Testicular Disorders (cont.)

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Epididymitis causes

This condition occurs when there is inflammation of the epididymis, generally as a result of an infection. Epididymitis primarily affects adults, and is most common between 19 to 40 years of age, though it can occur in the prepubertal and elderly age groups.

In sexually active men, the most common cause of infection is the sexually transmitted organisms Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. In younger and older individuals, infection is usually caused by bacteria that are found in the urinary tract, such as Escherichia coli. Infection in these age groups is typically the result of an abnormality within the genitourinary system.

Torsion of a testicular appendage causes

This condition occurs with torsion (twisting) of the testicular appendage or the epididymal appendage, functionless structures that are remnants of tissue from human development. The testicular appendage lies between the testicle and the epididymis, while the epididymal appendage typically projects from the epididymis. As with testicular torsion, twisting of these structures leads to a decrease in blood flow and subsequent testicular pain. This is a common condition in younger boys, with most cases occurring between 7 to 14 years of age. Though this condition is benign and self-limiting, it must be distinguished from the more serious testicular torsion.

Trauma causes

Any type of trauma or injury to the testicles can cause severe pain and discomfort. The most common mechanism of testicular trauma occurs from blunt trauma (~85%), which can occur from sports injuries, a direct kick to the area, car accidents, and straddle injuries. In most instances, the pain will improve with the passage of time. However, in a few instances, trauma to the testicles can cause more severe injuries requiring immediate medical attention.

Testicle rupture: This serious injury to the testicle results from a disruption to the connective tissue enveloping the testicle (tunica albuginea), leading to the extrusion of testicular tissue. This injury is often accompanied by a blood collection (hematocele) that surrounds the testicle.

Other types of injuries to the testicles include penetrating trauma and testicular dislocation.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 7/15/2014

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