some cases of jaundice can be managed at home...learn more »
    In This Article
    Jaundice (Adults) Article
    • Jaundice definition
    • Jaundice in adults
    • What causes jaundice in adults?
    • Pre-hepatic causes
    • Hepatic causes
    • Post-hepatic causes
    • What are the symptoms of jaundice in adults?
    • What are the risk factors for jaundice in adults?
    • How is jaundice in adults diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for jaundice in adults?
    • What are the complications of jaundice in adults?
    • Can jaundice in adults be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis of jaundice in adults?
  • Diarrhea Diarrhea is a change is the frequency and looseness of bowel movements. Symptoms associated with diarrhea are cramping, abdominal...learn more »
    In This Article
    Diarrhea Article
    • Diarrhea facts
    • What is diarrhea?
    • What is the definition of diarrhea?
    • What symptoms are associated with diarrhea?
    • What are common causes of acute diarrhea?
    • Traveler's diarrhea
    • Viral gastroenteritis
    • Bacterial enterocolitis
    • Food poisoning
    • Parasites
    • Drugs
    • What are common causes of chronic diarrhea?
    • What kind of a doctor treats diarrhea?
    • When should the doctor be called for diarrhea?
    • How is the cause of diarrhea diagnosed?
    • What home remedies help the symptoms of diarrhea?
    • What medications are used to treat diarrhea?
    • When should antibiotics be used for diarrhea?
    • What are the complications of diarrhea?
    • How can dehydration be prevented and treated?
    • What about treatment of diarrhea in infants and young children?
    • What about treating diarrhea in older children and adults?
  • Gardner's Syndrome (Familial Adenomatous Polyposis) Gardners' syndrome, or familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), is an inherited condition in which cancer of the colon and rectum...learn more »
    In This Article
    Gardner's Syndrome (Familial Adenomatous Polyposis) Article
    • What is familial adenomatous polyposis?
    • How common is familial adenomatous polyposis?
    • What genes are related to familial adenomatous polyposis?
    • How do people inherit familial adenomatous polyposis?
    • Where can I find information about treatment for familial adenomatous polyposis?
    • What other names do people use for familial adenomatous polyposis?
  • Microscopic Colitis (Lymphocytic Colitis and Collagenous Colitis) Microscopic colitis (lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis) is a disease of inflammation of the colon. Microscopic colitis...learn more »
    In This Article
    Microscopic Colitis (Lymphocytic Colitis and Collagenous Colitis) Article
    • What is colitis?
    • What diseases are not colitis?
    • What is microscopic colitis?
    • What causes microscopic colitis?
    • What are the symptoms of microscopic colitis?
    • How common is microscopic colitis and who is at risk?
    • When should I seek medical care for microscopic colitis?
    • How is microscopic colitis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for microscopic colitis?
    • Can microscopic colitis be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis of microscopic colitis?
  • Pancreas Divisum Pancreas divisum is a common congenital anomaly (an anomaly that is present at birth) of the pancreatic duct(s). The human embryo...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pancreas Divisum Article
    • What is pancreas divisum?
    • What causes pancreas divisum?
    • What are pancreas divisum symptoms?
    • How is pancreas divisum diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for pancreas divisum?
    • What is the prognosis for pancreas divisum?
  • Abdominal Pain (Causes, Remedies, Treatment) Abdominal pain can have many causes. Some of the less serious causes include bloating, gas, colitis, endometriosis, food...learn more »
  • Fatty Liver Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease occurs due to the accumulation of abnormal amounts of fat within the liver. Fatty liver most...learn more »
    In This Article
    Fatty Liver Article
    • Nonalcoholic fatty liver facts
    • What is fatty liver disease?
    • What causes nonalcoholic fatty liver disease?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of fatty liver?
    • How is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease?
    • Fatty liver and diet
    • Fatty liver, weight loss, and exercise
    • Medications and other treatment options
    • Bariatric surgery
    • Liver transplantation
    • What is the relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease?
