Testicular Cancer (Cancer of the Testicle)

Quick GuideSigns of Cancer in Men: Could it Be Cancer?

Signs of Cancer in Men: Could it Be Cancer?

Treatment Options by Stage

Stage 0 (Testicular Intraepithelial Neoplasia)

Treatment of stage 0 may include the following:

  • Radiation therapy.
  • Surveillance.
  • Surgery to remove the testicle.

Talk with your doctor about clinical trials that may be right for you.

Stage I Testicular Cancer

Treatment of stage I testicular cancer depends on whether the cancer is a seminoma or a nonseminoma.

Treatment of seminoma may include the following:

  • Surgery to remove the testicle, followed by surveillance.
  • For patients who want active treatment rather than surveillance, treatment may include:
    • Surgery to remove the testicle, followed by chemotherapy.

Treatment of nonseminoma may include the following:

  • Surgery to remove the testicle, with long-term follow-up.
  • Surgery to remove the testicle and lymph nodes in the abdomen, with long-term follow-up.
  • Surgery followed by chemotherapy for patients at high risk of recurrence, with long-term follow-up.

Talk with your doctor about clinical trials that may be right for you.

Stage II Testicular Cancer

Treatment of stage II testicular cancer depends on whether the cancer is a seminoma or a nonseminoma.

Treatment of seminoma may include the following:

  • When the tumor is 5 centimeters or smaller:
    • Surgery to remove the testicle, followed by radiation therapy to lymph nodes in the abdomen and pelvis.
    • Combination chemotherapy.
    • Surgery to remove the testicle and lymph nodes in the abdomen.
  • When the tumor is larger than 5 centimeters:
    • Surgery to remove the testicle, followed by combination chemotherapy or radiation therapy to lymph nodes in the abdomen and pelvis, with long-term follow-up.

Treatment of nonseminoma may include the following:

  • Surgery to remove the testicle and lymph nodes, with long-term follow-up.
  • Surgery to remove the testicle and lymph nodes, followed by combination chemotherapy and long-term follow-up.
  • Surgery to remove the testicle, followed by combination chemotherapy and a second surgery if cancer remains, with long-term follow-up.
  • Combination chemotherapy before surgery to remove the testicle, for cancer that has spread and is thought to be life-threatening.

Talk with your doctor about clinical trials that may be right for you.

Stage III Testicular Cancer

Treatment of stage III testicular cancer depends on whether the cancer is a seminoma or a nonseminoma.

Treatment of seminoma may include the following:

  • Surgery to remove the testicle, followed by combination chemotherapy. If there are tumors remaining after chemotherapy, treatment may be one of the following:
    • Surveillance with no treatment unless tumors grow.
    • Surveillance for tumors smaller than 3 centimeters and surgery to remove tumors larger than 3 centimeters.
    • A PET scan two months after chemotherapy and surgery to remove tumors that show up with cancer on the scan.
  • A clinical trial of chemotherapy.

Treatment of nonseminoma may include the following:

  • Surgery to remove the testicle, followed by combination chemotherapy.
  • Combination chemotherapy followed by surgery to remove the testicle and all remaining tumors. Additional chemotherapy may be given if the tumor tissue removed contains cancer cells that are growing or if follow-up tests show that cancer is progressing.
  • Combination chemotherapy before surgery to remove the testicle, for cancer that has spread and is thought to be life-threatening.
  • A clinical trial of chemotherapy.

Talk with your doctor about clinical trials that may be right for you.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 11/28/2016

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