Testicular Pain (Pain in the Testicles)

  • Medical Author:
    Steven Doerr, MD

    Steven Doerr, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Emergency Medicine Physician. Dr. Doerr received his undergraduate degree in Spanish from the University of Colorado at Boulder. He graduated with his Medical Degree from the University Of Colorado Health Sciences Center in Denver, Colorado in 1998 and completed his residency training in Emergency Medicine from Denver Health Medical Center in Denver, Colorado in 2002, where he also served as Chief Resident.

  • Medical Editor: William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
    William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR

    William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR

    Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.

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Kidney stones symptoms

Occasionally, kidney stones can cause pain in the testicles. The testicles, however, appear normal without swelling or redness. Other signs and symptoms of kidney stones may include:

Testicular tumor symptoms

Although testicular tumors can occasionally cause testicular pain, they are usually painless. Signs and symptoms may include a:

  • Lump or mass of the testicle
  • Change in the size or texture of the testicle
  • Dull ache of the lower abdomen, lower back or groin area
  • Feeling of heaviness in the scrotum

Trauma and injury symptoms

In general, patients will relate a history of trauma to the genital area and testicular pain may range from severe to absent at the time the male goes to a health-care professional. Though in some cases the mechanism of injury may seem minor, serious underlying testicular injury may be present, and the following signs and symptoms may be observed:

  • Testicular and/or scrotal tenderness, swelling or bruising
  • Bruising of the area between the scrotum and the anus (perineum)
  • Nausea and vomiting.

Testicle rupture symptoms

This serious injury to the testicle results from a disruption to the connective tissue enveloping the testicle (tunica albuginea), leading to the extrusion of testicular tissue. This injury is often accompanied by a blood collection (hematocele) that surrounds the testicle.

Other types of injuries to the testicles include penetrating trauma and testicular dislocation. These types of testicular injuries typically require surgical management.

Inguinal hernia symptoms

Inguinal hernias are common and they can sometimes cause discomfort in the scrotum and/or testicles. Signs and symptoms of an inguinal hernia may include a:

  • Bulge in the scrotum or in the inguinal area, that may become more pronounced with coughing or straining; and
  • Dull ache or burning sensation in the scrotum and/or testicles.

Orchitis symptoms

Because orchitis generally occurs as a consequence of an infection (most often mumps), it is typically also accompanied by other systemic infectious symptoms. Testicular pain may range from mild to severe. Signs and symptoms of orchitis may include the following:

  • Testicular and/or scrotal tenderness, swelling or redness
  • Fever and chills
  • Headache
  • Body aches
  • Nausea
  • Fatigue
  • Parotid gland inflammation (parotitis) in cases of mumps

What are the complications of the conditions causing testicular pain?

The complications associated with the different causes of testicular pain are varied. Some individuals may suffer from chronic testicular pain, even after the acute cause of the testicular pain has been treated. Other potential complications may include the following.

Testicular torsion complications

  • Permanent damage to the testicle
  • Loss of testicle
  • Infertility
  • Infection
  • Cosmetic deformity

Epididymitis complications

  • Epididymo-orchitis
  • Abscess (a collection of pus) formation
  • Impaired fertility
  • Systemic blood infection (sepsis)

Torsion of a testicular appendage complications

  • No significant complications exist

Trauma complications

  • Permanent damage to the testicle
  • Atrophy (decrease in size) of the testicle
  • Loss of testicle
  • Infertility
  • Abscess formation
  • Cosmetic deformity
  • Testicular torsion

Inguinal hernia complications

  • Incarceration (hernia unable to be pushed back in)
  • Strangulation (disruption to the blood supply of the intestine protruding through the abdominal wall defect)

Orchitis complications

  • Atrophy of the testicle
  • Impaired fertility
  • Abscess formation

Kidney stone complications

  • Permanent kidney damage
  • Urosepsis (systemic blood infection arising from infected urine)

Testicular tumor complications

  • The complications of a testicular tumor vary depending on the underlying type of tumor and the extent of disease.
Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 12/14/2016

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