    • What diseases are associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease?
    • What are the complications of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease?
    • Does nonalcoholic fatty liver disease occur in children?
  • Blood in the Stool (Rectal Bleeding) Rectal bleeding (hematochezia) refers to the passage of bright red blood from the anus. Common causes include anal fissures,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Blood in the Stool (Rectal Bleeding) Article
    • Rectal bleeding (blood in stool) facts
    • What does rectal bleeding (blood in stool) mean?
    • What are causes of blood in the stool (rectal bleeding)?
    • What diseases and conditions can cause blood in the stool (rectal bleeding)?
    • Anal fissures
    • Hemorrhoids
    • Diverticulitis
    • Colon cancer and polyps
    • Angiodysplasias
    • Colitis and proctitis
    • Meckel's diverticulum
    • Polypectomy
    • Rare causes of rectal bleeding
    • What kind of doctor treats rectal bleeding?
    • When should I call a doctor for blood in the stool (rectal bleeding)?
    • How is the cause of blood in the stool (rectal bleeding) diagnosed?
    • History and physical examination
    • Anoscopy
    • Flexible sigmoidoscopy
    • Colonoscopy
    • Radionuclide scans
    • Visceral angiogram
    • Video capsule and small intestine enteroscopy
    • MRI and CT tomographic angiography
    • Nasogastric tube aspiration
    • Esophagogastroduodenoscopy
    • Blood tests
    • What is the treatment for rectal bleeding (blood in the stool)?
    • Can rectal bleeding (blood in the stool) be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis of rectal bleeding (blood in the stool)?
  • Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBS) is a liver disease in which bile building up in the organ damages bile ducts. Ultimately, this...learn more »
    In This Article
    Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) Article
    • Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) definition
    • What are the causes of primary biliary cirrhosis?
    • What are the risk factors for primary biliary cirrhosis?
    • What are the signs and symptoms for primary biliary cirrhosis?
    • How is the diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis made?
    • What is the treatment for primary biliary cirrhosis?
    • What are the complications of primary biliary cirrhosis?
    • Can primary biliary cirrhosis be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for someone with primary biliary cirrhosis?
  • Gastroenteritis (Stomach Flu) Gastroenteritis (or stomach flu) is a term referred used to describe a variety of gastrointestinal problems. The most common...learn more »
    In This Article
    Gastroenteritis (Stomach Flu) Article
    • Definition of gastroenteritis
    • What causes gastroenteritis?
    • What are the most common causes of gastroenteritis?
    • What are the symptoms of gastroenteritis?
    • Is gastroenteritis contagious?
    • Who is at risk for gastroenteritis?
    • How is gastroenteritis transmitted?
    • How does food become contaminated with gastroenteritis-causing bacteria or viruses?
    • How is gastroenteritis diagnosed?
    • How is gastroenteritis treated?
    • When should I call my doctor for gastroenteritis?
    • What are complications of gastroenteritis?
    • Can gastroenteritis be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for gastroenteritis?
  • Pernicious Anemia Pernicious anemia is a blood disorder in which the body does not make enough red blood cells due to a lack of vitamin B12 in the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pernicious Anemia Article
    • Pernicious anemia and vitamin B12 deficiency facts
    • What is pernicious anemia?
    • What is megaloblastic anemia?
    • What causes pernicious anemia?
    • Is pernicious anemia the same as vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia?
    • What are the symptoms of vitamin B-12 deficiency/ pernicious anemia?
    • How is pernicious anemia/vitamin B-12 deficiency diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for pernicious anemia and vitamin B-12 deficiency?
    • Can pernicious anemia/ vitamin B-12 deficiency be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for pernicious anemia/ vitamin B-12 deficiency?
