Dr. Ogbru received his Doctorate in Pharmacy from the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy in 1995. He completed a Pharmacy Practice Residency at the University of Arizona/University Medical Center in 1996. He was a Professor of Pharmacy Practice and a Regional Clerkship Coordinator for the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy from 1996-99.
Jay W. Marks, MD, is a board-certified internist and gastroenterologist. He graduated from Yale University School of Medicine and trained in internal medicine and gastroenterology at UCLA/Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles.
Tamoxifen also is used for the treatment of women
following surgery and radiation for a less common type of
breast cancer called
carcinoma in situ (DCIS or intraductal carcinoma). Women who have had
DCIS are at high risk for developing invasive breast cancer at a later date, and
tamoxifen prevents development of the invasive cancer in almost half of the
women during the first five years of treatment.
Occasionally, tamoxifen is used
The most common side effects associated with tamoxifen are:
Tamoxifen can cause
of liver tests, reduced white blood cells,
red blood cells, and platelets.
Reduced platelets can lead to bleeding. Patients should keep appointments for
blood work to monitor for these side effects. Patients should report any
suspected side effects immediately, especially bleeding and yellowing of the
The stage of a cancer refers to the extent to which it has spread within the body at the time of diagnosis. Staging of cancers is typically done using a variety of tests and imaging studies to look for the"...