Testicular Cancer
(Cancer of the Testicle)

Testicular cancer facts*

*Testicular cancer facts medical author: Charles P. Davis, MD, PhD

  • Testicular cancer is a disease when testicular cells become abnormal (malignant) in one or both testicles.
  • The exact cause of testicular cancer is not known but risk factors include undescended testicle(s), congenital abnormalities (for example, kidney, penile abnormalities), and history of testicular cancer (for example, family history or personal history of testicular cancer in one testicle).
  • Testicular cancer is often first detected by the patient discovering a lump or swelling in a testicle; other symptoms include testicular pain or discomfort; testicular enlargement; aches in the abdomen, back, or groin; or a fluid collection in the scrotum.
  • Testicular cancer is diagnosed by the patient's history and physical, ultrasound, and blood tests that measure testicular tumor markers. Biopsy of testicular tissue may be done.
  • Testicular cancer can be cured by surgery, radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy; side effects include infertility and may affect sexual function. Other side effects are due to radiation and chemotherapy.
  • Follow-up treatment is necessary because testicular cancer may recur. Follow-up treatment may involve regular blood tests and possibly CT scans.
  • Clinical trials are available for men with testicular cancer. Contact information is listed in the article.
Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 3/28/2014

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Testicular Cancer - Symptoms Question: What were the symptoms and signs associated with testicular cancer in you or your partner?
Testicular Cancer - Treatments Question: What kinds of treatment, surgery, or therapy did you or your partner receive for testicular cancer?
Learn to recognize the signs and symptoms of testicular cancer

10 Symptoms of Testicular Cancer

To summarize the signs and symptoms of cancer of the testicle, they include:

  1. A lump in or on a testicle (testicular lump) is the most common sign;
  2. Any enlargement of a testicle;
  3. Shrinking of a testicle;
  4. A feeling of heaviness in the scrotum (scrotal heaviness);
  5. A dull ache in the lower abdomen or in the groin;
  6. A collection of fluid in the scrotum;
  7. Pain or discomfort in a testicle or in the scrotum;
  8. Enlargement or tenderness of the breasts;
  9. Back pain due to retroperitoneal disease spread;
  10. Enlarged lymph nodes or masses due to disease spread.