  • Anemia Anemia is the condition of having less than the normal number of red blood cells or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin...learn more »
  • Schatzki's Ring Schatzki (Schatzki's) ring, is a narrow ring of tissue located just above the junction of the esophagus and stomach. The cause of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Schatzki's Ring Article
    • What is a Schatzki ring?
    • What are symptoms of a Schatzki Ring?
    • How is a Schatzki Ring diagnosed?
    • What treatment is for Schatzki Ring?
  • Barrett's Esophagus Barrett's esophagus occurs as a complication of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), primarily in white males. GERD...learn more »
    In This Article
    Barrett's Esophagus Article
    • Barrett's esophagus facts
    • What is Barrett's esophagus?
    • Why is there so much interest in Barrett's esophagus?
    • What causes Barrett's esophagus?
    • Who develops Barrett's esophagus?
    • What is the specific abnormality in the inner lining (epithelium) of Barrett's esophagus?
    • What about the cancer that occurs in Barrett's esophagus?
    • What is dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus?
    • What is the risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the esophagus in Barrett's?
    • What are the symptoms of Barrett's esophagus?
    • How is GERD with or without Barrett's esophagus treated?
    • Why is it important to screen patients with GERD to diagnose Barrett's esophagus?
    • Why is it critical to be accurate in the diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus?
    • What does endoscopic biopsy surveillance in Barrett's esophagus involve?
    • How is high grade dysplasia managed?
    • How is low grade dysplasia managed?
    • What are the experimental approaches for treatment of high grade dysplasia?
    • What experimental options are there for Barrett's esophagus WITHOUT dysplasia?
    • What does the future hold for Barrett's esophagus?
  • Dysphagia Dysphagia or difficulty in swallowing, swallowing problems. Dysphagia is due to problems in nerve or muscle control. It is...learn more »
    In This Article
    Dysphagia Article
    • Dysphagia facts
    • What is dysphagia?
    • What causes dysphagia?
    • Physical obstruction of the pharynx or esophagus
    • Diseases of the brain
    • Diseases of the smooth muscle of the esophagus
    • Diseases of skeletal muscle of the pharynx
    • Miscellaneous diseases
    • Swallowing-related symptoms
    • Non-swallowing-related
    • What is the differential diagnosis for dysphagia?
    • How is dysphagia evaluated and the cause diagnosed?
    • How is dysphagia treated?
    • What is the prognosis for dysphagia?
    • What does the future offer for dysphagia?
  • Hiatal Hernia Hiatal hernia is a condition in which a thin membrane of tissue connects the esophagus with the diaphragm becomes week, and a...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hiatal Hernia Article
    • Hiatal hernia definition
    • What causes a hiatal hernia?
    • Is there one more than one type of hiatal hernia?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of a hiatal hernia?
    • How is hiatal hernia diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for hiatal hernia?
    • Hiatal hernia medications
    • Lifestyle changes
    • Hiatal hernia surgery
  • Colon Polyps Colon are common growths on the inner lining of the colon. Colon polyps may become cancerous. There are several different types...learn more »
    In This Article
    Colon Polyps Article
    • Colon polyp facts
    • What are colon polyps?
    • What do colon polyps look like (pictures)?
    • What are the types of colon polyps?
    • How big are colon polyps?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of colon polyps?
    • How are colon polyps diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for colon polyps?
    • How should patients with colon polyps be followed?
    • How is screening for colon polyps done?
    • Are all colon cancers associated with polyps?
    • Can colon polyps be prevented?
    • How is genetic testing used in patients with colon polyps?
  • Lactose Intolerance In lactose intolerance, the digestive system cannot digest lactose (the main sugar in milk). Symptoms of lactose intolerance...learn more »
    In This Article
    Lactose Intolerance Article
    • Lactose intolerance facts
    • What is lactose intolerance?
    • What causes lactose intolerance?
    • What are the symptoms of lactose intolerance?
    • How are lactase deficiency and lactose intolerance diagnosed?
    • Elimination diet
    • Milk challenge
    • Breath test
    • Blood glucose test
    • Stool acidity test
    • What are the sources of lactose in the diet?
    • How is lactose intolerance treated?
    • What are the long-term consequences of lactose intolerance?
    • What is new in lactose intolerance?
  • Achalasia Achalasia is a disease of the esophagus that mainly affects young adults. Abnormal function of nerves and muscles of the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Achalasia Article
    • Achalasia facts
    • What is the definition of achalasia?
    • What is achalasia?
    • What are the symptoms of achalasia?
    • What causes achalasia?
    • How is achalasia diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for achalasia?
    • Diet, oral medications, and botulinum toxin (Botox) to treat achalasia
    • Dilation and esophagomyotomy to treat achalasia
  • Intussusception Intussusception is the telescoping (prolapse) of a portion of the intestine within another immediately adjacent portion of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Intussusception Article
    • Intussusception facts
    • What is intussusception?
    • What happens during intussusception?
    • Is intussusception an urgent problem?
    • Who is at greatest risk for intussusception?
    • What causes intussusception?
    • Why is rapid diagnosis of intussusception important?
    • What are the symptoms of intussusception?
    • How is intussusception diagnosed?
    • Is it necessary to operate when there is intussusception?
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) for patients with intussusception?
  • Gastroparesis Gastroparesis is a medical condition in which the muscle of the stomach is paralyzed by a disease of either the stomach muscle...learn more »
    In This Article
    Gastroparesis Article
    • Gastroparesis facts
    • What is gastroparesis?
    • What causes gastroparesis?
    • What are gastroparesis symptoms and signs?
    • How is gastroparesis diagnosed?
    • How is gastroparesis treated?
    • What is the prognosis (long-term outcome) for patients with gastroparesis?
    • What is new in gastroparesis?
  • Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC) Primary sclerosing cholangitis or PSC is a disease of the liver. The cause of PSC is not known. Symptoms may include itching,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC) Article
    • Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) definition
    • What causes primary sclerosing cholangitis?
    • What are the risk factors for primary sclerosing cholangitis?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of primary sclerosing cholangitis?
    • How is the diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis made?
    • What is the treatment for primary sclerosing cholangitis?
    • Medications
    • Liver transplant
    • What complications are associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis?
    • Can primary sclerosing cholangitis be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis and life expectancy for a person with primary sclerosing cholangitis?
  • Travelers' Diarrhea Travelers' diarrhea is generally contracted by eating contaminated food or drinking contaminated water. Food is the primary...learn more »
    In This Article
    Travelers' Diarrhea Article
    • Travelers' diarrhea facts
    • What is travelers' diarrhea?
    • How common is travelers' diarrhea?
    • What causes travelers' diarrhea?
    • What are the symptoms of travelers' diarrhea?
    • How is travelers' diarrhea diagnosed?
    • How is travelers' diarrhea treated?
    • What is the prognosis for travelers' diarrhea?
    • How can travelers' diarrhea be prevented?
  • Laxatives for Constipation Laxatives for treatment of constipation include over-the-counter preparations such as bulk-forming laxatives, stool softeners,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Laxatives for Constipation Article
    • Laxatives for constipation facts
    • What is constipation?
    • What are the causes of constipation?
    • When should a doctor be consulted for constipation?
    • What natural remedies can a person take for constipation?
    • What over-the-counter preparations can be used for constipation?
    • Bulk-forming laxatives
    • Stool softeners (emollient laxatives)
    • Lubricant laxatives
    • Stimulant laxatives
    • Saline laxatives and osmotic laxatives
    • Enemas and suppositories
    • How is constipation treated in infants and children?
    • How is constipation treated during pregnancy?
  • Cholera Cholera is an infectious disease characterized by intense vomiting and profuse watery diarrhea and that rapidly lease to...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cholera Article
    • Cholera facts
    • What is cholera?
    • What are cholera symptoms and signs?
    • What causes cholera, and how is cholera transmitted?
    • What is the history of cholera?
    • What are risk factors for cholera, and where do cholera outbreaks occur?
    • Is cholera contagious?
    • What is the incubation period for cholera?
    • What is the contagious period for cholera?
    • How do health-care professionals diagnose cholera?
    • What is the treatment for cholera?
    • What physicians usually treat cholera?
    • What is the prognosis of cholera?
    • Is it possible to prevent cholera? Are cholera vaccines available?
    • Where can people find more information about cholera?
  • Hepatitis B (HBV, Hep B) The hepatitis B virus (HBV, hep B) is a unique, coated DNA virus belonging to the Hepadnaviridae family of viruses. The course of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hepatitis B (HBV, Hep B) Article
    • Hepatitis B facts
    • What is hepatitis?
    • How is the hepatitis B virus spread (transmitted)?
    • What are the symptoms of acute hepatitis B?
    • What are the symptoms of chronic hepatitis B?
    • How is hepatitis B diagnosed?
    • What is the role of a liver biopsy in chronic hepatitis B?
    • What is the natural course of chronic hepatitis B?
    • What medications are used to treat hepatitis B?
    • What are the effects of alcohol on hepatitis B?
    • What are the effects of immunosuppressive medications on hepatitis B?
    • What is delta hepatitis?
    • What about co-infection with hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus?
    • What happens in co-infection with hepatitis B virus and HIV?
    • What is the role of liver transplantation in hepatitis B?
    • What can be done to prevent hepatitis B?
    • What is new in the treatment of hepatitis B?
  • Portal Hypertension Portal hypertension is most commonly caused by cirrhosis, a disease in which results from scarring of a liver injury. Other...learn more »
    In This Article
    Portal Hypertension Article
    • What is portal hypertension?
    • What causes portal hypertension?
    • What are the symptoms of portal hypertension?
    • How is the diagnosis of portal hypertension made?
    • What is the treatment for portal hypertension?
    • What are the complications of portal hypertension?
    • Can portal hypertension be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for portal hypertension?
  • GERD and GER (Acid Reflux) in Infants and Children GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) is the upward movement of stomach content, including acid, into the esophagus and...learn more »
    In This Article
    GERD and GER (Acid Reflux) in Infants and Children Article
    • What are GER and GERD in infants and children?
    • What causes GER and GERD in infants and children?
    • What are the symptoms of GER and GERD in infants and children?
    • How are GER and GERD in infants and children diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for GER in infants?
    • How are GER and GERD treated in infants and children?
    • What is the prognosis for GER and GERD in infants and children?
  • Stool Color, Changes in Color, Texture, and Form Stool color changes can very from green, red, maroon, yellow, white, or black. Causes of changes of stool color can range from...learn more »
  • Duodenal Diverticulum Duodenal diverticula (extramural or intramural), or duodenal diverticulum, is a pouch that is attached to the first part of the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Duodenal Diverticulum Article
    • What is a duodenal diverticulum?
    • What causes a duodenal diverticulum?
    • What complications are caused by a duodenal diverticulum?
    • How is a duodenal diverticulum diagnosed?
    • How is a duodenal diverticulum treated?
    • What about intramural diverticula?
  • Top 12 Foods for Constipation Relief Constipation is a common problem, and almost everyone has been constipated at one time or another. There are foods that can help...learn more »
  • Is C. diff (Clostridium difficile) Contagious? C. diff or Clostridium difficile is a bacteria that infects the colon. C. diff bacteria can be found on furniture, bathroom...learn more »
    In This Article
    Is C. diff (Clostridium difficile) Contagious? Article
    • What is C. diff (Clostridium difficile)?
    • Is C. diff (Clostridium difficile) contagious?
    • How do I know if I have an infection caused by C. diff?
    • How does C diff spread?
    • How will I know if I am no longer contagious for C. diff?
    • When should I seek medical care for C. diff?